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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-June 1882)"

EDO? lEObBm b 

California State Library 

State 



lc.630, 

Xj I B R A R 7 . 




Extract from the Folitical Code. 
Skction 2206 . Books may be taken from the Library 

by the MHMBERS OK THE LEGISLATURE, Ul'RINU Til I SESSION'S 

thereof, ami hy other State officers at any time. 

Sue. 2298. The Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
t hat any officer has failed to return books taken by him 
within the time prescribed by the Utiles, and after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of such 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value 
of the books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to 
the Librarian. 

Skc. 229'J. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
the value thereof. 

Xo person shall take or detain from t he ' General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
period than two weeks. Hooks of reference sham, not he 

T \K EN FROM THE LIBRARY AT ANY TIME.— [Extract from the 

Rules.] 



to The foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced, 'iti 




Inventors and Agriculture. 

One who signs! himself "Inventor," writes in 
answer to some strictures passed upon inventors 
by a Stockton 
paper, claiming 
that inventors 
are idle, design- 
ing persons, who 
are always en- 
deavoring to live 
without work, 
always looking 
for the opportun- 
ity to entrap 
some unwary 
capitalist into in- 
vesting money in 
their iuventions. 
Such remarks ap- 
plied to the in- 
ventors in gen- 
eral is a base, un- 
grateful slander. 
One has only to 
look into the 
present working 
of any depart- 
ment of the arts 
or manufactures 
to learn the ser- 
vice of invention 
to industry. 
Every item of 
progress, from 
the rude pro- 
cesses and appli- 
ances of the an- 
cients has been 
the work of the 
inventor?. As a 
rule, the im- 
provements have 
cost a great 
amount of exper- 
iment and ef- 
fort and actual 
outlay to those 
who have achiev- 
ed them. There 
is, of course, now 
and then, a 
happy thought; 
but the average 
of effort for each 
invention is very 
great. It is but 
natural that the 
successful labor- 
er in the field of 
invention should 
desire to enjoy a 
part of the fruits 
of his labor, and 
the people of the 
United States 
and other civil- 
i z e d countries, 
have decided 
that his claim is 
a just one. What 
would farming be 
without the tri- 
umphs of the in- 
ventor? Contrast 
the labor it is now 
possible to ac- 
complish by one 
man's labor with 
what was done 
by a man in the 
early days. Con- 
trast the gaug 
plow with the 
forked stick, the 
self-binding reap- 
er with the sickle, 
the thrashing out- 
fit with the tlail. 
People who de- 
cry the service of 
the invennor to 
the industries are 
relics of a by- 
gone age. They 
have no part Of 



the inventors' attention, and while she has been 
advanced, they, in turn, or many of them, have 
become enriched. It is a case of useful labor 
well requited; and there is much more of it to 



ment may come to them through the inventor's 
earnest efforts. 



There are 1,000 artesian wells in this State, 




VIEW OF BISHOP'S HEAD, ON THE COAST OF MAINE. 



parcel in the progress of the i do. Excellent as are our agricultural tools and I 300 of which are in the S»nta Clara valley. 
£ i i . t ullui e has enjoyed^her full share of I machines, no one can toll what farther improve- 1 They average from 150 to 250 ft. deep. 



Bishop's Head on the Maine Coast. 

The coast of Maine is fitly described in the 
words of the poet who pictured the landing of 
the Pilgrim fath- 
ers, for it is 
"stern and rock- 
bound " to the 
last degree. It 
is also exceeding 
ly broken and 
ragged. Follow- 
ing the line of 
the shores, Maine 
has 2,486 miles of 
sea coast, being 
the most irregu- 
lar and deeply in- 
dented coast, line 
in the United 
States. All along 
the shores there 
are jutting or sol- 
itary rocks which 
have taken names 
from their resem- 
blance to animate 
objects. The one 
shown in the en- 
graving is "Bish- 
op's Head," and 
the mitered head 
of such a func- 
tionary is well 
brought out in 
the rock. The 
frowning shore 
above and the 
wild, dashing 
waves form a pic 
ture of nature in 
one of her heav- 
ier moods, which 
is most impres- 
sive. 

Maine, with all 
her riches of coast 
scenery, does not 
possess a mon- 
opoly of .threaten- 
ing rocksor forms 
from nature's 
chisel which bear 
semblance to liv- 
ing objects. The 
resistless force of 
the waves has 
hewn mysterious 
shapes wherever 
rocky shores have 
attempted to 
fence in the 
ocean. Nor has 
the ocean alone 
beenthesculptor. 
On this coast the 
work »f river and 
glacier has left 
monuments 
standing far in- 
land. The head- 
lands along the 
Columbia river 
have a majesty 
peculiarly their 
own. Cape Horn 
will perhaps 
come to the read- 
er's mind, as his 
eye rests upon 
the Atlantic 
scene which ap- 
pears upon this 
page. 

The mind lin- 
gers long in con- 
templation of 
such a creation 
as Bishop's Head. 
There are many 
weird fancies 
woven around it, 
and it has won a 
place in theiliter- 
erature, as'iwell 
as in tne art, of New England. It is also a 
notable point with mariners. 



2 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 7, 1882 



Correspondence. 



Wo admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Eng. 



Mildew, Molds, etc , on Living Plants. 

Written for Rural Prkss by C. L. Andkrsos, M. D. 

In the study of nature, whatever direction 
we take, there will be encountered some time 
or other a wall of mystery beyond which we 
would gladly look. This is as true in botany 
and zoology as in astronomy, In one there is 
an infinity (to our minds) of minuteness; in the 
other an infinity of greatness. 

I am led to make this remark on account of 
some recent thoughts I have had on diseases of 
plants and animals caused by the microscopic 
parasites, shiefly of a vegetable nature — such as 
mildews, molds, etc. 

There are many persons not totally ignorant 
of these things, and whose knowledge does not 
exceed "a little learning," who are ready to be 
very dogmatic on a few observed facts. Becom- 
ing acquainted with one or two instances of 
mildew or blight they are ready to assign all 
diseases to that cause. They see bacteria or 
fungus in everything. Then, again, there are 
skeptics who will not believe unless the fungus 
spores were as large as bird shot, and they may 
see the threads creeping like snakes through the 
tissues of the plant. 

Not so much for the instruction of either of 
these classes do I write, as for those who have a 
reasonable faith and are willing to learn. 

I desire to repeat some observed facts in re- 
gard to what is known of fungi on living plants. 
Now what is a fnngus! It is one of a family of 
plants distinguished by certain characters. We 
will mention the leading ones: 

First, it is never grass-green, the cells con- 
tain no chlorophyl, bat when not empty hold a 
brownish cell matter of very fine grains. Sec- 
ond, it cannot absorb inorganic matter so as to 
use it for food, but lives on matter that has 
already been assimilated or organized. Third, 
it is furnished with long, slender, thread-like 
cell tubes (mycelium), which are so small, 
among the molds and mildews, that it pene- 
trates and passes through the cell structures of 
plants in all directions without obstruction — 
appropriating food already elaborated, and tear- 
ing to pieces or starving the organism. 

Fungi that grow on living plants are quite 
limited in range. The same kind is generally 
confined to one or two species, or plants of the 
same family and structure. 

There are various ways by which fungi are 
propagated: First, by fertilized spores, i.e., 
spores that have passed through a sexual pro- 
cess and are so endowed that powerful forces 
are required to destroy the life inherent thereto. 
These spores may be transported long dis- 
tances, may be kept a long time and subjected 
to various climates of heat and cold, wet and 
dry, and still retain vitality. Second, By the 
contents of specially developed cells, still 
called spores, of quick and ready growth, but 
not sexually endowed, and of easy destruction 
by climate and other causes. These correspond 
with the budding process of propagation. 
Third, by fragments of the fine threads (my- 
celium), any part of which in come species will 
grow when the circumstances are favorable, such 
as heat and moisture. 

There are other ways of propagation which 
we need not mention at present. 

Growth of a Fungus. 
Let us take a case, and see how one of these 
fungi will work. Suppose I have a fine-looking 
potato patch about the middle of July, with 
vines in the full vigor of growth, the most 
favorable soil and in beautiful condition, show - 
era, warm air and not too much sunshine, I be- 
gin in imagination to count the large full sacks 
of "spuds" that shall reward me for my time, 
money spent and trouble. But some fine morn- 
ing I behold some suspicious looking brown 
spots here and there. Surely, there has been no 
frost. There are no bugs — no insects of any 
kind to be seen. The disease increases, and in 
less than a week my hopes and potatoes are both 
blighted, 

I tike a diseased vine, a book and a micros- 
cope, and will try to solve the mystery. I use 
the book that I may have the benefit of past in- 
vestigations. I take the microscope that I may 
see what others have seen and described. It is 
probable that I shall see something that is new 
and unexplained, that 1 may reach the bound- 
ary wall of the great field which is as yet unex- 
plored, and where the first discoverers are 
usually lost and confused. 

And this is what I see and learn: The thread 
cells of a fungus have passed from the "seed 
potato" into the stem and leaves of the new 
growth, and with a little care I may Bee micro- 
scopic trees, thickly growing from the under 
surface, and a few from the upper surface of the 
leaves. These little growths generally protude 
from the breathing pores. 1 hey are loaded with 
minute sacs, and these are filled with a fine 
powder. They burst, and the powder, which 
' is composed of egg-shaped spores, falls on other 
parts of the potato plant, and very soon begin 
to grow by sending forth thread cells, which 
penetrate the cells of the potato, and when the 
weather is moist and cloudy they grow so fast 
that in a few days the once thrifty vein is de- 
stroyed. 



I learn that the seed potato I planted was in- 
fested, having brown rusty patches, and in pre- 
serving the potato I also preserved the fungus 
spores and mycelia, planting them together in 
the spring. Have we not read, "whatsoever a 
man soweth that shall he also reap. " In this 
case, however, I reap no potatoes but a great 
deal of fungus. 

Grape Mildew. 

The mildew on grape leaves differs in some 
respects from that on the potato. The one 
most troublesome in this vicinity has often been 
called Oidium. It is a different fungus, how- 
ever, to the Oidium so destructive to the grape 
in Europe. Here it is called Uncinula spiralis. 
It appears about midsummer on the leaves and 
young stalks of the grapevine, in ash-colored 
spots, plainer on the upper surface of the leaf 
than on the lower. When the season favors 
them these spots grow until they cover the 
whole leaf and the grapes— of course destroying 
the crop. Later in the season Uncinula pro- 
duces perfect spores which fall with the leaf, 
remaining vital after the leaf has decayed, and 
with summer heat and dry windB is carried to 
the young growth of the grape and falling on 
the leaf and stalk adheres to the viscid surface 
and begins to propagate. 

Now this is but one of the many fungi that 
attack the grape — but it is perhaps the most 
troublesome with Californians. 

Fungi on the Peach. 

There are two fungi that infest our peaches. 
One is found on the ripe fruit spreading like 
leprous patches. It is the Spfanrollieca pannosa, 
and is also found on cultivated raspberries and 
perhaps other fruits. But I have not Been it 
except on the peach. The other fungus pro- 
duces the "curl leaf," about which we have 
read in the newspapers a great many theories. 
Its name is Taphrina (Atcomyces) deformans. 
It causes the leaf to curl, thicken and eventu- 
ally to fall off, and is the worst enemy to our 
peach trees. 

Smut on Trees. 

I must mention another mold fungus, the Fu- 
mago; very common on oranges, poplars, wil- 
lows and many other trees that are subject to 
Coccidie, or plant lice. These insects usually 
form a honey-like coating on the leaves. To 
this the spores of the fumago, drifting in the 
air, adhere and grow. It does but little dam- 
age, except to interfere with the respiration of 
the leaves. One of our native plants, the Eri- 
odklyon glutinosum, the "yerba santa" of the 
Spanish, has a very glutinous leaf which serves 
to catch the spores of this fungus; and there is 
nearly always a block mold on the leaves of this 
plant. In all probability the fungus feeds on the 
gum, for I have noticed that the leaves are not 
injured, and on the older ones it scales off leav- 
ing a smooth, dry surface to the leaf. 

Pear Fungus. 

There is a mold fungus on some of our early 
pears which disfigures and deforms the fruit be- 
fore it matures, thus rendering it unfit for mar- 
ket, although it scarcely affects the flavor. 
Whether there has been an insect on the pear 
previous to the fungus I have not observed. I 
expect to do so next year. But reasoning from 
what I have seen I incline to the opinion that a 
fungus has found a suitable place and food on 
either a natural secretion of the young pear or 
that of an insect of the ( 'oecida family. But in 
either case the fungus is the "cat that eats the 
cream." 

Nevertheless, it will not be profitable to dog- 
matize without plenty of established facts. Na- 
ture is so variable, with such a multiplicity of 
resources, and so uniform when we understand 
the vari&t ons an 1 multiplicities, that we are 
astonished at her uniformity. 

San Cruz, Cal., Dec. 23, 1881. 



Stockton Notes. 

Editors Press: — The city of Stockton 
proudly bears the cherished memory and hon- 
ored name of one of America's noblest and 
bravest commodores — Stockton. 

The city of Stockton is the great center, or, 
we should say, the emporium of the great and un- 
rivaled wheat-growing country, San Joaquin 
valley. For cereals in genera), it is justly un- 
surpassed, nay, unapproachable. The annual 
yield, even nnder adverse circumstances, is im- 
mense, and would bewilder the arithmetician 
and statistician in an ocean of figures. Ah! how 
unmindful we are generally about the bounties 
of a kind Providence towards us poor finite be- 
ings. 

The charming couplet of the prince of prose 
writers, Addison, in relation to Italy, may be 
very appropriately applied to California in gen- 
eral, but especially to San Joaquin valley: 
Could Nature's bounty satisfy the breast. 
The sons of California are surely blest. 

Yet the land is literally teeming with discon- 
tented, chronic people. The wheat crop in the 
valley this year, shared about the same fate as 
the other sections of the State; if anything, 
probably comparatively a little better than other 
places where we have been in our travels. One 
great point in favor of the San Joaquin valley farm- 
er is the great facilities that are offered him for 
carrying bis grain and produce to so near a 
mart as Stockton and San Francisco. The price, 
also, is more favorable for the farmer than ho 
anticipated a few months ago. 

The City of Stockton. 

But let us turn our attention agaiu to Stock- 
ton for a few moments. Its population is about 



12,000 souls. The summer or harvest season 
introduces a large number of the working class 
or farmei s' help to the city, who leave a good 
portion of their hard-earned wageB with the 
saloonkeepers, who are at all times on the alert 
for their dupes. It is an acknowledged fact the 
world over, that those who earn their money 
with most difficulty and hardship, part with it 
most easily. The sailor boy, eternally rocked 
and tossed about on the bosom of an angry ocean, 
on reaching land becomes at once oblivious of 
his past dangers and hardship. So it is with 
the farmer'3 boy or help. 

Stockton sadly needs a new court house, also 
a good and respectable temple devoted ti the 
drama. The city it seems is somewhat unfortu- 
nate from the earliest day as the home of true 
dramatic taste. The legitimate stage is almost 
the peer of the press itself. 

There are some handsome residences, fine gar- 
dens and shrubbery also. 

The object which attracts the visitor's atten 
tion is the 

Insane Asylum. 

The poet Burns sings, that man is made to 
mouro. He is begotten in pain and very generally 
makes his exit in pain. But it is too painful to 
think that man should be cast down in the 
noon-time of his days of usefulness and deprived 
of reason - 1 lie principal faculty that distinguishes 
man from and raises him above the brute crea- 
tion. A visit to such an institution is very well 
adapted to arouse the warmest feelings of the 
human heart and enlist our sympathies on be- 
half of the unfortunate inmates. 

The grounds are on a princely scale, and laid 
out with great judgment and taste. Each and 
every vegetable adapted to growth in California 
is cultivated. The trees, plants and shrubbery 
are plentiful, and present at once a perennial 
freshness, which would please the eyes, and 
mollify the hearts of the unfortunate victims 
were they capable of duly appreciating the nat- 
ural and artificial beauties of their surroundings 
or home. 

The officers of the asylum are efficient and 
scrupulous in the discharge of their sacred 
trust. The buildings are not as handsome or 
as costly as the Napa asylum, but age kindly 
lends its aid to the Stockton asylum. We no- 
ticed a new wing, or building, is being put 
up. It is on the east Bide, near one of the 
main entrances, and was much needed for the 
proper reception of the inmates. The style 
will be of the English Gothic. It will consist 
of about 100 single rooms and several dormi- 
tories. All the walls, partitions, etc., will be 
built of brick and stone, and the trimmings will 
be made of the San Jose sandstone. All plumb- 
ing materials will be of Mott's enameled iron- 
ware; the waterclosets will be flushed auto- 
matically by patent self-acting Hush-tanks, 
which will discharge a quantity of water at 
regular intervals. There will be an iron tank 
under the roof of 10,000 gallon capacity, sup- 
plying all parts of the building. 

There will be four pipes in various parts of 
the building with iire hope on each floor. All 
the rooms will be well ventilated and warmed, 
the corridors wide and airy. The building will 
be three stories above basement. Heating steam 
apparatus in basement. The roof will be of 
corrugated galvanized iron. The architects of 
the building are the well-known firm of Percy & 
Hamilton, of Frisco and Stockton. 

The Pacific or Nevada Insane Asylum is also 
located in the vicinity of Stockton, under the 
charge of Dr. Asa Clark, who has a contract for 
taking of patients from Nevada and Ariz ma. 
There were so few, and the climate of those Ter- 
ritories unfit for insane, that it was thought ad- 
visable to bring them here in the fall of the 
year 1877, from Woodbridge, in this county. 
The number here is about 1('>7 in all. They have 
about 40 acres, which gives them abundance of 
vegetables. They have nice grounds, good, 
clean and airy rooms, ( 'has. Flauner is Super- 
intendent. 

Moving among the friends and patrons of the 
Rural Press in Stockton, we come across an 
old-timer — Mr. Phillip Fitzgerald, on the Wa- 
terloo road. Mr. F. may be justly classed 
among the old Californians; finding his way 
across the continent, settling for a while in the 
mountains, and finally came into this valley. 
He has ten acres of grapes under cultivation, 
and put in ten more last spring. They are do- 
ing well. It is such men as Mr. F. that make 
a wilderness bloom and flourish. 

D. W. Kellkhkr. 



The Fascination of Birds by Snakes. — 
Catherine C. Hopely suggests in Land and 
Water a new theory of the so-called fascination 
of birds by snakes. It is that the bird mistakes 
the snake'B tongue, which the animal keeps in 
constant motion, while it otherwise remains 
perfectly still, for a lively worm, and gazes at 
it with the expectation of making food of it. 
The idea was suggested by observations at the 
Zoological gardens, where the birds where fre- 
quently seen watching the tongues of the 
snakes. Commenting upon the above the Ger. 
manlown Telegraph says: This, we think, is a 
mistake, Judge Miller, of Missouri, told us a 
month or bo ago that he had two plants of fine 
lettuce of which he desired to preserve the seed ; 
but as the seed matured the goldfinches preyed 
upon them to such an extent as likely to rob 
him of all his prized seed. So, to preserve 
what there was left, he constructed an artificial 
snake of some striped stuff, tilled it with bran, 
curled it up and placed it near the stalks, 
where the birds could see it plainly; and the re- 
sult was that not a bird approached the plant. 



The j\fmw- 



Beekeeping. 

Editors Press:— Friend Rumford will please 
understand that your humble servant only 
o'.aima to be one of the lesser "guns" in bee- 
keeping at present, however his aspirations 
may extend. All the lessons are not learned at 
once, and it seems that our experiences are not 
all alike. For instance, my bees worked on 
golden rod and did not bum on cockle burr; 
but wherever it was allowed to grow, you could 
hear their busy hum at quite a distance. There 
is no suDllower in my immediate vicinity. I 
found a more serious drawback than that, which 
was, a great many perished in a neighbor's wine 
tubs while the grapes were being pressed; to 
use his words, "there were thousands" which 
went for the juice and got drowned. Conse- 
quently, some swarms do not fill their hive, 
though they will go over the division-board and 
protect their combs. 

In reducing the hives to lower story, I found 
one in particular that covered (Nov. 26th) all 
frames, both in upper and lower story, with 
honey in most of the frames (a 20-frame Lang- 
strotb hive). The old queen was superseded, 
after filling three hives with brood and stores, 
and building all from foundation. The last 
time I looked for her there was a young queen 
in her place, which has done her duty since. 

To answer friend Rumford's question, I will 
state that Italians persist in filling every 
available cell with honey or pollen, or both, and 
if it accumulates to crowd the queen in her du- 
ties, they will swarm. I have prevented them 
from swarming by giving foundation or empty 
comb in brood nest,and empty comb and founda- 
tion above.until it came in so fast that with 
what help I could get at the time (not 
much experience at that) they would get the 
start of me and swarm. This season I calcu- 
lated to work for comb honey mostly, but the 
cool nights compelled the bees to crowd the 
brood apartment and the sections were not filled 
out and capped at the corner, so moBt hvl to be 
extracted, to do service another season. 

I am satisfied that extracting will keep back 
the swarming fever and think that with suita- 
ble help at the proper season the swarming 
might be entirely controlled, especially by keep- 
ing out drone comb and using foundation of all 
worker comb. I found that bees that have ear- 
ly drones are about the first to swarm. Some 
of my choicest swarms that I kept for drones 
were the first to swarm, both last spring and the 
previous year. 

With 200 colonies of Italians, I think one 
would have his hands full to prevent swarming 
even in a season like the past. I had only 60 
in the spring and returned swarms as much as 
possible, but was compelled to increase to 80. I 
ran for queens considerably which would inter- 
fere with the honey product, but bad over 1,000 
lbs. for market, most of which is disposed of, 
reserving enough extra combs to carry me 
through until the spring crop comes again. My 
intention in the spring was to replace the most 
of my queens and run the old ones for extracted 
and young ones for comb in sections, as yonng 
queens give more vitality to the swarm, but the 
small gear of my extractor gave out just in the 
middle of the harvest. The centers being too 
near, the small gear ran inBide the large one, 
and the ends of the cogs wore smooth. It was 
late when I got it in working order again and I 
had lively times, though I got the best of them 
and had them going regular in a week or 10 
days. Moving the old hives and using founda- 
tion did it. 

Our season was a fortnight earlier than last 
one was, but we had no honey from May 18th 
to the last week in July, or, at least, but little 
— though there was no robbing. The frost 
killed the sage bloom; it did not go to seed. 

There is a great difference in bees about 
swarming. Some swarm more than others. I 
think it may be remedied by careful breeding 
and still preserve the honey -gathering qualities. 
I believe the opinion of those that have tried 
both that the Italians are more disposed to 
8 warm; but they do not hang out long. As 
soon as I see a cluster begin to form at the en- 
trance I immediately arrange the hive to pre- 
vent swarming, by either tiering up, or giving 
foundation, or empty comb. I have seen a 
swarm come out after 5 r. M. and not two dozen 
bees at the entrance; when, on opening the 
hive, I found no empty space. After arrange- 
ing the comb and putting on upper story, the 
bees were returned, when they appeared satis- 
fied. 

In some of the late A. B. J's. reports of Mr. 
L. C. Root, of Mohawk, by extracting 100 
swarms, he averaged 225 lbs. of honey. I think 
he had no swarming, but, as I write only from 
memory, will not be certain. I don't aspire to 
200 swarms, as there is no experienced help to 
be had in this vicinity. I shall run all I can 
conveniently, from 125 to 150 at most, and be 
content. 

It will not do to extract for market in 
this vicinity later than June 15th, as the 
flavor and color are objectionable. The late 
crop will answer for home consumption and for 
strengthening the weak colonies. 

To save combs from the moth when not in 
the hive I use a box about 15 inches square, no 
top or bottom, a door one-half the size of box 



January 7, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



3 



on one side, a loose board on top, with hole 6 
inches square, the board large enough to hold 
the top story of the hive. By false ends to sup- 
port the frames, inside, I tier up, leaving 
combs J inch apart. When tiered up as high 
as one "can reach, cover the top with empty 
grain sacks, enough to make the top tight. In 
the lower box burn brimstone a few times, 
once a week, until sure all worms are killed. It 
don't need much smoke to kill worms. The 
combs will come handy in the spring. I should 
add that all imperfect combs should be melted 
into wax. 

I have been told by an old bee man, that 
skunks will scratch at the entrance of a hive, 
to get the bees to attack them and cover them. 
Their long hair protects them from stings, when 
they are about covered they roll and crush them 
and shake them out and eat them. My experi- 
ence seems to justify it. 

As friend Rumford, by his bee notes, appears 
to b9 troubled with moths, and "one Italian 
and Cyprian swarm kept them out all summer," 
let me suggest to him through the Press to cir- 
culate the queens from those two swarms through 
his hives another season, and let us hear through 
the Press how they act in regard to the worms. 
By the way, as there are such conflicting re- 
ports in regard to the Cyprians, will friend 
Rumford give as through the same source his 
experience in regard to the dispositions of the 
Cyprians in regard to being bandied ? Are they 
as gentle as the Italians ? I don't mean hybrids, 
of course. I believe I have a strain of Italians 
that are not so much given to swarming as some 
others, though I don't thiuk the original stock 
are such honey gatherers as the imported Italians. 
I have four different strains, and believe in add- 
ing new blood as long as it is pure. I have 
done buying untested queens, and keep none 
that don't prove pure, good workers, and with 
good disposition as well as prolific. I believe 
a very prolific queen will not last as long as one 
not so prolific; she will lay herself to death 
sooner. J. D. Enas. 

SunnyBide Apiary, Napa, Cal. 



TlfE plELD. 



The Utilization of Small Springs. 

H. J. Rudisill has an article in the Riverside 
Press ami Horticulturist, which may be useful 
or suggestive to some of our readers. It is with 
reference to the employment of the water from 
small springs for irrigation. He says: Even a 
small spring yielding but two quarts per second, 
js equivalent to a three inch stream, and would 
be sufficient for 12 to 15 acres in fruit trees, and 
with sub-irrigation a much greater area. To 
derive the greatest benefit fro m small springs, 
however, a reservoir is necessary, in which the 
flow of 12 to 24 hours, or even a longer period, 
can be accumulated and then discharged as re- 
quired. It is by using water in driblets that 
many springs are wasted. A spring supplying 
even H inches of water would hi wholly swal- 
lowed up by a thirsty soil within 200 ft. of its 
source, when by arresting the flow and accumu- 
lating it in a reservoir and discharged at inter- 
vals in a volume four times as large it would 
more than cover eight times the surface. A 
spring flowing two quarts per second will dis- 
charge 43.200 gallons in 24 hours. This would 
require a reservoir 40x20 ft. and 7 ft. deep, or 
double that width if the depth is decreased one- 
half. The shallower it can be made the better, 
for many reasons, but especially on account of 
the temperature of the water. That of springs 
is generally too low in summer for immediate 
use, and its value is greatly enhanced by being 
raised to an equal or greater temperature than 
that of the air. This is quickly done by expos- 
ure in a shallow pond. 

A reservoir can be constructed entirely in the 
ground where the slope will admit of it, and by 
lining the bottom and sides with clay well pud- 
dled, will answer for most purposes. At San 
Bernardino some are built of adobe, backed 
with earth and plastered on the inner side with 
hydraulic cement. 

Concrete of lime, sand and broken stone is 
however, the best material, where lime can be 
readily obtained, and any person with ordinary 
mechanical genius can construct them. When 
the reservoir is shallow, and consequently there 
is but little pressure, the lime will be sufficient 
to make it water tight. The limes of Southern 
California are slightly hydraulic in character, 
making excellent dams, reservoirs and aque- 
ducts, as the works left by the Mission Fathers 
fully prove. 

Where there are a number of springs of small 
volume they can easily be gathered into one 
conduit or reservoir by a system of under- 
drains, very cheaply made with broken stone. 
A grade of six inches to 100 ft. will not wash 
in ordinary eaitb, and will be sufficient fall to 
keep the drain free from sediment. When a 
greater fall than this is required, thedrain could 
be paved with stone, leaving an opening suffi- 
cient to conduct the water freely. Or a cheap 
continuous concrete pipe of sand, lime and a 
small portion of cement can be made in the 
trench or upon the surface of the ground by us- 
iog a center piece of wood turned to the diam- 
eter of pipe required, and as fast as the mortar 
sets around it the center can be withdrawn. 
Wooden pipe of two to four inches diameter is 
cheaply made in the Eastern States from 
young, thrifty timber, bored with the old fash- 1 



ioned pump auger. When the pipe is required 
to withstand considerable pressure it can be 
greatly strengthened by bands, or wrapped with 
light hoop iron. The young pines and' white 
cedar of the San Jacinto and Smith mountain 
would be excellent timber for this purpose. 

Blnestoning Seed Wheat. 

Editors. Press: — Your correspondent, J. C. 
B., of Stockton, asks (will some scientific man 
please tell why it is so), in regard to a portion 
of a field of wheat being smutty, and another 
portion of the same field being free from smut. 

If some scientific man answers J. C. B., which 
I hope will be the case, perhaps J. C. B. would 
be satisfied; but there are others who would 
prefer hearing the results of observations made 
during an experience of 25 years in raising wheat 
in Stanislaus county. 

The first piece of ground I ever plowed was a 
field of 23 acres on the Tuolumne river. The 
soil was a rich sandy loam. I soaked the wheat, 
as was the custom at that time, from 10 to 14 
hours in a solution of bluestone water, in which 
was dissolved bluestone, at the rate of one-quar- 
ter of a pound of bluestone to 100 lbs. of wheat. 

I sowed the field by hand, and was fortunate 
enough to get it all sowed and harrowed before 
it rained, except a small three-cornered piece of 
abouta quarter of anacre. That piece I sowed two 
days after the rest of the field was sown, and while 
I was sowing considerable rain was falling. I 
harrowed right after sowing, and when the field 
was harvested there was no smut on any part of 
the field except that small piece that was sown 
while it was raining — that was fully two-thirds 
smut. A neighbor on the place next to us 
would not buy bluestone, as it was too 
expeos ve ; so he sowed ten acres of 
wheat on ground that was in fine 
condition. The result was that his 10 acres was 
nin > tenths smut. I helped him mow it and we 
tried time and again and the result was nearly 
the same, nine heads of smut and one of wheat. 

Since that time (1857) I have sown wheat 
every year and on almost every condition of 
soil, and have never seen very smutty wheat (if 
the seed was properly bluestoned), if the ground 
was dry when the seed was sown, but have 
always had smut if the seed was sown when the 
ground was too wheat. What I mean by the 
land being too wet is this: Every farmer 
knows that he wants his land in about a cer- 
tain condition to work, and he will not work it 
any other way unless in an emergency. 

Now there is another fact in regard to smut. 
I have worked with threshing machines for the 
last 24 years, and have never seen a field of vol- 
unteer grain smutty. By volunteer grain I 
mean where the farmer has concluded there 
was seed enough on the ground and did not sow 
any seed on the field, but simply brushed or 
harrowed it. 

From my experience I do not claim that 
bluestone is a sure preventive against smut if 
the grain is sown at all times, nor do I claim 
that there is nothing else that will pre- 
vent smut in grain, but I do claim 
that if wheat is properly bluestoned and sown 
when the ground is not too wet it will prevent 
smut. As J. C. B. says, it would be well if the 
farmers would experiment and ascertain if 
there ia anything that will take the place of 
bhustone, as it costs quite a little sum to blue- 
stone the seed of one crop. J. B. B. 

Oakdale, Stanislaus Co. 



Varieties of Vines Cnltivated in Por- 
tugal. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Rbv. John I. Bleasdalk. ] 

5. Almacega. 
Same as the following. 

Almafega. 

5a. Malvasia do Bairro. 

A good bearer; early — about 20th of Septem- 
bar; thrives in weak land. Gyrao, however, 
remarks that it does well in strong land and 
yields both large bunches and better wine, as 
woll as a more vigorous growth. 

6. Almassa. Arruda 

7. Aporcheiro. 
Same as last. 

8. Alva. 
Cultivated in Tootalegre. 

9. Alvadorao, in Bairada. 
A good bearer; early ; uncertain; bunches 

large ; a good wine grape; requires strong 
land. 

10. Alvar, in Bairada. 
A good bearer; early — loth of September; 

uncertain; needs strong land. 

11. Alvarosa. 
In the Douro, produces much wine, but wa- 
tery and green; damp, strong land. 

12. Alvaroco. 
Cultivated in the Minho; very productive, 

but easily rots; throws out strong rods, and re- 
quires strong land. 

13. Alvarinho. 
On the borders of the Minho, very produc- 
tive, good wine, strong land. 

14. Alvo da Serra. 
In Cartaxo, a fair bearer, early, rip 3ns middle 

of August, succeeds in light soils. 

15. Akin jo. 
I Cultivated over nearly all Portugal. There 



are two" varieties of White Arinto: — A. cachudo 
which produces both much and good wine, and 
needs strong land; and A. mindo (small). There 
is also a black variety, to be mentioned in its 
proper place. 

The Arinto is very famous, the shoots are red- 
dish, leaves five lobed, deeply cut, very wooly 
on the under side, leafstalk reddish, bunches 8 
or 9 inches long and very thick, berries small 
and closely packed, oval, greenish white; skin 
thick, stiff, fleshy, not very juicy, sweet enough, 
and with a certain astringency. 

16. Assario. 

Mentioned by Aguiar as being cultivated in 
Cartaxo; a good wine grape, but an irregular 
bearer, ripening late. 

17. Azal. 

There are two varieties called Azal Branco 
and Azal Molle. 

18. Azar. 

A table grape. 

19. Boal. 

Another highly popular vine, especially in 
the warm southern portions of Portugal. Aguiar 
distinguishes three kinds — the White, the Red 
and the Alicante. Referring to the first named 
of these, he says: It is sufficiently productive, 
slightly uncertain, early, ripening in the middle 
of August, and succeeding best in silicious soils. 
Besides the above, the same Aguiar mentions 
the Boal in different parts with various epithets, 
such, for instance — Boal Cachudo, B. Carniceiro, 
B. Baboso, B. de Santarem, B. Carrasquinha, B. 
Esfarrapado and B. Liso. 

Among the kinds cultivated in Borba, Gyrao 
mentions: 1. B. Liso, a good bearer, but fail- 
ing some years; needs strong land and throws 
out strong rods. 2. B. Cachudo, which pro- 
duces much, and good wine, has strong rods 
and needs fairly good land. It is mentioned 
by Gyrao as occurring often in the vineyards of 
Algarve, where it yields good wine from mid- 
dling land or even sandy; has short rods and 
requires short pruning. 

In the Azores, in S. Miguel, in Fayal and in 
Pico, it produces well, gives large bunches and 
throws out good rods; it needs strong land. Its 
be3t wine, however, is yielded from stony 
ground of volcanic origin. The variety called 
Baboso is not worth planting, says Alarte. 

Boal Cachudo is a profitable kind. 

But, according to that author, B. Branco 
(white) is an excellent kind. It thrives mar- 
velously in any kind of land, and of excellent 
taste; it gives the best wine of that class. It 
has, however, a fault: it does not last long, be- 
ing continually weakened by the quantity of 
unripened fruit which it gives (novidade). 

20. Borra Mosca. 

A variety mentioned by Aguiar among those 
cultivated at Torres Vedras, being a good pro- 
ducer, late, and yielding well in all soil*. 

21. Botelheira. 

A vine of small account. 

22. Cairho Branco. 
Known only on the Minho. 

23. Camarate (Aguiar). 
Rodrigo Affonso (Aguiar). 
Carrega Bestas (Aguiar). 
Batdocira (Olivaes). 

Alarte declares this to be an excellent kind, 
very early, yielding plenty of very sweet grapes, 
doing well in all kinds of land, but decaying in 
low, damp localities; and for high, substantial 
land there is no better. From Aguiar's notes, 
it seems the Camarate is a good bearer, early, 
ripening about the end of August, and prefer- 
ring weak land. Gyrao, mentioning it among 
the vines of Ourem, says: It gives good, but 
weak wine, and that the sun in September dries 
the grapes. 

24. Camaratao. 

Mentioned by Gyrao among the sort* grown 
at Ourem. 

25. Carnal. 

Mentioned by Gjrao among the white grapes 
of the Douro. It yields good wine and resists 
the effects of rain, but the trunk soon rots. 
Medium soils. 

26. Carrasquinha. 
Agudelho. 
Trinca Dente. 

An excellent table grape. 

27. Castellao Branco. 
Of no particular value. 

28. Catharina. 

Mentioned by Gyrao among the vines of 
Ourem, but of little consequence, the wine be- 
ing thin. 

29. Cercial (Madeira). 
Sercial (Madeira). . 
Sarcial (Madeira). 
Esgana Cao (Barrada). 
Esganosa (Minho). 
Esganinho (Minho). 

Alarte says of it: The grapes called Esgana 
Cao, and elsewhere Sercial, are an excellent 
kind, because they are yielded in great quantity 
and their wine is full-bodied; they are free from 
nearly all the troubles peculiar to others, for 
no one eats them, not even the dogs, on account 
of their harsh taste; they need good substantial 
soil and humid; on dry soils they dry up before 
ripening. Count Odart, in the "Ampelographia 
Universal," makes particular mention of this 
variety. 

Its principal characteristics are: Average 
sized leaves, hairy, deeply sinused; bunches 
medium-sized, conical-shaped, not close, hang- 
ing loose; berries middle-sized, oval, whitish 
yellow. 

The Sercial wines of Madeira, are among the 
most esteemed. 



30. C'ODEGA. 

Malvasia Grossa (Douro). 

Fennetino (Genoa). 

Vermentino (Corsica). 

Malvasia a Gros Grains (South of France). 
This ia an excellent kind and produces abun- 
dantly on strong soil ; highly praised by Odart. 
The plant is very vigorous and thick; bark deli- 
cate, closely adhering, not cracked, smooth. It 
bursts buds in the end of March, plenty of rods, 
erect, with internodesof 0.08 inch to 0.010 inch 
when half mature, with little pith; knots thick 
and shining; leaves five-lobed, woolly on the 
under side, very adherent, white; bunches very- 
large; berries very large, white or slightly yel- 
low. It furnishes a strong, clear must, 100 of 
grapes give 63 of must of 1.110, containing 17.- 
518% of sugar and 0.376% acids. 

31. Coscoro. 

Mentioned by Gyrao among the varieties of 
the Douro. Little known and of small value. 

32. Crato. 

Included by Gyrao in his list of the white 
kinds of Algarve. Yields medium wine; needs 
rich land; medium pruning; throws out long 
rods. 

33. Debo de Alicante (Cartoxo). 
Moderately productive, early, ripening in the 

end of August; prefers strong land. 

34. Dedo de Dama (Lady's Finger). 

A kind better suited for trellises than vine- 
yards on account of the beauty of its bunches 
and its agreeable taste. It is grown all over 
the country and is highly prized for the table. 
Scabra describes it as follows: Leaves five-lobed, 
serrated, with reddish footstalks; bunch large, 
with off-set parts; berries large, long, like fin- 
gers; loose, clear, amber color; skin thick, 
fleshy, little juice; taste peculiar, sweet, with 
slight roughness, A table grape. Requires 
ground to be wet rather than dry and peaty 
(humoso). 

35. Diagalves. 

Verdelho Estimado (Upper Douro). 
Though it has but little analogy with the Ver- 
delhos or Gouveios, while it has some with the 
Formosas. 

Scabra describes it as known in Beira. I give 
here my own description, though, on the whole, 
it agrees with his: 

I'lant vigorous ; bark thick, cracked and 
slightly adherent; rods abundant, erect, of me- 
dium length; interknots regular, of medium 
thickness; knots soft and smooth; pith regular, 
elastic; color, reddish or clear reddish brown; 
leaves middle-sized, almost equal, five-lobed, 
entire, sharp pointed, with the lateral sinuses 
more or less deep and sharp-pointed, the basal 
sinus sharp-pointed and rather close. The upper 
side of the leaf rather wrinkled, of uniform 
clear green; the under side almost glabrous, 
green brighter, with the veins well shown; ser- 
rations medium in two series, and sharp-pointed; 
the footstalk medium and reddish. Bunches, 
many either large or middle-sized, cylindrical, 
composite, with shoulders; peduncle short and 
warty, whitish green; pedicel short and warty. 
Berries large, equal, golden, translucid, suffi- 
ciently adhesive to the pedicel, leaving little 
pulp when removed; sufficiently hard, much 
pulp, thick skin, sweet and savory; ripen in the 
end of September. The yield in must is 62%, 
with a density of 1.95, containing 18.648% and 
acids 0.342 %. 

36. Dosal Branco. 
Cultivated in Monsao. 

37. Donna Branca. 

Gyrao considers it a light, irregular bearer, 
both on the main land and in the island of San 
Miguel. On the other band, Aguiar, mention- 
ing it among the varieties cultivated in the 
Agueira vineyard, in Upper Beira, represents it 
as very productive, ripening early in October, 
and doing well in all sorts of lands. 

Alarte considers it the same as the Roupeiro 
or Graziolo. 

Scabra, describing it, says: In Extremadura, 
it is known as Uonna Branca, and in the Douro 
as Colhao do Gallo. 

Leaves five-lobed, badly sinuated, with some 
wool on the under side, and footstalks pale clear 
chestnut; bunches up to eight inches long; ber- 
ries irregular and scattered, oval, large, amber 
color; skin thick, fleshy, with little juice and 
sweet. Chiefly for the table. Land rather 
damp than dry, and somewhat peaty (humoso). 

38. DONZELLINHO BRANCO. 

Gyrao considers it the third variety of the 
Donzellhinos. It is a good bearer; in its bunches 
it locks like Gouveio or Verdelho; its taste is 
pleasant, gives good wine, and needs strong soil. 

39. Dotjrado. 

Cultivated in the Ribeira do Lima. Yields 
well; bunches ripen well and are sweet. Re- 
quires good land, 

40. Escabellado. 

Productive and early. Uvas de Joao Paes, a 
good kind for yielding abundance of fruit and 
very spirituous wine. Grapes hard, rough on 
the palate, but good for preserving. 

[Io be Continued.] 



"American arrowroot" is not arrowroot at 
all, but simply potato starch. As maranta 
arunaiuacea, the source of true arrowroot, has 
been grown in some of the Southern States, 
"American arrowroot" is, pos8ibly,an article of 
commerce, but if so, it is not sold under that 
name. What is bought and sold as American 
arrowroot is in no sense arrowroot at all, and 
yet, the consumers, at least, are led, by that 
name, to think that it is. Let the authorities 
start their experts to examine the article. 



4 



THE PACIFIC RU1AL PRESS. 



[January 7, 1882 



Correspondence on Orange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respectfully 
requested for this department. 



Meeting of National Grange— No. 6. 

Report of Committee on Education. 

The Committee on Education, to which was 
referred so much of the Worthy Master's ad- 
dress as referred to this subject, have consid- 
ered the same, and beg leave to present the fol- 
lowing report: 

The Worthy Master has very distinctly enun- 
ciated in his able address, th-; purpose of our 
Order in this direction, and very clearly indi- 
cated the means that must be relied upon to ac- 
complish it. 

The demand for the specific education of the 
American farmer, the basic principle of our Or- 
der, is being intensified by the rapid progress in 
other departments of industry — in the arts and 
manufactures, in the growth of corporations, 
of commerce, in the wider comprehension of 
the relations between the government and the 
governed, and, in fact, in a more just recogni- 
tion of the mutual dependence of the several 
interests and classes upon each other. But in 
the grand panorama of bristling activities which 
go to make up the sum total of our industrial, 
commercial and social progress, the agricultural, 
the most import in t of all, lags behind for the 
want of that unity of action, directness of pur- 
pose, and educational training which has given 
a more rapid development to other interests, 
and has enabled them to outstrip the agricultu- 
ral in the march of progress, to monopolize, to 
a greater extent than is consistent with its 
proper interests, the legislative functions of the 
government, and to exercise powers which are 
dangerous and oppressive. 

The Grange, growing out of the exigencies of 
this great interest, seeks to preserve the just 
equilibrium between the agricultural and other 
interests, to secure for it the protection it re- 
quires through legislation, and to elevate those 
who pursue it to a higher plane in our social 
order. 

In the pursuance of this end, the practical 
education or training of the farmer is precedent 
to the other steps which legitimately follow, 
for the accomplishment of which the Order 
early adopted practical and efficient plans, with 
which the Patrons of the country are already 
familiar, aDd which have now been in operation 
for several years, and which have produced re- 
sults most encouraging to the Order. Already, 
either through the prosecution of these plans, 
or through the necessity, from the nature of our 
institutions, for a higher qualification for the 
duties of citizenship, or from the demand for an 
intelligent development of the grand potential:'- 
ties of American agriculture and commerce, 
more largely in the hands of farmers than any 
other class, an impetus has been given to the 
demand for practical or special education, 
which has made its impress upon the age. This 
is evidenced by a growing interest in our agri- 
cultural colleges, which have been established 
in almost every State in the Union, and In the 
efforts these are making in some States to dif- 
fuse more widely all proper facilities for the ad- 
vancement of agricultural education amongst 
the masses. The proper recognition of the im- 
portant fact that such educatiou should be 
brought within the reach of every farmer, by 
the colleges, would surely expedite the work of 
the Order, and should be nrged by Patrons in 
every State, 

In this connection we must be allowed to ex- 
press our regret that the agricultural interests 
are too frequently merged, in these colleges, 
into the ordinary college course. The useful 
ness of the agricultural college is too often 
dwarfed, perhaps, however, by no fault of its 
own, and yet these colleges are too often agri- 
cultural only in name. 

The public or common schools established by 
public authority for a definite purpose should 
be, under the auspices of the college established 
by the same authority, conducted with special 
reference to the end of all public educaticn. 
The college is the compliment of the common 
school, and should foster in it such methods a < 
are best calculated to advance the interests at 
stake. Thus, these schools will become the in- 
valuable auxiliaries of the Grange and its ulti- 
mate purposes promoted. 

The Grange, organized for the promotion of a 
higher agriculture, and for the elevation of the 
farmer, has, we reiterate, adopted plans for his 
practical education which are excellently adapted 
to the end in view. We most emphatically urge 
the vigorous prosecution of these plans. They 
consist, not only in those exercises which are 
prescribed for the subordinate Grange, but also 
in the diffusion, as already emphasized by this 
body, of agricultural literature through periodi- 
cals, agricultural reports and bosks. In the 
present status of agricultural education only a 
very small part of the vast fund of information 
contained in these sources are available to the 
masses. We should seek to remove this draw- 
back to our progress by awakening a deeper in- 
terest in the subject and thus to stimulate in- 
vestigation and inquiry. But whilst we 
would impress the importance of such 
means as are at our command, we should 
encourage, through experimental farms, popular 
lectures, and every other practical adjunct to 
the college, the extension of agricultural educa- 



tion to the farmers of every degree. More par- 
ticularly would we impress the importance of 
such early instruction in the common schools as 
will lay the foundation for the practical educa- 
tion we insist upon, which, continued in the 
Grange, will make the farmer a practical, use- 
ful and successful man. We would have this 
body reiterate its recommendations at former 
sessions in referenoe to equipping the common 
schools for the purpose of instructing the young, 
particularly of the rural districts, in the ele- 
mentary principles of scientific agriculture, and 
would again urge upon the members of this body 
redoubled efforts to secure such legislation as is 
needed in the premises. 

Let us bear in mind that education, from a 
Grange standpoint, is practical in its scope, and 
of vital importance. Vet in general education 
we claim only an advisory and unofficial power 
to suggest such methods as will, in our judg- 
ment, best promote the interests of our families 
and class. Whilst we, as agriculturists, strive 
to have our calling fully and ably represented, 
educated and promoted in all things in which 
we have a voice or hand, in common with our 
fellow-citizens of other avocations, we do not 
assume to control the educational affairs of the 
community, or to determine that all shall be edu- 
cated from a strictly agricultural standpoint. 
But we would urgently impress upon the mem- 
bers the importance of making the subordinate 
Granges, schools in which we may become thor- 
oughly taught in matters of the farm, the house- 
hold, in social culture, and in business methods. 

In concluding this report, we desire to incor- 
porate and make the valuable suggestions of the 
Worthy Master, referred to your committee, 
and already published in these proceedings, in 
his excellent address, a part of this report, and 
to which we refer the reader. 

Allot which is respectfully submitted: T. 
B. Harwell, C. D. Parker, J. J. Rosa, A. M. 
Cheek, M. A. Eshtaugh, M. A. Lipscomb, 
Committee. 

Received and recommendations concurred in. 

Lopi Grange. — At the last meeting of the 
Lodi Grange, two new members were elected 
for membership. There will be an initiation 
and installation at their next meeting, the first 
Wednesday in January at 10 o'clock A. M , 
followed by a grand banquet. Invitations have 
been extended to all the neighboring Lodges. 
There is to be an initiation and harvest feast 
Saturday, the 31st, in Stockton Lodge. Ihe 
members of this Lodge have been invited to 
attend. There was a good time, followed by a 
harvest feast last Saturday, in Elliott Grange. 
We regret that, it being so near Christmas, the 
members of this Lodge could not accept their 
kind invitation to be present. — Loii Review. 

At Haywards. — Eden has invitid Temes- 
cal Grange to unite with them at H iy wards, on 
Saturday, Jan. 7th, and install officers legather, 
and the invitation has been accepted. We hope 
a good turn out will be the result, and can con- 
fidently assure all good Grangers they will not 
be disappointed for visiting Eden Grange. Ten 
o'clock, we believe, is the hour of meeting. 
The C. P. R. R. ferry boats leaving San Fran- 
cisco at 8 o'clock and 10 o'clock a. m., connect 
with trains passing Haywards. 



CALIFORNIA. 

COLUSA. 

Editors Press: — Happy New Year to Ai i.! 
We hope that everybody everywhere has < u- 
joyed a "M^rry Xmas" to their hearts' cont< nt, 
and now we wish them a happy New Year. To 
say that the people in this vicinity have ei. joyed 
themselves is only a meager nay of expressing 
it. To-day their cup of bliss has been filled to 
overflowing; and while we do not feel as though 
we are blessed above our fellows, yet we are 
content with our lot. We have already been 
blessed with a goodly supply of early rain, and 
to-day another glorious rain has set in. Much 
rain in California means much prosperity. — L. 
D. J., Olimpo. 
EL DORADO. 

Care ok Orchards. — 1'lacerville Republican: 
As a rule, the orchards of this county have had 
little or no care, and it is hardly to be won- 
dered at that our fruits, especially apples and 
peaches, have greatly deteriorated during the 
past ten years. For want of cultivation, or from 
over-production of other crops and pasturage, 
the trees in most of our orchards have become 
stunted and even moss covered in some in- 
stances. Mr. Wm. Hendrix who, it is admitted 
by all, has one of the finest orchards in the 
county, tells us that he practices thorough cul- 
tivation and does not attempt to raise anything 
but fruit in his orchard, and puts on all the 
manure that he can procure, and in this way 
keeps his trees thrifty and most productive. 
Last year he scraped all the rough bark from 
his trees and washed them with some strong 
solution, and has s ; nce been but slightly trou- 
bled with moth or other fruit pests, and has 
his trees so well in hand that it will require 
but little attention to keep them comparatively 
free. He thinks that by this treatment the 
trees are kept growing to such an extent as to 
dettroy the larva', or most of it, if any is de- 
posited upon the trees; this, together with 
keeping the trees clean and bright, doubtless 
has much to do with it. As fruit has become a 
staple and valuable article of commerce, no 
time should be lost in reclaiming our deterio- 
rated orchards. 



FRESNO. 

An Avenue.— Expositor: Thoa. E. Hughes 
has finally secured a donation of 20 ft. from the 
owners of the land on each side of the county 
road leading from the town of Fresno to the 
west line of the Easterby rancho, a distance of 
2\ miles, making an avenue of 100 ft., and is 
now at work making ditches on each side, and 
preparing to Bet out shade and ornamental 
trees, which will make one of the most magnifi- 
cent drives in the State. Will not the owners 
of the land through the Easterby rancho donate 
the same amount of land before they get the 
land improved, and in a few years Fresno can 
boast of the finest avenue on the Pacific coast. 
LAKE. 

Acrktltprai. Society.— The new Direct- 
ors of the Lake County Agricultural Society, 
elected on Dec. 12th, met last Saturday, and 
H. (.ruwell was chosen temporary Chairman. 
Directors present : Bond, Mitchell, Hanson, 
Clendenin, Crnwell and Merritt. On motion, 
the Directors proceeded to the election of 
officers, with the following result: R. D. Mer- 
ritt, President; L. H. Grnwell, 1st Vice-Presi- 
dent; D. A. Hanson, 2d Vice-President; T. A. 
K. Mitchell, Treasurer; D. L. Miller, Secre- 
tary. The meeting adjourned to meet in Lower 
Lake on the first Saturday in February, 1882, 
12 M. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Rain Needed. — Herald: A drive yesterday 
of some 27 miles through the southern portion 
of Los Angeles county advised us that the coun- 
try is much in need of rain; that the farmers 
are halting in their ploughing to see how the 
season will pitoh; that their corn-bins are full 
to repletion; that the black Berkshire hog 
abounds on every hand, as fat as butter, and 
that the farming community generally are yet 
feeling the impetus given by the good season of 
last year and the high prices which they ob 
tained for their product'. 

Raisins. — We have made a close examination 
of the Orai>ge and Westminster raisins and have 
been delighted at the great siza, fine flavor and 
admirable character of this product of our 
county. Mr. Stamps, of Orange, received for 
his raisins, without packing or boxing, 8 cents 
a pound, which was equivalent to •-' in a ton for 
the grapes on the vines. As Mr. Stamp's vines 
already yield three or four tons to the acre, and 
will when more mature yield from five to seven 
tons, the profits of the business may be realized. 
The raisins are cured by simply exposing them 
to the snu for a period, generally of three 
weeks, according to the weather. There are no 
more thriving communities in this State than 
Orange and Westminster. 

Lessons of a Dry Year. — The year 1877, 
much havoc as it wrought with people who 
were unprepared for it, and who obstinately 
ignored the conditions of the weather in Cali- 
fornia, was fraught with incalculable blessings 
to this section. It led to the utilization of our 
water resources and to habitp of economy and 
self-reliance which have really changed the old 
lime shiftlessness and chance life into a deter- 
mined and systematic development of our un- 
rivaled resources. Water has been developed 
and utilized which heretofore was disregarded. 
Amongst other things, it led to the construction 
of storage reservoirs in the city of Los Angeles 
whose usefulness is recognized, but is as yet but 
in its infancy. Should we have a dry year in 
18S1-1882, it will simply stimulate the develop- 
ment of our water resources, which has been 
really only fractional as yet, and a very small 
fraotion at that. Our country is admirably pro- 
vided with streams of perennial How, which are 
disci arged from considerable altitudes, at a ve- 
locity which excellently serves the purposes of 
irrigation. Fully two-thirds of their fertilizing 
waters are wasted in clumsy and porous ditches. 
One more dry year, and even the stupidest of 
our too prosperous people would recognize the 
necessity of carrying these precious waters in 
cemented and covered ditches, and in 
iron pipes; thus, at a blow, multiplying 
by threejthat area of Los Angeles county which 
would forever thereafter be indeprndent of an 
occasional dry year. 

MARIN. 

Nicamo. — Cor. I'etaluma Courier: At this 
writing it is raining quite hard, with prospects 
of plenty more to come. What rain we have 
had in the past week or two, together with the 
warm weather, has made the hillsides green 
with new grass, and the dairying prospects for 
this time of the year have never been better. 
About the only industry out here is dairying, 
and as good butter as can be found anywhere 
is made here. There are in the surroundings 
of Nicasio 25 or 30 dairies, ranging from 500 to 
2,000 and more acres, and the average acres to 
the cow is eight or nine; so you see it is quite 
an extensive business. Fora yearortwoago,since 
Messrs. Taft & Simms, Wells, Fargo It Co.'s 
agents, started wagons to haul the butter to 
the railroad station at San Geronimo, five miles 
from here, all the butter is brought to this 
place by the dairymen and shipped by express 
to San Francisco for only §1 per box. The 
amount of butter Bhipped now is about 30 
boxes a week. A San Rafael butcher comes 
here twice a week to buy calves, and during 
the last three or four weeks has bonght all the 
way from 40 to 60 per week. Besides what 
they, sell the dairymen kill a good many and 
raise some to replenish their ranches. Another 
quite important industry is the cutting of wood 
here, which furnishes employment to all the 
Indians in this neighborhood, and of whom 
there are quite a number. Mr. Martin Miller 



employs from 15 to 20 all the time, and they 
and their families live in cabins on his place. 
These Indians are all quiet and well-be haved 
and most of them very industrious. Once in 
a while they have a grand dance, when work is 
suspended for a few days. 
NAPA. 

A Fine Stable.— St. Helena Star: The large 
and handsomely-built stable of Capt Niebaum, 
near Rutherford, is 34x86 ft., and is three stories 
high, including the basement The main floor 
contains the stalls, harness-room, carriage-room, 
etc. The floor itself is specially prepared for 
the purpose. A stout plank floor is painted 
with coal tar, and on this is a thick layer of as- 
pbaltum. The stalls are marvels of perfection. 
Their floors are racks removable at pleasure, 
through which water passes off and leaves the 
animal dry. The hay-rack is of cast iron, fitted 
to the foot of a chute which conducts the hay 
down from the loft above. The feed-box is of 
iron, especially cast for the purpose. Along the 
lines of stalls are gutters, receiving the drain- 
age and carrying it away. Tnese stalls are about 
18 in number. In another apartment are drink- 
ing fountains for the horses and hose attach- 
ments for washing them off. In the harness- 
room are racks for harness and saddles com- 
lete — as neat and orderly as a clothes closet, 
n the carriage-room are vehicles of all kinds, 
from the sulky to the double carriage; enough, 
apparently, to make a very fair livery stock. 
The loft above is devoted chiefly to the storage 
of hay, and will bold a very large amount. The 
basement below, 12 ft. in bight, is devoted to 
various useful purposes. First, a store-room for 
the wagons and carts of a rougher character 
than those housed up stairs. Next, an in- 
clined plaue up which horses are con- 
ducted to the story above. Then a paint room, 
where vehicles may be painted without leaving 
the premises; a manure pit which receives the 
waste from the stalls above and has appliances 
for thorough decomposition. Listly, a cow 
stable with curtained sides to open it out to 
the weather or shot it in at pleasure. The 
whole has a stone foundation and is protected 
in every way from decay. It is all handsomely 
finished, presents an imposing appearance and 
is highly creditable U> the skill and taste of 
Mr. McMillan, who was its contractor and 
builder. The cost is about $8,000 B9sides 
this stable, much other building has been done 
on the place this year. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Editors Press:— We have had thus far 
about three inches of rain. Feed started in 
good season, and farmers were happy. Plow- 
ing and seeding progressed in fine style, and 
prospects were never better. All sorts of in- 
dustries and improvements were in progress or 
in contemplation, and much money was to be 
made this coming year, but the rains have 
ceased; the ground and vegetation and the 
farmers' hearts are becoming dry. Many 
prophesy a dry year, but it is quite too eaily for 
that yet. When our usual rainy months have 
passed, it will be quite early enough to foretell 
evil to come. In foretelling the weather, I can 
see no reason in saying that because last month 
was wet or dry next month will be dry or wet. 
If last year was wet or dry, it is no indication 
whatever that this year will be similar or dis- 
similar. As we look back upon past years, 
none but the most imaginative can see any reg- 
ularity or system in them. The weather is gov- 
erned not by the moon or planetary conjunc- 
tions, but, partially at least, by laws of which 
we have very imperfect conceptions; and all 
man's prognostications are little else than guess- 
work. About all we can do in the matter is 
this: We can look back upon the part 10 or 20 
years, the more the better, figure up the aver- 
age rainfall of any particular period — January 
or February, for instance — and then we can say 
the chances are that we may have the same 
amount the coming January or February. 
Farther than this, it seems to me no one can go 
with reason. Upon this basis of calculation we 
shall yet have plenty of rain to make good crops, 
and all had best make their minds easy upon 
the subject for the present. The Lima bean 
fever is still raging, and land in some cases has 
gone up to $150 an acre in Cirpeoteria. Why 
not, when they make more than $100 an aero 
with one crop of beans. We will hope they 
will do as well again this coming season. Con- 
siderable new land is being prepared for the 
everlasting bean. Considerable barley is being 
sown, but land is now getting too dry to plow, 
and the labor is mostly stopped. Barley now 
up, is drying out in places, especially the past 
few days of hot suns and drying winds. Greet- 
ings and a happy New Year to all readers of the 
Rural Press, editors included. — S. P. Snow, 
Santa Barbara, Dec. 21st. 

SANTA CLARA. 

The Gilroy Rkcion. — Ad rotate: The rains 
with which the Gilroy valley has been favored 
this month give to all our farmers the hope of 
an abundant harvest. All are vigorously at 
work plowing the moist soil and scattering the 
seed, expecting the heavens will continue to be 
propitious and insure them a good liberal re- 
ward for their labors. Th* new grass is cheer- 
ing the stockman. His (locks and herds are 
relishing the new nourishment and picking up 
lost flesh. 
SANTA CRDZ. 

New Potatoes. — Editors Press: Lost week 
I sent you some raspberries and strawberries 
for Christmas, in order that you might see what 
Santa Cruz c»n do in the way of growing nice 
fruit, nearly all the year around, and now I send 



X 



Jaftuary f t 1882.] 



TIE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



you some new potatoes for New Year's. You 
see these are nice, smooth potatoes, of good 
size, and they have grown since the October 
rains, which were in quantity sufficient for 
starting a new crop of grass, and the plow for 
seeding; and our climate is so mild that these 
potatoes have grown in the field, while our gar- 
dens have been full of nice flowers, and our 
pastures clothed with green grasp, and this is 
not new for Santa Cruz; we always have fall 
rains, [and winter rains that insure us good 
crops with good tillage. Now, further, I want 
to remind you that Santa Cruz is not only one 
of the finest fruit growing countries in the 
world, but we grow large crops of potatoes and 
other vegetables, and year before last we grew 
more wheat to the acre (100 buihels), than 
any other country thus far heard 
from. So if you want to "locate" 
in a country where you always have rain and 
sunshine in season, and in quantity to suit, and 
never enough rain to cause destructive floods, 
nor excessive sunshine to cause drouth — and 
where the winters are mild and full of sunshine 
— and where the summers are cool and pleasant, 
with sunshine for months without intermission 
—come to Santa Cruz, its all here.— M. P. Owen, 
Santa Cruz, Cal. [The potatoes are very 
handsome and well grown. We must caution 
our enthusiastic friend against the effort to 
moLopolize all the blessings of California cli- 
mate. There are hosts of places which can 
show all he claims for his own region. We like 
to see a man in love with his home, but he 
must not forget that others have homes also. 
Santa Cruz is splendid and so are some other 
counties. The distant reader must be caution- 
ed against taking 100 bushels of wheat per acre 
as the average for Santa Cruz county. It is 
probably the result in one or a few instances, 
and that has been the case also in other coun- 
ties in the State. No doubt all our correspond- 
ent writes about Santa Cruz is strictly true, and 
those seeking homes may rely upon it; but 
some other regions can make similar claims - 
Eds. Press.] 

SOLANO. 

Sidehill Plow. — Suisun Republican: J. M. 
Fix, at Bird's landing, is manufacturing the 
most popular sidehill gang plow in the Monte- 
zuma hills. It is an improved gang of his own 
get up, and it is used by the most prominent 
farmers in that section, who say it is the most 
perfect gang they ever saw. 
SONOMA. 

Timber Land, — The Cloverdale Reveille: A 
large number of the wool growers are securing 
title to their possessory lands by entering them 
as timber claims. This is probably the cheap- 
est as well as the best method of obtaining title. 
It costs $2.50 per acre, all told, and a title se- 
cured in 60 days, without residence. Under 
this method, married women can take up land 
also — a fact not generally known. There is no 
worry of securing parties to enter lands, and 
chances of buying them out. It is strictly a 
legitimate transaction, and there is only half the 
worry and trouble. Where it can be done, we 
advise this method. 

Clearing for Fruit. — Healdsburg Enter- 
prise: J. W. Ward, who lives west of town, 
has five men at work clearing land for vines and 
fruit trees. The timber from the cleared lands 
is converted into charcoal, and pays for the 
clearing. He will put out some five acres of 
orchard and about 20 acres of vineyard right 
away, and intends to extend his acreage of vines 
and trees. He says his bearing orchard, al- 
though not containing the best varieties of 
fruit, paid him about $200 an acre this year. 
TURLARB. 

Poisonous Plants and Stock Diseases. — 
Delia, Dec. 30: The following communication 
is of great value to stock-raisers, coming as it 
does from one of the most successful and most 
experienced stock-raiser in Tulare county. 
While he avoids the cattle disease, a discussion 
of which led to the poisoning of sheep, he treats 
the latter branch of the subject intelligently, 
and gives information that is of the greatest im- 
portance to all persons engaged in the business. 
Following is the communication: Ed. Delta: — 
Having never had anything to do with the dis- 
ease known as "blackleg" among cattle, I am 
not prepared to speak fully on the subject; but 
concerning the various poisons in the foothills, I 
have had about 15 years experience, and more 
particularly with sheep than with any other 
kind of stock. As to the poisoning by black 
fern, mentioned by Mr. O'Connor in a recent 
interview published in the Delta, and so gener- 
ally believed by sheep raisers to be a fatal 
poison for sheep, I would state that my experi- 
ence has led me to consider the fern an entirely 
harmless weed. It is a species of the yerba 
buena used by Mexicans for a table tea. I have 
frequently chewed it, and have seen my Mexi- 
can herders gather it to make tea. For this 
purpose they gather that which grows where it 
receives the full benefit of the sun, as that 
which grows on the north side of hills and in 
shady places is unfit for tea, it being insipid 
and lacking in aromatic strength. Wherever 
the so-called black fern grows, there will 
be found a brush known as poison oak, 
of which the leaves and bark, and 
especially the berries, are poisonous to any 
hungry animal. It acts as a powerfully astrin- 
gent caustic, burning the stomach and intes- 
tines when coming in direct contact with them, 
which is the case when the digestive organs 
contain no other food as a palliative. It is an 
evergreen, and hence hungry stock will the 
more readily eat it when other food is dried up. 



affected with it, if there is any other food; for it 
is not palatable food. Sheep kept in close herd 
will eat anything coming within their reach, if 
they are hungry; but I have never known cattle 
to be affected by it. Horses and mulss fre- 
quently are, but it is not noticeable on them 
unless, after having eaten it, they are warmed 
under work. The fact that an animal has been 
thus poisoned may be readily detected by the 
breaking out of a profuse perspiration, and 
trembling and twitching of the muscles, caused 
by the intense burning pain in the stomach and 
intestines. There is also a disposition to stop 
and lie down. If the animal is turned loose 
and not molested for two or three days, the in- 
jury rarely proves permanent; but if it is 
forced to continue exercise, the poison- 
ing may prove fatal in from 30 minutes' to 
three hours' travel. Sometimes they drop 
dead from a standing posture, and at other 
times they linger for several days. Ex- 
ercise is invariably injurious. And it is best 
to let the animal have its own way. I have had 
probably 1,000 sheep affected with it at a time, 
and until I found out how the case should be 
managed, I lost a large number; but of late 
years I seldom lose a sheep with it if I am with 
them myself, and I am always particular to in- 
struct my herders that when they are driving 
through regions where poison oak abounds, and 
a sheep shows a disposition to lie down, to qui- 
etly walk around it; and nine times out of ten it 
will get up after a few minutes and follow the 
band. If a considerable number show indications 
of being sick, I order that the band be checked 
and the sheep allowed to spread out and move 
along as quietly as possible, and avoid all run- 
ning or exercise that will warm them up, and 
stop them for three or four hours upon the first 
good feed arrived at; but I am cautious for two 
or three days to avoid all running or unneces- 
sary exercise. There is no medicine so good for 
this poisoning as a vigorous letting alone, and 
allowing the sheep to scatter sufficiently to se- 
lect their food. Care should also be exercised 
in seeing that they are not permitted to run 
down hill. 



Wool Production and Trade of 1881. 



TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press:— We are in the midst of 
frost and shining sun in the foothills. The 
weather is truly delightful. We have had suffi- 
cient rains so far for all agricultural purposes. 
The young grass is all that could be desired. 
Early sown grain is from one to four inches 
high. Farmers are still busy seeding. If the 
season continues as begun, good crops may be 
anticipated. Surveyors are now busy in our 
county, laying out a path for the Nevada nar- 
row gauge railroad. We will not speculate 
much even when the whole line is surveyed, 
we have been so often deceived by appearances. 
We have been careful of late in not giving a 
glowing color to our county for productiveness, 
or as a sanitarium resort. There is danger of 
creating a false impression by so doing, and the 
"up and go" portion of society imagine that 
money may be acquired without tireless labor, and 
houses found all ready for occupancy. All this 
is fallacious. Go where we will, it takes means 
and good judgment to locate and create a com- 
fortable home. One oounty may be as good as 
another for whatever position or condition may 
be adapted to our fitness. One recommenda- 
tion exists in our foothill selection. Settlers 
are generally permanently fixed, ot clanish turn. 
Living as one family for thirty years and up- 
wards begets friendships and acquaintances of 
a lasting nature, and wherever you find an "old 
Tuolumneite" you finda congenial friend, ready 
to help in time of need. 

We love her rugged, flower-clad hills, 
Her sparkling, crystal, rippling rills, 
And all her pine-clad forests grand, 
Whose roots gain strength mid the golden sand. 

John Taylor, Chinese Camp, Dec. 18, 'SI- 
VENTURA. 

Editors Press: — No rain of any account yet; 
plowing not begun; weather cooler than usual. 
Hay high; horses high; climate delicious; Eas- 
tern visitors plenty; salubrity unequaled prob- 
ably in the world; special sanitarium for asth- 
matic patients; game from lions to quail; trout 
bite freely. — S. Nordhoff, Dec. 25th. 



A fearful calamity occurred at Shanesville, 
O., last Saturday night. It resulted in the loss 
of several lives, and serious injury to nearly 100 
victims. A floor gave way with a terrible 
crash, precipitating 300 people to the first floor. 
The red-hot stove fell with the crowd, and the 
oil from the broken chandeliers saturated the 
clothing of the unfortunate victims, and the 
whole mass was soon enveloped in flames. The 
band had just ceased playing, when the crash 
was heard and the floor began to settle length' 
wise in the center; the joists slipped off the 
posts in the rear, and pulled out of the brick 
wall in front. The center settled rapidly and 
broke lengthwise. This threw people, tables, 
stoves and all together. The falling floor bar 
ricaded the front doors, but they were soon 
chopped down. 

Honors. — The son of our citizen, M. J. 
O'Byrne, has been a successful winner of $100 a 
year for three years at the Intermediate Exami- 
nation, open to all attending schools of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and he stands a similar 
chance next year for higher branches. Mr. 
O'Byrne recently ranched near Merced city and 
has three sons in Clongowe's Wood College, 
Kildare, Ireland. This prize 



county Jsiidare, Ireland, this prize money 
will nearly pay for one year's board and tuition 
It is very seldom that stock running at large is ' of the three boys, 



The wool report of E. Grisar & Co., of San 
Francisco, furnishes the following reveiw of wool 
production and trade for the year 1881: 

Our wool market this year opened under the 
influence of declining values in the East, and 
stocks there being large, and the demand limited, 
buyers were conservative; while, on the other 
hand, growers having been accustomed for sev- 
eral years to high opening prices, were not ready 
to meet the market until the accumulation of 
the new clip in the warehouses compelled them 
to modify their views. The market finally 
opened in April, and continued active until 
July, the demand being sufficient to take wools 
as fast as they arrived and to gradually reduce 
stocks. Since July, shippers of wools in the 
grease have bought comparatively little. The 
chief support of the markets has been manufact- 
urers and local scourers. Prices have varied 
but little. An advance of about 10% on choice 
Northern spring was established Jor a short 
time, but was soon lost. Manufacturers, both 
local and Eastern, have bought largely of spring 
wools. Local scourers have taken most of the 
eastern Oregon and fall wools. The amount of 
wool scoured here has increased very largely 
during the past year, and the demand from 
scourers for the wools they wanted has been so 
great that shippers in the grease were unable to 
do business in these descriptions. The capacity 
of the mills now running is from 75,000 to 80,- 
000 lbs. per day. Most of the fall clip exported 
will go forward in scoured condition. The re- 
cent reduction in overland freights from 2|c per 
lb. to \\q per lb. on low priced wools, and to 2c 
on wools of medium cost, has increased shipments 
in the grease to some extent. 

The spring clip, in appearance and soundness 
of growth, was superior to last year's produc- 
tion. Each year there is more difficulty in 
finding wools free from bur or seed. , Shrinkage 
has exceeded buyers' expectations, and wools 
sent forward for sale have gone into consump- 
tion slowly, because other parts of the United 
States were producing equally good wools, 
which cost less clean. The clip of California 
is constantly growing finer and of more even 
grade, and the shrinkage increases with the im- 
provement in quality, and although prices es- 
tablished here were not above the average, the 
poorer condition of the wools made these prices 
too high. Besides increased fineness, it must 
also be taken into consideration, that some of 
the best grazing land has been devoted to til- 
lage, so that sheep have not only poorer pas- 
ture, but are compelled to travel more in search 
of feed. The effect of being driven from place 
to place is especially noticeable in the amount 
of dust fall wools contain. The opening and 
closing rates of spring wools were as follows. 
The difference made in favor of good stapled 
wools is greater than heretofore: Choice North- 
ern, 29 to 30c; small sales were made at 32.S to 
33c; fair to good Northern, 25 to 27c; average 
stapled (San Joaquin), 17 to 23c; average 
stapled, Southern Coast, 16 to 20c; good stapled, 
Southern Coast, 17 to 20c. The highest prices 
on all classes ruled in June. 

The fall clip was of better staple than in 
1880. The amount of very heavy sandy wool 
was smaller. Still the average shrinkage is 
about the same, although there may be a slight 
difference in favar of this year's product 
Wools began to arrive in August, but very lit 
tie business was done before November, and in 
the mean time receipts accumulated until stocks 
were larger than they have ever been. Owing 
to large supplies of old fall in the Eastern mar 
kets which could be moved only with great 
difficulty and at low prices, buyers were very 
conservative. Growers expected the rates which 
ruled in 1880, and yielded very slowly, until 
finally prices reached the point at which scour 
ers bought freely of some descriptions, and 
lower freight rates induced purchasers for East- 
ern manufacturers to enter the market. Sales 
during the past two months have been large, and 
stocks, although considerable, are much smaller 
than was expected. Good stapled, nearly free 
mountain wools for scouring, and sightly Darcels 
for shipment in grease have been in best de 
mand, and such wools are in small supply 
Heavy and defective wools constitute most of 
the stocks. Such wools have declined in price 
since the opening of the season, while other 
kinds are firmer and higher. Quotations 
Choice Northern, 20 to 22c; fair to good North 
em, 17 to 19c; fair to good San Joaquin (moun 
tain), 15 to 17c; heavy or defective San Joaquin, 
11 to 13c; Southern Coast, in good condition, 
having a few burs or seeds, 13 to 15c; Southern 
Coast, ordinary condition, 11 to 12c. 

Wools grown in eastern Oregon constitute the 
greater part of the production of the State, 
Arrivals were earlier than usual, and met with 
ready sale. Opening rates were 25 to 26c for 
choice; 23 to 24c for good, and 21 to 22c for fair, 
Prices advanced about 8%, but afterwards fell 
back to opening rates. The demand from scour 
e^s was sufficient to take most of these wools at 
higher rates than shippers in the grease could 
afford to pay. There is now no stock on hand 
The condition of the clip is as usual, as there 
was less very choice or very heavy. The qual 
ity, however, shows a constant improvement 
Valley wools vary but little from year to year, 
Fine wools brought 31 to|32c. Ordinary lots 27 
to 29c. Lower grades being undesirable for 
shipment, have generally been taken by local 
mills. Stocks of Valley are about 200,000 fbi, 
spring, and same amount'of fall. 

The clip of California has not been as large as 
was anticipated. Low prices and a dull market 



have prevented some growers from shear i 
the fall, but this has probably not been \ 
general. Sheep are being constantly driven 
into other States or Territories, and tho 
number of large flocks is decreasing, espec- 
ially in those localities where owners of land 
find that they can cultivate lands formerly used 
for grazing. Until farmers combine sheep raid- 
ing with farming, like their competitors in the 
Eastern States, no great or permanent increase 
in the wool product of California can be ex- 
pected. 

Wool Production. 

Receipts at San Francisco: 

January 702 Bags 

February 305 " 

March 8,347 " 

April 23,540 " 

May 26,152 " 

June ; 12,189 " 

July 5,630 " 

August 3,691 " 

September 14,794 " 

October 16,502 " 

November 10,706 " 

December 5,058 " 



Total 122,615 " 

Of which there was Spring Wool, 71,078 

bags, weighing 21,465,548 Lbs. 

Spring Wool shipped direct from the inte- 
rior 2,309,429 " 



Total Spring production 23,774,977 

There was Fall Wool received 51,537 bags, 

weighing 17,522,580 

Fall Wool shipped direct from the interior 902,402 



Total Fleece Wool 42,199,959 

Pulled Wool shipped direct from San 

Francisco , 1,004,810 



Total productions of California 43,204,769 

On hand Dec. 31st, 1880, about 2,000,000 

Received from Oregon, 26,313 bags 7,136,075 

Foreign Wool received, 4,660 bales 1,390,000 



Grand total 53,730,844 " 

Exports. 

Domestic, Foreign, Pulled and Scoured. 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from the 

interior 30,652,719 Lbs. 

Per steamer, inclusive of shipments from 

the coast 76,319 " 

Per sail 7,437,339 " 



Total shipments 38,166,377 '* 

Value of exports *7,000,000 

On hand Dec. 31st, 1881, about 5,000,000 " 

Difference between receipts and exports arises 
from consumption of local mills, and wool on 
hand awaiting shipment in the grease or scoured. 
The difference is more marked than for- 
merly, on account of the increased amount of 
wool scoured. Foreign wool is chiefly from 
Australia, in transit to Eastern markets. The 
weights of receipts and exports are gross. The 
usual tare of bags received is about 3 tin. each; 
on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 lbs. each. 

Production of California Wool. 

I Am't brought 
175,000 lbs. | forward. .. 60,711.952 lbs. 

1868 14,232,657 " 

1869 15,413 970 " 

1870 20,072,660 " 

1871 22.187,188 " 

1872 24;255,468 " 

1873 32,155,169 " 

1874 39,356,781 " 

1875 43.532,222 " 

1876 56,550,970 " 

1877 53,110,742 " 

1878 40,862,061 " 

1879 46,903,300 " 

1880 46,074,154 " 

1881 43,204,709 " 



1854 

1855 300,000 

1856 600,000 

1867 1,100,000 

1858 1,428,351 

1859 2,378,250 

1860 3,055,325 

1861 3,721,998 

1862 5,990,300 

1863...'. 6,268,480 

1864 7,923,670 

1865 8,949,931 

1866 8,532,047 

1867 10,238,600 



Am't carried 
forward .... 60,711,952 



Total 558,024,124 



News in Brief. 

The year 1882 began on Sunday and will end 
on Sunday. 

A bill to abolish the whipping-post has been 
introduced in the Legislature of Virginia by a 
colored Senator. 

Four million one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars has been expended this year in buildings 
in Denver, Colorado. 

It is now thought probable that Iroquois and 
Foxhall will try conclusions in the spring over 
the Newmarket course, Eng. 

An agent of an Eastern packing establish- 
ment is in Glendive, M. T., buying buffalo 
meat to ship East for canning. 

The investigation of the theaters in New 
York bring to light instances of failure to com- 
ply with the requirement of the laws in nearly 
every establishment. 

De Long's store, at Fresno, was entered by 
burglars on Thursday night. The thieves were 
subsequently captured, and are in jail and the 
stolen goods recovered. 

It is said that Los Angeles oounty produces 
45% of all the corn raised in California. Last 
year's crop was 752,104 bushels, against 1,993,- 
325 bushels in the whole State. 

The arrival of the new year and the throw- 
ing open of the White House has broken the 
season of universal mourning in Washington 
society over President Garfield. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad Company, of 
Arizona, has appropriated $300,000 for the con- 
struction of the road from Yuma to Port Isa- 
bel. President Crocker says the road will be 
completed in 60 days. 

The Sunday law went into force in Washing- 
ton Territory on the 1st inst. In Seattle, the 
law is strictly observed, but the prevailing sen- 
timent seems to be that the law is void and will 
be disregarded in future. 

The Columbia and Puget sound, otherwise 
the Northern Pacific Railroad Co. , is endeavor- 
ing to get a right of way along the city front of 
Seattle. The company promises to put in 
switches and side tracks wherever owners of 
wharves desire for the handling of grain, 



6 



THE PACIFIC BIJB1L PRESS. 



[January 7, 1882 




The American Producer. 

Give me the blue of the bending sky 

O'er the land of the freeman hung, 
And the bright, full beams of the sun on high, 

While the hymn of the free is sung; 
Oh, ne'er was the sky o'er a land like ours 

Bent down with its arch of blue, 
Or joyfully wept in the crystal showers, 

Or gemmed the glad earth with dew. 

Give me the land where the plough's bright share 

Turns wealth from the virgin soil, 
Nor melts in the forge where the vuleans bear 

A sword for the warrior's IMttf 
Not the song of the soldier's bloody trade, 

Nor the trumpet's startling twang. 
But the vow of peace on the altar laid, 

Kound the hearthstone fondly sang. 

Oh, bright the land where the golden grain, 

Waves over the fertile fields, 
Anil the tall, ripe corn on the spreading nlain 

Its harvest of bounties yields; 
Where the sounding flail, as it swings in air 

Kails fast on the thrashing floor, 
And the Autumn sun shows the toilers there 

With the gold dust covored o'er. 

Let the broad land wake in its proudest bloom, 

In the light of our broader skies! 
Let the anvil, plow and the busy loom 

In their power and grandeur rise; 
Let the workers all, in their well paid toil, 

Rejoice with a labor song, 
And the blessing of God on the uncovered soil 

Be sought hy the trusting throng. 

Let the yeoroan sing as he tills the land, 

And follows the shining plough! 
Let the toiler sing, as he lifts his hand, 

Oft wiping his sweating brow! 
Let the maiden sing! Let the anvil ring! 

And the radiant truth be told— 
That the labor of home, in its fruits, shill bring 

A truer wealth than gold! 

Then give me the blue of the bending sky, 

O'er the land of the freeman hung, 
And the bright, full beams of the sun on high 

While the hymn of the tree is sung. 
Oh, ne'er has a sky o'er a land like ours 

Bent down with its arch of blue. 
Or joyfully wept in its crystal showers. 

Or gemmed the glad earth with dew! 



Nate Weston's Debt. 

Written for the Kn.«- Prkss by Mrs. R»xciier.J 

It was, let me see, in 'O'J or '70. Being an 
old Californian, I ought to tell you the exact 
date; but then, I'm not a '4'Jer. If I had come 
to California in that magic year, or even in the 
early fifties, the case might have been differ- 
ent. As it is, I must refer you to some one 
who did. If you will ask any genuine pioneer 

what year it was that & Co. made a rule 

forbidding ladies to ride on the outside of their 
stage coaches, you will have the date of my 
story. It was a day in August. Gardener, 
the driver, sauntered into the company's office 
in Stockton, and glanced over the register. 
" Whew !" whistled he; "six white men, eight 
Chinies and one lady. A sweet ride it'll be for 
the lady ! 1 unly wish one of the bosses had to 
ride inside with eight of those pig-tails; for 
that's the way it'll be fixed." 

And that was the way. Every white man 
was registered for an outside seat, and the 
Celestials had to be content with what was 

left. And the lady she came quietly down 

the gang-plank of the Julia, a young girl, fair 
and sweet to look upon. "This way Miss," 
called the busy agent, and May Weston took 
the place assigned her. One Oriental form 
after another then filed in tilling np the eight 
remaining seats. 

May glanced timidly about her. "Don't be 
a-feared Miss," said the agent, reassuringly, 
"them uns is harmless." 

"Umph!" grunted the driver. "It'sashame," 
said the other passengers. 

However there was no time for talk. "All 
Aboard," shouted the agent. Crack : sounded 
the driver's whip, and the horses sprang to 
their work with gallant pace. 

It was one of those sultry days when the 
heat seems as intense at G o'clock as at noon. 
Relentlessly the t>un poured his beams on man 
and beast. No wind, scarce a breath of air, 
and the dust rising just high enough to float in 
at the open windows and settle stiningly cn all 
within. 

For a while May watched the strange faces 
about her, and forgot the trials of the road. 
But after a time the peculiar smell that she 
had noticed from the first, the smell that pro- 
claims the opium smoker, grew more and more 
sickening. She leaned far out the window, 
but the baneful drug seemed to permeate the 
air. 

"Sixteen Mile House," shouted the driver, 
as he drew up his panting team before a low- 
built, country inn. "Get out and rest a bit, 
won't you V he asked presently of May as he 
opened the coach door. 

"Oh, if you please," answered p>or May, 
pale now, even to her lips. 

"Are you sick ?" he kindly asked. 

' 'A little, "she replied ; "perhaps it's the heat. 
I shall be better now that I can sit in here." 



The driver, seeing her cared for by the hos 
tess, turned toward the ttibles. 

"I say, Gardener," said a tall young fellow, 
accompanying him, "it's abominable to make 
that girl ride inside with those Chinese; can't 
you break the rules for once ?" 

"Fur once," repeated Gardener, puffing hard 
at his cigar; "once, why, that there law has ben 
in force well nigh outer a year, and I have 
broke it about titty times. Yer see, if a 1 idy- 
ls stage sick, and some passenger helps her up 
the side of the stage whilst I'm lookin' t'other 
way, it's blamed likely I'd order her down 
agen ; now, ain't it ?" 

"U m, I understand;" said Charlie Hay 

wood. Then walking to the door of the tavern, 
he raised his hat to May and said: "I beg your 
pardon, but the driver says if you will ride on 
the outside of the coach, you will not be sick; 
besides, it is much more pleasant." 

"You are very kind," she replied, as a 
thought of the eight Chinamen, and of that vile 
odor, came into her mind. "But can I ride 
there?'' "Yes, indeed; ladies generally prefer 
to do so," he answered; and soon May was in 
her lofty seat, with the driver on her right hand 
and a corpulent, grey-haired man, whom the 
others called "Cap," on her left. Ah, this was 
a change ! The dust could not reach them now; 
the air, if hot, was pure; the country novel and 
interesting. 

" Friends in Columbia?" said Gardener sud 
denlytoMay, "I see you're booked for that 
camp." "Yea sir;" she answered, "my father 
lives there; are you acquainted in Columbia T 
"I reckon if I ain't I oughter be by this time," 
he replied. 

"Because," she continued, you may know my 
father; his name is Weston." 

"Nate Weston V querried the driver. "Yes, 
sir," said May, after a momentary hesitation. 
The staid old aunties at home had always called 
him Nathaniel. 

"Why, bless you, I've known Nate Weston 
for the last ten year; and I've known nothin' 
but good of him, either," he added. 

A look of pleasure came into May Weston's 
bonnie brown eyes; for the driver's wordssound 
ed like genuine praise; and it is sweet to hear 
well of those we love. 

"How pleasant," she said, "that you know 
him. Perhaps you will tell me when we reach 
his home. You see," she explained, "father, 
iu his last letter, gave me particular directions 
as to what I should do, if anything prevented 
him from meeting me in Stockton. He said I 
need not go quite to Columbia. That the stage 
passed near his door, and that you would point 
it out to me." "Jess so," Gardener answered. 
'I remember me now, the old man told me a 
week ago that his little girl was coming out 
from the States, but I took it that his little girl 
was a child." 

"How delightful!" cried May, with the glee- 
some air of a child indeed. "No doubt papa 
imagines I'm the same little girl he left at school 
nine years ago. You see," she continued, "I 
wrote him we would leave the middle of Au- 
gust, and instead, Mr. and Mrs. Sawyer, who 
took me in their care to San Francisco, con- 
cluded to start the first; so here I am, an I papa 
don't expect me for two, weeks. Won't he be 
pleased when I surprise him to-night!" 

The passengers looked pleased, in sympathy. 
"Well, Cap," said the driver, addressing the 
old man, "I'll have yer ter home soon; here we 
be at the ferry." 

Dinner over and the tired, dusty horses 
changed for fresh ones, onoe more they 
started. Through the covered bridge that 
crosses the Stanislaus, past the toll house, where 
a young girl gave them a basket of California's 
luscious peaches; up, up, they bjgan to rise, 
and May's spirits rose too; for was not this the 
beginning of the mountains, the mountains that 
were to be her home? 

On they went, till at the foot of the " Big 
Hill" the driver drew in his horses and called 
upon the gentlemen to get out and walk. 

Deprived of its. ballast, the stage rolled and 
tumbled over croppings of bowlders, so bare and 
large that May wondered how the horses kept 
their feet. 

Near the top, Gardener pointed to Charley 
Haywood, and said: "That young feller there, 
who spoke ter you at the Sixteen, said as how 
he'd give up his seat and ride on the boot ef I'd 
break over the rules and let you ride out here. 
So now's Cap's seat is vacant, I suppose it's no 
more'n fair ter let him have it." 

"Of course not," replied May; "but I don't 
understand about the rules which you say you 
have broken." 

' You don't ! " ejaculated he, surprisedly; 
"then why in time did you think we put you 
inside with yon heathen?" 

'I don't know, really; I supposed you 
thought it safer and more pleasant." 

"Not much," responded the driver, emphati- 
cally. "Once we had an accident on this road, 
a regular turnover. Don't be skeared, we 
never have but one in five year, and this was 
only a year ago. There was a lady on the driv- 
er's seat, as you are now; so the company held, 
that, if a lady was riding in front, the driver 
could not attend to his business. To be sure, 
there was a bolt made of poor iron that gave 
way and let the stage down, but then it was 
more convenient to charge it to the lady. So 
the rule was made forbidding women t > ride 
here. Still whenever a lady has been sick and 
wanted to come out here, I've been too blind to 
see." 

"But is it not known?" querried May. 
"Yes," answered Gardener, "always. Some 
one always blows on me. At first they were 



wrathy; talked of losing me my place. But, 
bless you, there's no danger. Sam Smith and 
I've been on this line too long to git our walking 
papers for a trifle like that. Halloo, Charlie," 
continued he, as they came u:> with the men at 
this point, "you ken take Cap's place unless 
you're stuck after your seat on the boot. " 

"Not in this dust," replied Charlie, mounting 
to his place. 

"By the way," said Gardener turning to May, 
and striving, as he always did when speaking to 
a lady, to use his best English, "my friend 
Haywood is a great pardner of your father's; 
she's a daughter of Nate Weston's, " he added 
to Charlie. Charlie gave a start of surprise. 
Nate Weston's daughter, he reiterated. 

"Yes," said May, "I have come out to see my 
father, to live with him." 

"What's the matt jr with you, Charley? Yon 
look as if you had seen a ghost," said Gardener. 
"Haven't you heard Weston say he was looking 
for his daughter?" 

"I thought she was but a little girl," re- 
plied the young man, apologetically. 

"Papa will be surprised to see me," cried 
May, eagerly. "I've taken such pains to learn 
to keep house. Oh, we will be so happy ! " 

Truth to tell, May Weston was not naturally 
at home with strangers; but these strangers 
knowing her father, seemed like oldtime 
friends. 

But Charley did not join in the pleasant con- 
versation, and May, noticing his reserve, grew 
silent too. At "Taylor's," Charley jumped 
from the coach, and followed the driver into the 
stable. 

"I say, Gardener," he began, "at Knight's 
Ferry I hai a telegram from father telling me 
to hurry home; that Nate Weston had been 
caved on and is dead." "Caved on," echoed 
the driver. 

"Yes, they had finished that shaft and were 
drifting in, when 1 came away. Now, what's 
to be done ? I guess I had better take her to 
our house and let mother tell her," decided 
Charley. "But," objected Gardener, "she 
knows the old man cabined at Springfield Flat, 
and I've piomised to set her down there." 

"Then, yon must tell her, I can't," responded 
Charley. 

The driver shook his head. "You're used to 
women folks and I ain't,' and he walked away, 
to prevent further discussion. 

After that, there were two silent men, while 
May wondered at the change. On they rolled, 
through Chinese, Montezuma, Jamestown, So- 
nora; still neither of the men spoke. Shaw's 
Flat came in sight, as they rounded the top of 
the long hill. Charley knew he could postpone 
no longer, and made one desperate effort. 
"Miss Weston," he began, "your father has 
been > friend of ours for many years. My 
mother and sisters will be glad to see you, if 
you will go to our house to-night, and will go 
home with you to-morrow." 

"You are very kind," she murmured, "but 
perhaps you can understand how anxious I am 
to see papa. It seems to me I could not pass 
his door." 

"But I have another reason," urged Charlie. 
"I had a message at Knight's Ferry, saying 
that your father had been hurt by dirt falling 
on him. Doubtless my mother has been there 
to-day and can tell you about it" 

Poor May turned from one face to the other. 
She could see the pity with which they re- 
garded her. 

"Oh, what is it, what is it!" she cried. 
"Your words are kind and gentle, but your 
faces tell me that this is not the worst. My 
father, oh, my father!" 

"God help you, poor child, for you must in- 
deed bear the worst," said Gardener, pityingly. 

May made no more outcry; the blood seemed 
stilled in her veins. At last Charlie spoke 
again: "So I hope you will come to my mother 
for to-night." 

But she only shook her head and said, pite- 
ously, "Please do not ask me." 

Sjon they stopped abreast a small house, 
little more, indeed, than a cabin; but with 
rosea and sweet jessamine growing over its 
porch in a loving, home-like way. At the 
door a group of men conversed in low, earnest 
tones. 

"I will walk up by-and-by," said Charlie 
to Gardener, as he assisted May to alight. She 
followed him silently, making no moaning. 

The men rose as they approached, and Char- 
lie talked with them for a moment, in an un- 
dertone; then led her through the door. 

In the stillness that followed, those rongh 
miners heard her sobs and moans, and the quick 
tears sprang to many an eye. Not for the man 
who crushed and pale lay dead within. Such 
accidents were not infrequent. Many of them 
were exposed to the same danger-, day by day, 
and they were in a manner hardened. But the 
sight of this young girl brought to mind thoughts 
of mother, wife, sister, sweetheart, and their 
hearts melted in sympathy. 

We pass over the funeral; over the kindness 
and sympathy of strangers. May felt it all, 
and when Mrs. Haywood took her to her own 
home, and said, "Give yourself no thought for 
the future, my child, till you are rested," she 
realized that she had found friends. So a week 
passed; then she oould be content with idleness 
no longer. 

"Can you tell me how my father's business 
was left ? " she asked Mr. Haywood one morn- 
ing. 

"I cannot," replied he, "but if you wish, 
I will ask his old partner, Rocky Canyon, to 
come up this afternoon and explain matters." 

Afternoon found May alone, when her father's 



partner called; and as Mrs. Haywood and the 
girls were engaged, she answered the bell her- 
self. 

"I reckon you're Miss Weston ? " he began, 
awkwardly enough, for Rocky Canyon was ill 
at ease among women. 

"Yes. This is Mr. Canyon, is it not ? " asked 
May simply, as she led the way to the family 
sitting-room. 

"I reckon these yere books o' yer father's 
hain't no mo' need o' lawyerin' then I hev," 
began he, plunging at once into the subject, 
"though I 'low they'll hev ter tek a small dose 
enyhow. Th' ole man kep' 'em like clock work. 
Haywood'U tell yer what yer mns' do. I'll 
leave 'em with yer now. Thia yere las' claim," 
he continued like a boy who had learned his 
lesson, and was hurrying to get through, "we 
paid $1,200 apiece fur; we cleaned up 
$2,000 the fust month; las' June, that 
war. But arter that we los' vein, and it hain't 
no more'n paid expenses sence. But th' pay- 
streak's thar, somewhar, and I'll give yer the 
same fur th' ole man's shear, as he paid fur it, 
'lowin' yer wants ter sell." And having thus 
delivered himself, he rose to leave, evidently 
much relieved. 

"I thank you, Mr. Canyon.for your trouble," 
said May, rising, too; but he was gone before 
she could finish. Mrs. Haywood was still busy, 
and May did not speak of her visitor until they 
all drew around the pleasant tea table. Then 
she said: "Mr. Canyon came this afternoon, 
Mr. Haywood, and left papa's books. He said 
you would advise as to what I am to do." 

"Whom did yon say?" asked Charley, with a 
twinkle in his eye." 

"Mr. Canyon," replied May. 

"Did yon call him Mr. Canyon?" he querried, 
while a smile went round. 

"Why yes; I was alone when he called, and 
that ia what you call him." 

"We call him Kocky Canyon, because he was 
found well nigh dead, from a full into a gulch of 
that name, but I believe his real cognomen is 
Augustus Montgomery." 

When Nathan Weston's books were exam- 
ined, his accounts were, as Rocky Canyon had 
said, like clockwork. But there was one mat- 
ter of which May Weston had not the slightest 
previous knowledge. 

Before he sought California the first time, in 
'53, he had failed in a business venture in New 
Orleans, to the amount of $30,000. Little by 
little, for he had never been a lucky miner, 
during his whole life in the Golden State, he 
had aimed to pay his creditors. No year had 
passed without some reduction of the debt, un- 
til but little more than $G,000 remained unpaid. 
Ah, how this sum confronted May in all her 
plans. She had a small amount of money left, 
and Rocky Canyon had offered her $1,200 for 
the claim. Her purpose had been to earn her 
livelihood by teaching. If she sent the $1,200 
to New Orleans there would still be $5,000 un- 
paid. 

After all her father's years of patient toiling, 
could she leave this debt uncancelled? Surely not. 

"I cannot hope to make more than $600 a 
year," she reasoned to herself, "and it will cost 
me $300 to live. It will take me over sixteen 
years at that rate." Then came a thought of 
the claim. Every one has faith in its worth, I 
will hold to that; she decided, and she did. 
But for herself, she depended on her teaching. 

For some time matters moved slowly at the 
claim. The "pay-streak" kept persistently hid, 
and water being low in the upper reservoir, 
mining ceased. After a time word came that a 
full stream would be turned on, so Mrs. Hay- 
wood and May resolved to pay a long talked-of 
visit to the claim. 

There was a shaft of 30 ft., at the bottom of 
which quite a room bad been drifted out, and 
in this they stood while Rocky Canyon ex- 
plained. 

"When we'd sunk thet thar shaft this fur, we 
reckoned we'd struck it rich agen. And so we 
did till thet thar bowlder stopped us. 'Pears 
like we're ter be shut off by 'em etarnally. We 
drift in away, on'y to be brought up by one o' 
them thar blasted stuns." 

"Lst me try this sport," cried May. She 
picked at the place awkwardly enough, but the 
dirt was gravelly and yielded at once. Rocky 
Canyon watched her at first with an amused 
look, then seriously. 

"I'll be dog-hided ef she haint struck it," 
he shouted excitedly. "Thet thar gravel's got 
the right rattle. " Taking the pick he struck 
vigorously, blow after blow, but no bowlder ap- 
peared. 

"Let us go np again," suggested Mrs. Hay- 
wood, "and try it." One by-one they entered 
the bucket and were drawn up. Then came a 
bucket of the dirt, and Rocky brought his min- 
ing pan. Carefully, and with a dextrous move- 
ment of his hands, he washed a panful. 

As he finished, Mrs. Haywood leaned for- 
ward, interestedly. 

"It's a fact," she said, "she has struck it, 
Rocky." 

May looked eagerly. She had seen some 
wonderful specimens of the shining metal, and 
her hopes were raised. Now Bhe saw a rusty 
pan, some muddy water, a quantity of black 
sand, and a few, yes quite a number of gold 
grains, but tha largest not much more than a 
pin's head in size. May looked at her compan- 
ions in surprise. Evidently, they were excited, 
and she wondered at what . 

"As much as a dollar I " said Mrs. Haywood. 

"I wouldn't teck seven bits for thet thar 
pan," observed Rocky Canyon. 

"A dollar seven bits," repeated May; "that 
does not seem to me a large sum." 



January 7 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RUM AL FBESS. 



17 



"I reckon yer dunno how many of them thar 
bans we ken wash in a day," replied Kocky 
Canyon. "Ef it don't peter out, we're made." 
And it didn't, at least not till Nate Weston's 
name was fully cleared. 

There was but little left for May after that, 
if we can call it little, when a clear conscience, 
and youth and health are left. 

Besides, she had her friendships, particularly 
the friendship of Charlie Haywood. That was 
what she called it. There came a day when Char- 
lie Uught her to call his friendship by a shorter, 
sweeter name, and May proved herself an apt 
scholar. Perhaps because Charlie did not rely 
on some text book. He believed in oral instruc- 
tion. 

So it was settled that there would be a wed- 
ding, and a trip to the Bay. Of the first, Rocky 
Canyon said, "I reckon it'snatur for young uns 
to teck to young uns; but I'll be blowed ef I 
hain't ben dead stuck alter thet thar gal, ever 
•sence she tuck thet thar pick as peart's a pea- 
cock, and struck thet thar gravel streak." 

While of the latter, May said, "Charley, dear, 
let us go in the stage to Stockton. It will be 
delightful to take that trip once more; that is, 
if we may ride on the outside." 

'•There is no trouble about that now, my 

love" replied Charley. ' 'I heard that when & 

■Co. learned that a lady was made to ride inside 
•one of their coaches, with eight of our Celestial 
friends, they removed the obnoxious rule. 
However, that may be, since then ladies of all 
ages and degrees of beauty, have occupied at 
times the seat beside the driver; yet there has 
been no accident, thanks to good iron." 



Mrs. Garfield 011 Women's Duties. 

The late number of the Student, a little pa- 
per published by the students of Hiram College, 
quotes an extract from a letter written by Mrs. 
Garfield to her husband over ten years ago, and 
intended for no eye but his. It fell into the 
hands of President Hinsdale, who made use of 
it in a lecture to the students, and, as it showed 
the qualities of Mrs. Garfield's mind and her opin- 
ions upon the subjectof women'swork, hegave it 
to the students. The extract is as follows : " I 
am glad to tell that out of all the toil aud 
disappointment of the summer just ended, I 
have risen up to a victory: that silence of 
thought since you have been away has won for 
my spirit a triumph. I read something like 
this the other day — 'There is no healthy 
thought without labor, and thought makes the 
labor happy.' Perhaps this is the way I have 
been able to climb up higher. It came to me 
one morning when I was making bread. I 
said to myself, ' Here I am, compelled by an 
inevitable necessity to make our bread this 
summer.' Why not consider it a pleasant oc- 
cupation, and make it so by trying to see what 
perfect bread I can make ? It seemed like an 
inspiration, and the whole of life grew brighter. 
The very sunshine seemed flowing down 
through my spirit into the white loaves, and 
now I believe my table is furnished with bet- 
ter bread than ever before; and this truth, old 
as creation, seems just now to have become 
fully mine — that I need not be the shrinking 
slave of toil, but its regal master, making 
whatever I do yield me its best fruits. You 
have been king of your work so long that 
maybe you will laugh at me for having lived no 
long without my crown, but I am too glad to 
have found it at all to be entirely disconcerted 
even by your merriment. Now, I wonder if 
right here does not lie the 'terrible wrong,' or 
at least some of it, of which the woman suffrag- 
ists complain. The wrongly educated woman 
thinks her duties a disgrace, and frets under 
them or shirks them if she can. She sees man 
triumphantly pursuing his vocations, and thinks 
it is that kind of work he does which makes 
him grand and regnant; whereas it is not the 
kind of work at all, but the way in whic'' and 
the spirit with which he docs it." 



YoJfjQ f@Lks r G@L«JrjM. 
The Animals and the Telegraph. 

A writer in Youth and Pleasure says: If you 
will kick or pound on a telegraph pole, or place 
your ear against one on a windy day, what will 
the noise remind you of? A hive of bees? Pre- 
cisely. So it does the bears in Norway. Bears 
are passionately fond of honey, and when in 
one of the wild districts bruin hears the hum- 
ming of the wires, he follows the sound to the 
posts where it is loudest, and begins to tear 
away the stones heaped round the poles in rocky 
places to steady them, in order to get at the 
hive, which he imagines to be there. In his dis- 
appointment and disgust he usually leaves sav- 
age marks of his claws in the wood. Nor is he 
the only victim of the wires. In the electric ex- 
hibition at Paris they show the top of a thick pine 
telegraph post, through which a woodpecker 
has drilled a hole several inches in diameter. 
The bird had apparently perched on the pole 



The Population of the Globe. — According 
to MM. Behm and Wagner's Bevolkerung der 
Erde, Europe has now a population of 315,929,- 
000 inhabitants, Asia 834,707,000, Africa 205, 
679,000, America 95,405,000, Australia and 
Polynesia 431,000, the Polar regions 82,000, giv 
ing a total of 1,455,923,000 being an increase of 
16,778,000, according to the latest known cen 
suses. At the end of 1877, Germany had a pop- 
ulation of 43,943,000, Austria and Hungary 
(1879) of 38,000.000, France (1876) of 36,900, 
000. Turkey in Europe of 8,860,000, Russia of 
87,900,000. In Asia, China possesses 434,900, 
000 inhabitants, Hong Kong 130,144, Japan 34,- 
300,000, according to the census of 1878. The 
British possessions in India number 240,200,000 
people (an estimate made before census of this 
year), the French possessions 280,000, Cochin 
China 1,600,000, the East Indian Islands 34, 
800,000, the islands of the South Sea 878,000. 
The area of Africa is estimated at 29,383,000 
square kilometers, divided as follows: — Forests 
and cultivated land 6,300,000; savannahs, 6,- 
235,000; steppes, 4,200,000; deserts, 10,600,- 
000. The inhabitants of British North 
America number 3,SOO,000, of the United 
States 50,000,000, of Mexico 9,485,000, 
and of Brazil 11,100,000. The Polar regions 
extend round the Arctic Circle with an area of 
3,859,000 square kilometers, and the Antarctic 
regions about 600,000. The population of the 
former is small, with the exception of Iceland, 
which has 72,000, and Greenland 10,000.— 
Times. 




New Year's Scene on Oakland Wharf. 

and taken the humming of the wires for the 
buzzing of a nest of insects in the wood, and 
set himself manfully — or birdfully — to dig 
them out. Wolves will not stay in Norway 
where a telegraph line has been built. It was 
formerly the custom to protect farms by plant- 
ing poles round them strung with cords, some- 
thing like rabbit snares, and gradually the wolves 
came to respect these precautions, so that a line 
stretched across the neck of a peninsula would 
protect the whole district. The wolves take 
the telegraph for a new and improved snare, 
and promptly leave the country when a line is 
built. On our own treeless plains the buffalo 
hails the telegraph pole as ingenious contrivance 
for his own benefit. Like all cattle, he delights 
in scratching himself, and he goes through the 
performance so energetically that he knocks 
down the post. An early builder of telegraph 
undertook to protect the posts by inserting brad- 
awls into the wood, but the thick-skinned buf- 
falo found the brad-awl an improvement, as 
affording him a new sensation, and scratched 
down more poles than ever. In Sumatra the 
elephants are systematically opposed to tele 
graph lines, and at least 20 times a year 
make raids on them. In May, 1870, the ele 
phants tore down the poles for a distance of 
several furlongs, and hid the wires and insu 
lators in the cane jungle, and for thres nights 
in succession they repeated the performance as 
regularly as the repairers built the line during 
the day. The monkeys and apes are about as 
formidable enemies, as they use the wires for 
swings and trapezes, and carry off the glass in- 
sulators as valuable prizes; then, when the re- 
pairer goes to coirect the mischief, he may be 
pounced upon by a tiger or driven to the post by 
a mad buffalo. In Japan the special enemies of 
the telegraph are the spiders, which grow to an 
immense size, and avail themselves of the wires as 
excellent frameworks for their webs. So thick are 
the cords the Japanese spiders spin that often, es- 
pecially when they are covered with dew, they 
serve to connect the wires with each other or 
the ground, and so to stop them from working. 
In the sea the wires are not any safer, as a 
small worm has developed itself since cables 
came into fashion which bores its way through 
iron wire and gutta-percha, lets in the water, 
and so destroys a line worth millions of dollars. 
When a great storm comes on in the center of 
the ocean, and the cable breaks while it is be- 
ing laid or threatens to break, no one is alarm- 
ed. They fasten the cable to a buoy and come 
back afterwards and pick it up, or if it is at the 
bottom of the sea, they drop a dredge, with a ' the rubber. 



mile or so of rope, and fish out the precious 
thread, as large as one of your fingers, almost 
as easily as you would fish up a penny from the 
bottom of a tub of water with the tongs. But 
the little worm no bigger than a needle is more 
formidable than the elephant on shore or the 
hurricane at sea. 



How Voltaire Cured the Decay of His 
Stomach. — In the "Memoirs of Count Segur" 
there is the following anecdote: "My mother, 
the Countess de Segur, being asked by Voltaire 
respecting her health, told him that the most 
painful feeling she had arose from the decay in 
her stomach, and the difficulty of finding any 
kind of aliment that it could bear. Voltaire, 
by way of consolation, assured her that he was 
once for nearly a year in the same state, and be- 
lieved to be incurable, but that, nevertheless, a 
very simple remedy had restored him. It con- 
sisted in taking no other nourishment than yolks 
of eggs beaten up with the Hour of potatoes and 
water." Though this circumstance concerned 
so extraordinary a person as Voltaire, it is as- 
tonishing how little it is known and how rarely 
the remedy has been practiced. Its efficacy, 
however, in cases of debility, cannot be ques- 
tioned, and the following is the mode of prepar- 
ing this valuable article of food as recommended 
by Sir John Sinclair: Beat up an egg in a bowl 
and then add six tablespoonfuls of cold water, 
mixing the whole well together; then add two 
tablespoonfuls of farina of potatoes; let it be 
mixed thoroughly with the liquid in the bowl; 
then pour in as much boiling water as will con- 
vert the whole into a jelly, and mix it well. It 
may be taken alone or with the addition of a 
little milk in case of stomachic debility or con- 
sumptive disorders. 

People sleep with their mouth open, and 
thus make this organ perform a duty which 
should be performed by the nose. There are 
many objections to this. The air in passing 
through the channels of the nose, for instance, 
is raised to the temperature of the body before 
it reaches the larnyx. Thus breathing, no mat- 
ter how low the temperature may be, the sense 
of cold is never felt below the border of the 
soft palate. But when one breathes through the 
mouth on a cold day the sensation proceeds as 
far as the larnyx, and an irritating cough may 
be caused. Then, again, in nose breathing the 
air is moistened by the natural secretions which 
cover the turbinated bones in a condition of 
health, and the short, bristly hairs at the open- 
ing of the nostrils act as a filter to arrest impur- 
ities and reduce the likelihood of laryngial, 
bronchial or pulmonary disease. Infants, ath- 
letes, savages and animals breathe through the 
nose; the ordinary civilized man employs the 
mouth to an unnecessary, and often to a very 
injurious, extent. — Journal of Health. 

Neak-Sigutedness. — Persons living in cities 
begin to wear glasses earlier than country peo- 
ple, from the want of opportunities of looking 
at things at a distance. Those who wish to 
put far off the evil days of "spectacles" should 
accustom themselves to long views. The eye 
is always relieved and sees better if, after read- 
ing a while, we direct the sight to some far- 
distant object, even for a minute. Great trav- 
elers and hunters are seldom near-sighted. 
Sailors discern objects at a great distance with 
considerable distinctness, when a common eye 
sees nothing at all. One is reported to have 
such an acute sight, that he could tell when he 
waa going to see an object. On one occasion, 
when the ship was in a sinking condition, and 
all were exceedingly anxious for a sight of land, 
he reported from the look-out that he could 
not exactly see the shore, but he could pretty 
near do it. — Journal of Health. 

Vaccination Approved. — It is singular that 
any well-informed person should entertain a 
doubt as to the efficacy of vaccination in the 
prevention of smallpox, yet there is considera- 
ble incredulity on the subject. The St. Louis 
Board of Health reflected for some time on this 
head, but finally decided in favor of vaccina- 
tion. One firm basis for its belief, it is stated, 
was drawn from the fact that "not a death from 
smallpox has occurred in that city for five 
years, during which period vaccination has been 
more generally practiced than, perhaps, in any 
'other large city in the country." Those com- 
munities which neglect vaccination, generally 
have a sad experience to convince them of their 
error. 

Tobacco and Color Blindness. — A Belgian 
physician has ascertained, during a tour of 
observation and inquiry made at the request of 
the government authorities, that the very gen- 
eral use of tobacco is the main cause of color 
blindness; and this affection is now occasioning 
no slight anxiety both in Belgium and Germany 
from its influence on railway accidents, and 
also from the military point of view. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that these facts have led 
to the issuing of orders in certain towns of Ger- 
many, forbidding all lads under 16 years of age 
from smoking in the streets. 



esjic Ecoflopy. 



How to Prepare Sardines. 

Sardines are found in great abundance, at 
certain seasons on this coast, and we believe a 
few have been put up in California oil, and 
have proven very superior. We see no reason 
why the preparation of sardines for the market 
might not be made a large and lucrative bus- 
iness here. At any rate perhaps some of our 
readers along the coast might like to experiment 
with sardines for their own use. 

In view of these facts, it may be 
of interest to some to peruse the following, 
somewhat detailed, but, we believe, accurate 
description of the method of preparing sardines 
in France. The sardine being a very delicate 
fish, the utmost attention is directed towards 
having the fish as fresh as possible, and as near 
as can be to the factory where it is to be canned. 
Factories are, therefore, rarely situated more 
than two or three hours distance from the place 
where the fish are caught. The fish are placed 
on stone tables; women pluck off the heads, 
which operation removes the entrails. The fish 
are then placed on wooden slats and allowed to 
drip; are slightly salted, and remain over night. 
Next day they are again slightly salted, and al- 
lowed todry. Theold.and most approved, method 
of cooking sardines is to place them in vessels 
filled with hot oil, where they are cooked. When 
done, they are put into a wire basket to drip. 
At exactly the right point of cooking, the scales 
remain on the fish, which is desirable. If the 
cooking has been carried too far, or if the fish 
are too fat, the scales drop off, which impairs 
the value of the canned fish. A period of from 
five to six minutes is about the right time for 
the cooking in hot oil. The fish are then al- 
lowed to drip carefully, with the head part 
downward; when they have cooled, they are 
placed on tables and arranged by women in the 
well-known tin boxes in which they come to 
the market, the oil being dipped from barrels 
into the boxes. The oil being more valuable 
than the fish, efforts are made, without too 
much crowding, to put as many sardines in a 
box as possible. The lids of the boxes are then 
soldered, and the boxes are then heated in 
suitable receptacles by means of steam. The 
sooner this heating of the boxes takes place, 
the better. The temperature of the water in 
which the tilled boxes are placed is at first cold, 
and the steam is gradually introduced. This 
second heating is sometimes carried on for an 
hour and a quarter. When the boxes are suf- 
ficiently heated, they are sometimes allowed to 
cool in the water, particular pains being 
taken always not to move the boxes too much. 
Another and cheaper method of preparing sar- 
dines is to cook them without oil in circular 
ovens. The after processes are the same. Sar- 
dines are most highly prized when not too large 
in size. Those of most approved size are worth 
six francs per thousand to the fishermen, while 
the larger ones only command about four francs. 
As sardines are migratory, a shoal of fish re- 
maining at a fishing station for a week and then 
going off, the largest canners of sardines have 
sometimes two factories, situated at different 
localities on the coast. The fishing and canning 
season occupies about three months, from the 
middle of May to the middle of August. Dur- 
ing the other months the sardine factories en- 
gage in the preparation of other food products. 



Paraffin as an Insulator. — It is well 
known that paraffin is a good electrical insula- 
tor, but its being so soft has prevented its ex- 
tensive use. Mr. W. J. Henley has so combined 
it with India rubber that the insulating power 
is increased without impairing the properties of 



Cotton Seed Oil in Cookery. — We have 
tes ,ed the refined cotton seed oil, as a substi- 
tute for hog's lard, and we pronounce it a com- 
plete success. On the morning of the election 
we ate as nice bis -uits, in which the cotton seed 
oil was used, as we ever saw, and we here and 
now declare we take no more lard in ours. The 
oil is cleaner and cheaper than lard and has a 
better flavor. Housewives and cooks will un- 
derstand what we mean by cheaper when we 
tell them that a gallon of oil can be bought for 
$1.00 and that one tablespoonful is enough to 
put in a pint of flour for making biscuit. For 
frying fish or steak the cotton seed oil is superi- 
or to anything we have ever seen used in this 
country. The discovery of the utility of the 
oil is destined to prove a bonanza (o 
the South. The seed will in time become as 
valuable as the lint, and if we can only estab- 
lish manufactories in our own section, which 
will work up the fleecy staple, the seed and 
even the fiber on the stalk, it will not be many 
years before the cotton growing section of this 
Union will become the richest and most pros- 
perous portion of the continent. — Chickasaw 
(Okolona) Messenger. 

Swedish Rye Bread.— Set a sponge at night 
with warm water and rye flour, adding yeast, 
salt and a little sugar. In the morning work 
the risen sponge into a stiff dough, using wheat 
flour or Indian meal, or both, but no m ire rye. 
Mold into smooth loaves and lay them on a clean 
bread-cloth to rise, with a single fold of the cloth 
over them. When ready for the oven, wet each 
loaf with cold water, then take it from the cloth 
and place it in the oveD — not in a pan, but on 
the bottom of the oven. According to Olga's 
theory, that is how rye bread is to be baked. 
Furthermore the baking must be slow and long, 
and when about two-thirds completed the loaves 
are treated to another cold water bath, which 
makes the thick crust just as it ought to be, 
both tough and tender, and results in very good 
and wholesome bread. 



8 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 



[January 7/1882 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWKB. 

Office, 96i Market St., N. E. Cor. Front St., S. F. 
t&Take the Elevator, Xo. 12 Front Ht.Mt 

Annual Subscriptions, 34; six months, £2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No HBW names will be 
t iken without cash In advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advirtisino Ratbs. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mog. 12 mos 

Per line 26 .80 12.20 # 5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. J1.&0 WOO 10.00 24.00 
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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisememts, notices appearing 
on ex:raordinary type or in particular parts of the paper 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month 

Addrkbs editorial and business letters to the firm. In- 
dividuals are liable to be absent. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening: 



Entered at San Francisco P. O. as second-class matter 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. t. Diwur. 



W. B. BWBR. 



9. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 7, 1882 



Double Sheet— 20 Pages. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS - Inventors and Agri- 
culture; Bishop's Head on the Maine Const, 1. The 
Week; Timber Reservations; A Farewell to the Old 
Year, 8. Rainfall for lsso-l; San Luis Obispo Notes; 
Distributing Risks in Fire Insurance; What I Do With 
My "Rural Press;" The Grangers' Bank, Q\. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. View of Bishop's ilead on the 
Coast of Maine. L 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Mildew, Molds, etc., on 
Living Plants; Stockton Notes, 2. 

THE APIARY -Beekeeping. 2-3 

THE FIEL.D.— The Utilization of Small Springs; 
Bluestoning Seed Wheat, 3- 

THE VINEYARD — Varieties of Vines Cultivated 
in Portugal, 3. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Meeting of Na- 
tional Grange— No. 0; Lodi Grange; At Hay wards, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES, from the various 
Counties of California, 4-5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 5 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE. -The American Producer; Nate 
Weston's Debt, 6. Mrs Garfield on Women's Duties; 
The Population of the Globe, 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -The Animals and 
the Telegraph, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH— II ow Voltaire Cured the Decay 
of his Stomach; Ncar-Sightedness; Vaccination Ap- 
proved; Tobacco and Color Blindness, 7- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -How to Prepare Sar 
dines; Cotton Seed OU in Cookery; Swedish live Bread, 7 

ENTOMOLiOGICAL— Wooly Aphis in Tulare and 
Elsewhere, 8- 

QUERIES AND REPLIES — Choice Wheat; Fox 

Hounds Wanted, 8- 
MISCELLANEOUS- —The Convention of Fruit 

Growers, Fruit Dealers and Nurserymen, 81, Si, 8J. 

Business Announcements. 

W. R. Strong &i Co., Seed Merchants. Sacramento, Cal. 

Fruit and Produce. M. T. Brewer & Co., Sacramento. 

Pioneer Box Factory, Cooke & Son, Sacramento. 

Howe & Hall, Commission Merchants, S. F. 

Squirrel Exterminator, A. R. B oth, San Luis Obispo. 

Insurance Agency, Hutchinson ft Mann, S. F. 

Merigot Pump and Spraying Nozzle. 

Wheeler's Carbon Bisulphide, John H. Wheeler, S. F. 

Ocean Steamers, Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

Insect Destroyer, N. Vizelich, Stockton, Cal. 

BmiTJ Fruit Plants. C. M. Silva & Son, Newcastle, Cal. 

Improved Horse Collar, J. T. Stoll, Sacramento, Cal. 

Semi-Annual Statement, Grangers' Bank of California. 

Knabe Pianos, A. L. Bancroft i Co , S F. 

Duroc, or Red Hogs, Hinckley k Getchell, Monterey, Cal. 

Vick's Floral Guide, James Vick, Rochester, N. Y. 

Grape Cuttings For Sale, E. Clarke. Niles, Cal. 

Dividend Notice— German Savings and Loan Society. 

Dividend Notice— San Francisco Savings Union. 

Seeds, Bulbs and Plants, J. Lewis Childs, Queens, N. Y. 

Russian White Oats, D. M. Ferry k Co., Detroit, Mich. 

P. Werner, Instructor and Piano Teacher, S. F. 

Plants, The Storrs & Harrison Co., Painesville. Ohio, 

Mulberry Cuttings, Mrs. S. A. Sellers, Aiiti»ch, Cal. 



The Week. 



The days are an alternate drizzle and drip — a 
wonderful show of disposition, ou the part of 
the elements, but not a very weighty accom- 
plishment. And yet, it is ample for the needs 
of the region now covered by the clouds. 
Warm and wet — not a drop for drainage but 
milions for the young plants, the earth is grad- 
ually soaking full and the heart of the husband- 
man is more rejoiced than by the downpour of 
torrents. The rain is rather peculiar this 
year— and when was it otherwise in California? 
But when Sacramento gets about twice as much 
rain in a day n% the bay region, which is 
usually the wash bowl of the State, there 
is certainly a great deal of eccentricity 
in the cloud*. The south still wants her share, 
for the report up to noon of Wednesday shows 
only a column of cyphers for the stations from 
Yisalia southward. There is anxiety and appre- 
hension in the sunland, but there are consola- 
tions even if the rains should not come, which 
yet they may. There is an abundance of good 
things in the southern counties. There is much 



better use of water and much more area under 
well or ditch than ever before. And if the 
worst should come, Southern California will 
keep her courage without much whistling, and 
will gain strength while she rests for future ad- 
vances. 

There is now a world of work being done in 
tree digging and shipping and planting. Bun- 
dles of cuttings are fat and frequent. The host 
of horticulturists are beginning the New Year 
with heart and haste. 



Timber Reservations. 

Bills have been introduced in Congress set- 
ting aside as reservations for public parks cer- 
tain groves of big trees [Sequoia gigantea) in 
this State, which in the main is a good thing. 
An old subscriber of the Prkss calls our atten- 
tion, however, to the fact that there are two 
sides to the question of this reservation busi- 
ness. He has a somewhat different view from 
the general one, and it is well to consider 
both sides, and be sure of being right before go- 
ing ahead. 

One bill introduced is to create a reservation 
on a very large tract of Sei/uoia, in Tulare, 
where, our informant says, that although the 
trees are large, there are only two noted ones. 
These are the General Grant and Hugh Miller, 
and they stand in the body of a large tract of 
timber, though they are some seven or eight 
miles apart. 

Very few stop to consider that by reserving 
this large tract considerable money is kept out 
of circulation. It contains upwards of 15,000 
acres of timber, with perhaps 300,000,000 ft. of 
timber, of which probably 50,000,000 ft are 
redwood, and a great part of the balance is 
pine. It is hard to tell where one kind of tree 
leaves off and the other begins. 

The tract lies on the south side of King's 
river, and has been so far untouched, because it 
was impossible to haul out or get at in any 
ordinary way. It will require some S'200,000to 
utilize the tract, so that cutting and marketing 
would be of benefit to some persons, of course. 
Some capitalists had just made arrangements to 
utilize this tract, and were prepared to Bpend 
the above amount of money. The land, as it 
stands, is represented to be utterly worthless 
for any small operation, and can never be 
touched unless done cheaply on a large scale. 
Of course, as soon as the bill was introduced, 
the capitalists stopped work. 

The gentleman to whom we refer, told ua, in 
answer to a question, that the damage around 
Lake Tahoe had been exaggerated. Some of 
the logs have been cut off, but a very large pro- 
portion was still left around the shores. This 
was cut for timber, not wood. It is only since 
they have commenced to cut down trees for 
wood. He thinks about one acre out of every 
5.000 has been cut off the shores of Like Tahoe, 
no more. It would be more sensible to create 
a reservation around the lake than in Tulare 
county. 

The Yisalia DeUk of last week has a vigorous 
article claiming that the movement for setting 
aside the reservation in that region is simply a 
movement of the railroad company to shut ell 
the local timber supply and force importation of 
lumber from the north, for the carriage of 
which the company derivesjlarge revenue, and 
the consumers pay proportionately high rates. 
This is a point worthy of careful consideration, 
for it is beyond dispute that any movement 
which tends to lock up adjacent timber will 
have a direct and retarding effect upon the de- 
velopment of a country. The Delta shows that 
the big trees do not grow alone, but that they 
grow where sugar pine and yellow pine abound. 
Of the probable destruction of the few big trees 
it says : 

There is absolutely no remuneration in working the b'g 
trees into lumber, qyen at the prevailing enormous prices of 
lumber shipped from Oregon. They are too large to lie cut 
by the largest suw-mill in existence. They could not be trans- 
jsirted to the mill. H«wev,-r, there is one reason why they 
might lie protected; they might, though it is highly iuiprob- 
able, be cut down and taken away as curiosities. In vitw of 
the signal financial failure that attended such an enU-rprisc 
some years ago, no person can be found with sufficient hardi- 
hood to undertake such a fool's errand again. Admitting, 
however, that they might be cut for lumber or for curiosi- 
ties, there remains the simple u-medy of U-gislatlnu looking 
to the protection of the big trees themselves, without involv- 
ing with sweeping stupidity some 4.010,000,000 ft. of the finest 
pine and redwood lunilier in the Stat.-. 

It seems that aside from perpetuating the 
present high rates f<>f lumber, the setting aside 
a reservation as proposed would make waste and 
idle, says the Delta, much of the finest grazing 
in the country. The bill would shut out some 
22,500 head of sheep that annually are driven 
across this belt and that find sustenance in the 
timber, to say nothing of vast herds of hogs and 
cattle. How could this stock sustain life in the 
summer ? By traveling some 30, 40 or 50 miles 
around one end or other of the reservation '! 
And even then a strip of 30 miles wide would 
doubtless carry the western limit to the barren 
summit of the Sierra, where no stock could 
live. The injury that the material interests of 
the section would sutler from that source alone 
is incalculable. 

It is to the timber, which it is now proposed 
to reserve, that Tulare county looked as its 
future lumber region, and so soon as facilities 
for transportation could be arranged, it hoped 
to enjoy cheap building material, such as many 
parts of the State now have. It is evident that 
those living near the proposed reservation, and 
who understand best the needs of the region, 
propose to be heard in their own interests be- 
fore the matter can progress far in Congress. 



QJef\ies \uq Relies. 



Choice Wheat. 

Ehiroits Prkss:— I send you a sample of white Aus 
tralian wheat grown out on the Linden road about 8 miles, 
on the Ortman estate, on land that has been sown to 
wheat or barley annually for the iiast AO years. There 
never has been any manure applied, and the stubble haB 
been burnt off always before plowing. It is very seldom 
you will see as fine a sample as this. What effect do you 
suppose a shipload of such grain would have on the Liv- 
erpool market if it was possible to get it over there with- 
out being mixed with all the trash in the country? I 
think the California Wheat Growers' Association, while 
doing other things, should take steps towards stopping 
this mixing our wheat before shipping, and by so doing 
lowering the standard of California wheat abroad. As 
the market no* is, there is only about 5 cents between 
this sample and the nasty trashy stuff that is thrown on 
the market by some of our caroless farmers. The way 
the wheat market is managed here now there is not much 
encouragement for the farmer to raise choice wheat, in 
fact, there is a premium on careless farming.— B., Stock- 
ton. 

The sample sent by our correspondent is 
most beautiful, large, plump, uniform, and in 
every way handsome. It was cleaned in one of 
J. C. Bowden's for seed, and is a very credita- 
ble work for the cleaner as well as the grower. 

Our correspondent is probably aware that the 
W heat Growers' Association has already ex- 
pressed itself strongly opposed to the grading 
and mixing of wheat, but it is hard to see 
what the giowers' association can do unless they 
themselves become shippers, because the buy 
ers find there is money in mixing, and after they 
have purchased grain, it is theirs to handle as 
they choose. 

It is, however, a great wrong to the wheat 
grower, and to the general fame of the State as 
a wheat-growing country, that the best[aamples 
should be valued at a proportionate advance 
ovei the poor stuff, and that the best product 
of the State should not be known abroad. 

We are assured by some of those manufactur 
ing cleaning machinery that the disposition to 
clean wheat for the market, which was quite 
strong a year or two ago, is giving way, and 
many growers are declaring that they will not 
longer assume the trouble and cost of cleaning. 
Une cleaner tells us of a lot of 900 sacks of 
wheat which he proposed to clean for the firm 
which had purchased it. It was very foul with 
seed of tar weed and other small seeds and sand. 
He offered to clean a few sacks first on trial, 
and got so much foul seed and dirt from the 
grain that there was a loss of 4.3 pounds on 
three Backs. The owners of the wheat told the 
cleaner to stop; they could sell it as it was for 
within 5 cents per cental of.the price which the 
clean wheat would bring, and the extra weight 
of the trash would make it much more profitable 
to sell it foul than to have it cleaned. 

This experience of a wheat buyer is just like 
that of many wheat growers. They find that 
the wheat buyer will offer them only a triHe 
more per cental for clean than for foul wheat, 
an 1 they lose money by cleaning. Therefore, 
many of them declare they will clean no more 
hereafter. So long as they can get about as 
much per Hi. for weed seed and ranch soil, they 
will not spend money and time raising a fine 
crop of wheat to tone up the bad stuff of other 
growers. 

This is certainly a most important matter. 
It seems that it is useless to expect many re- 
forms on the part of growers as long as buyers 
are in the habit of paying nearly the same rate 
for good and poor wheat. If there is a dis- 
criminating market and proper advance for 
a choice product, there will be strife to produce 
the best; but as it is, the grower meets not 
only discouragement, but in cleaning wheat for 
the market he actually loses money. The sub- 
ject should be agitated, for the present condi- 
tion of affairs is wrong. 

Fox Hounds Wanted. 

Editors Press: — Where can I obtain a pair 
of genuine fox hound pups, and at what price ! 
M. Kirry, Darrah, Mariposa Co., 1 U. 



EfiJOJVIOLOqiC^L. 



Wooly Aphis in Tulare and Elsewhere. 

Kiutors Press: — In your issue of Hec, 3d, 
under the head of "Apple Growing in California," 
it is stated that many infested nursery trees had 
been burned in Visalia. The objection I have 
to the article is, that the way it reads, it does a 
great injustice to the few nurseries in Tulare 
and Fresno counties; as the inference from 
the way the article reads would be, that our 
nurseries are a living mass of aphis. To the 
contrary, we are cleaner in our nurseries of 
aphis than any place I have seen in the State. 
In my own nursery there is but one row that 
has aphis, and the scions I used in grafting that 
row came from Los Angeles. This burning 
story must come from what happened here 
some years ago, when a nurseryman sent in sev- 
eral car loads of apple trees here to be put on 
the market. A large proportion of these trees 
were badly affected with aphis, and the party they 
were consigned to employed me to assist in un- 
loading aud hauling the trees in, preparatory to 
being sold. I saw the condition of them, and re- 
ported to the party employing me. He wrote 
below about them, and got instructions to over- 
haul them snd burn those that were too bad. 
Part of them were destroyed and the remainder 
sold, and were distributed throughout the coun- 



ty, and from that lot we can trace the first 
aphis here. I have been over a greater portion 
of the State this fall, and here assert, without 
fear of contradiction, that our nurseries and 
orchards in Tulare and Fresno counties are 
freer of the insect pests than any other portion 
of the State, and we would stand some show to 
keep our orchards clean if the nurserymeu 
throughout the State would burn their diseased 
stock, and not send it out to the interior of the 
State, directly or indirectly. What I mean by 
indirectly is this ; Every season we have one 
or more Eastern tree peddlers through onr 
country taking orders for some Eastern nursery, 
displaying nice lithographic plates of fruits to 
humbug the people, and taking orders at 50 
higher rates than the same trees could be pur- 
chased from the home nurseries. When the 
time of delivery comes, you w'll see a few East- 
ern trees (specialties) and the remainder a lot 
of stunted, 2-year-old stock, lousy with aphis, 
scale bug, and no telling what else, raised in 
our own State (and, if necessary, I could tell 
where), and bought at a very low figure, as the 
nurseries that raised them would not dare put 
them on an order directly. These vampires 
never come around twice. Next season a new 
agent takes the route (headquarters, Oakland. ) 

Now, I will here give some advice to nursery- 
men, whether they take it or not : If you have 
diseased stock, do as we arc accused of doing — 
burn it np— and don't send it ont to spread dis- 
ease through the entire orchards of the State, 
either directly or indirectly. More anon. 

Isaac H. Thomas, 

Of Thomas & Bros." Nursery, Visalia, Cal. 



A Farewell to the Old Year. 

(Written for the Ri ral Priss by B.J 

Good-bye, old year ! Gently thou art breath- 
ing thy last sigh ! The mnrmnring winds, the 
rustle of leaves, the balmy whispers of flowers, 
the dewy teardrops from Nature's eyes, all 
lovingly, sadly bid thee farewell. In ' thy deep 
sepulchre we bury the sorrows, the fears, the 
bitter memories, heart-burning resentments and 
cruel pride which rendered life a cankering care 
in the past year. Forgiving and forgetting, 
firmly we press the cover of oblivion on all that 
darkened the light of our souls in the past, look- 
ing hopefully to the new year just dawning, 
with new resolutions to press onward and up- 
ward in the path of duty. Again we say, 
good-bye, old year, and to all a happy, happy 
new year ! 

A Suggestion for New Year. 

Editors Press: — There can be no more ap- 
propriate season for inaugurating reforms for 
the benefit of man than the beginning of a New 
Year. While there is almost a universal oom 
plaint from ranch owners, of the unfaithfulness 
and general inefficiency of help, recent ob- 
servations have convinced me that there exists 
ample cause for general dissatisfaction among 
the hired men on most ranches. A more kindly 
feeling may be developed between the repre- 
sentatives of capital and labor, if the capitalist 
will only show a practical interest in the moral 
and intellectual welfare of the people employed 
on his place. In addition to neat, comfortable 
sleeping rooms for the men, every ranch should 
be provided with a reading-room for the exclu- 
sive benefit of the men, who could spend their 
Sabbath afternoons and leisure hours in reading 
and writing, instead of playing cards, etc, A 
little ingenuity on the part of the housekeeper, 
assisted by a carpenter, would soon convert 
some empty room about the place, and with but 
little expense, into an attractive, comfortable 
room. A few seats, tables covered with som» 
bright gocds, with a generous supply of books, 
papers, a few periodicals, a Bible or two, and 
some facilities for writing. Then the walls 
hnng with a half dozen good chromos, a map of 
the United States and of the world. The dis- 
carded carpeting and matting stored away in 
old closets could be placed about the floor. 

"One touch of nature makes the whole world 
kin." Interest the men on the ranch in the 
project for their own benefit, and how eagerly 
they will respond by fashioning book shelves, 
etc. Require all who avail themselves of the 
privileges of the reading-room, to make them- 
selves tidy when entering there, refraining from 
the use of tobacco, profane language and card 
playing. Surrounded by such influences, the 
most ignorsvnt and vicious will become better, 
both as citizens and laborers. The latter feeling 
that the wealthy owner of the ranch takes some 
interest in their welfare, will become more ef- 
ficient and faithful. A better, more permanent 
class of labor will be induced to go on ranches 
as laborers, where there are pleasant arrange- 
ments for comfort and happiness. Thus, the 
respective relations of capital *nd labor would 
become more harmonious every way, while the 
man of wealth would have the satisfaction of feel- 
ing that he has engaged in the noble work of 
elevating his fellow men by contributing to their 
happiness, thus promoting their moral welfare, 
and preparing them for a life of usefulness here 
and hereafter. 

Gabilan, CaL 

Double Orange.— Tbe most perfect speci- 
men of an orange within an orange we have 
ever seen was brought from the ranch of A. B. 
Chapman, San Gabriel The skin had parted 
evenly at the blossom end of the frnit and dis- 
closed the inclosed orange, about the size of a 
walnut, the akin being perfectly formed and 
colored. The specimen was given us by A. T, 
Hatch of Cordelia. 



January 7, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



8* 



The Convention of Fruit Growers, Fruit 
Dealers and Nurserymen. 

Official Report of Proceedings and Trans- 
actions. 

(Continued from Page 430— Rural Prbjs, Dec 24, 1881.) 

By unanimous consent Dr. Chapin's address 
was added to the record of the convention, with 
the request that the same he disposed of in a 
manner similar to other reports already pro- 
dnced. 

Discussion. 
A discussion on subjects reported on, now 
took place, taking up in regular order the 
borers, codlia moth, scale, etc. 

Borers, 

Mr. Wilson, from Newcastle, was called upon 
to introduce the subject of borers. Mr. Wilson 
stated that he had found potash to be a good 
remedy for borers, and said that trees kept in a 
healthy condition were not likely to be attacked 
by borers. 

Farther, he bad effected a good purpose by 
driving nails into the trees; from this he was 
led to a trial of the following: Put scrap iron 
into a barrel, add vinegar or potash solution and 
spray it on the tree; the presence of iron salt 
seems objectionable or destructive of the borer. 
Beyond tbis the trees should be kept healthy and 
well cultivated, then like a well-cared for person 
they will better resist disease. 

Dr. Chapin said that the healthy condition of 
the tree made no difference as to the attack of 
the black scale. 

W. H. Jessup, of Alameda, confirmed Mr. 
Wilson's position, that healthy trees are not at- 
tacked bv borers, and recommended "shaving 
off" with a draw-knife the wood infested, and 
the binding up of the wonnded spot with sacks; 
wrapping the trunk without cutting away in- 
fested wood, had also proved successful. 

Prof. Dwinelle said that he had not found the 
Eastern apple borers in this State; that the in- 
sect here was a smaller insect, but still very 
destructive. That the trees in a nursery were 
shaded, and when set separate were exposed to 
the heat of the sun, and the sap scalded, con- 
sequently exposed to the attack of insects. 
Trees can easily be sufficiently shaded the first 
year after setting, by a few cornstalks on the 
sunny side, tied at the fork ; or a leafy piece of 
brush may be used. 

Mr. Jessup said that wrapping with sacks 
protected the trees from being injured by culti- 
vation — hitting by whifrle-trees. He also thinks 
the shading of the trees prevents the hatching 
of borers eggs. 

Rev. Mr. Peck said he had used paper with 
the same results. 

Mr. A. J. Wood, of San Joaquin, has been 
successful by washing trees with coal-oil and 
whale oil soap (or even common soap). 

G. W. Frazer, of Elmira, said he had discov- 
ered two kinds of borers, one a small one at- 
tacking only the pear and apple by encircling 
the tree beneath the bark, the other, a large 
yellowish worm with flat head, attacks plums 
and cherry. Mr. Frazer believes an unhealthy 
condition of the tree fosters the insect. Good 
cnltivation, shade and water make the best 
wash. 

Mr. Jessup thought the small borer the sec- 
ond year went for the heart of the tree. 

W. C. Wilson, of Newcastle, said he had a 
good deal of trouble with borers, and concluded 
he had not used water enough. He had found 
cow manure and slickens wrapped around the 
tree to be a perfect remedy — and use more 
water. 

G. W. Frazer has examined trees without any 
sign of borer externally, and found them 
abundant in the center of the tree. 

Mr. Cooke said he thought the borers had 
been pretty well hunted down, and would sug- 
gest that those who had experience with the cod- 
Fin moth should be heard. 

Hon. Wm. Johnston said the object of this 
convention was to make the knowledge of the 
few the property of the convention, and urged 
those who had experience to relate it. 

Codlin Moth. 

Rev. Mr. Peck, of Newcastle, said he had 
been a Methodist preacher, but had some ex- 
perience in horticulture; had endeavored to 
help make a living in this manner; had used 
different kinds of washes for borers; the com- 
mon sheep wash was as good as any. The codlin 
moth had most ruined the orchards of Placer 
county; had used carbolic soap wash, made 
from soap bought of the Standard soap com- 
pany, applying as a spray. 

A. Vizelich, of ^Stockton, said he had a large 
number of kinds of trees. Had noticed lots 
of insects crawling up his trees. Saved all his 
ashes and made lye, and put some sulphur in 
it, and washed his trees with the mixture. The 
same thing will kill insects on cabbages, rose 
bushes, etc. 

Mr. Jessup said there were some of the codlin 
moth in Hay wards, Alameda county. A neigh- 
bor of his said there were none in his orchard, 
bnt he had found 17 nnder one loose piece of 
bark on one tree. 

Felix Gillet, of Nevada, finds three forms of 
insect in the codlin moth to fight, moth, 
larva and grab- — of these, the perfect insect is 
the one against which to levy our warfare. 
Premiums should be offered for the discovery 
•f its parasites. A plan which I have found 
successful has been the setting of a pan of sour 
milk ia the branches of the tree, into which the 
moth will fly at night and be destroyed. Con- 



cerning the driving of nails into the tree to keep 
off borers, my experience is that this remedy suc- 
ceeds in just so far as you succeed in driving the 
tack into the head of the borer. Prof. Dwi 
nelle said that, acting on Mr. Gillet's sugges- 
tions, he had opened correspondence with a 
gentleman in France, in hope of securing some 
insect enemy of the codlin moth which does 
not yet exist in California. 

Mr. Jessup said he had accidentally found a 
good trap for the larvae of the codlin moth — cnt 
straw thrown around tne roots of the tree. The 
moth go into the little tubes of the straw; then 
gather up the straw and burn it and the worms. 

John McMullen, of Suisun, had had an 
orchard from the early days of the State, and 
had no trouble till the codlin moth came in his 
orchard. He knew of no better way than to 
wrap the trees and examine them every day. 
He wanted some one to tell where the moth 
lies in the winter, and where it came from in 
spring. As far as the use of ashes was concerned , 
he had even found the larva of the codlin moth 
taking up its winter quarters in an ash heap, 
and had known the same to come forth in 
spring unharmed. 

Mr. Haley, of Placer, said he had been fight - 
ing the moth several years, and had the same 
trouble. Where did they go in winter ? Had 
finally commenced digging up apple trees, and 
found the larva? around the roots. Thought 
the idea of Mr. Jessup, to throw cut straw 
around the trees, a good one. If they found a 
warm place in the straw, they would not go 
into the ground for the roots. As an experi- 
ence, he had further flooded the roots occupied 
by the worms in winter for eight days at a time. 
This had no effect whatever. We must catch 
the inseet before winter, or else destroy them 
under ground. 

Mr. Hatch suggested the use of bisulphide of 
carbon to destroy the hybernating insect. 

J. H. Wheeler explained that the sulphide of 
carbon proved successful against the eggs of the 
phylloxerahybernating on the roots of the grape- 
vine, and prepared for the inclemency of the 
winter; and it seemed, reasoning from analogy, 
that it might be used with equal effect against 
the codlin moth. 

Dr. Chapin said care should be had not to 
make a nest for field mice with straw. 

Mr. Jessup replied that not enough straw 
should be used to make mice nests, and that the 
straw could be removed and burned before the 
winter was far enough advanced to drive the 
mice to it. 

Robert Williamson suggested the keeping of 
hogs for destroying fallen fruit, and along with 
it the codlin moth. 

Mr. Williamson wanted to say a word about 
the borer. Had tried cow manure, etc., but 
the best remedy he had found was to thor- 
oughly shade the body of the tree by its own 
top, if possible. The great necessity is to shade 
and keep in a good growing condition. Tne hot 
sun contracts the bark and makes the tree un- 
healthy and invites the borers. Trees must be 
grown low; this resists the borer, facilitates the 
picking, they will not blow over, etc. During 
the winter, solutions must be applied to destroy 
the moth. 

Mr. Hatch stated that hogs could not be de- 
pended upon, as the larva leaves the fruit before 
it falls from the tree. 

Prof. Dwinelle remarked that the codlin 
moth should be fought at all seasons, and by all 
means found efficient. Bands should be placed 
about the trunks of the trees, and bunches of 
rags or sacking in the forks, to entrap the 
larva in summer. Straw may be useful at the 
foot of the tree. Clods should be pulverized. 
The bark should be scraped and washed in win- 
ter. Perhaps the insect could be prevented 
from hiding in the soil about the crown by a 
layer of clay or cement, such as is used against 
the peach borer in the Eastern States. Experi 
ments should be made to destroy the pest in 
such places with carbon bisulphide, and cheap 
solutions, as well as niter, gas lime, etc., spread 
on the soil. Above all things, use clean boxes 
for fruit, either free packages or disinfected 
ones, so that the supply of insects may not be 
renewed from the outside. 

Committees Appointed. 
The appointment of committees by the President was 
as follows: 

Fruit Growers — A. S. White, E. R. Thurber, John 
McMullen. R. B. Blowers, W. Robinson, G. M. Gray, 
Mr. Barker, P. D. Brown,- H. Wilson. 

Eastern Shippers— J. F. Famsworth, E. T. Earle, P 
H. Piatt. 

Shippers to Points West of Omaha— W. R. Strong, 
Samuel Guerson, Eugene Gregory, E. T. Adams, D. Ber 
nardi, W. J. Wilson. 

Commission Merchants— J. M. H'xson, S. F. ; Robert 
Hall, S. F ; Mr. l.itl lefleld. S. F. 

Nurserymen— Robert Williamson, Sacramento; S. Mc- 
Kin'ay, Los Angeles; Felix Gillet, Nevada; Mr. Silva. 
Placer. 

Ways and Means— M. T. Brewer, A. T. Hatch, Rev. W. 
R. Peck, George McMullen, W. H. Jessun. 

All committees were instructed to submit reports 
Wednesday forenoon. 

The Convention here adjourned to re assemble 
at 10 A. m. on the following day. 

Evening: Meeting 

The members of the Convention, by invita- 
tion, met at the business house of M. T. Brew- 
er & Co., to witness an exhibition of insects in 
jurious to fruit and fruit trees. Many citizens 
were also present. The exhibition was gotten 
up by Mr. Cooke, and consisted of specimens 
of all the most destructive insects to the horti 
cultural interests that have made their appear 
ance in the State. The specimens were shown 
under magnifying glasses and in different stages 
of existence and positions, so as to exemplify in 
a good degree their habits and natural history. 
On the whole the exhibition was a very inter- 



esting and useful one, and seemed to be highly 
appreciated by all present. The occasion was 
also made one of social intercourse among the 
fruit growers and their friends, the conversa- 
tion generally turning upon the fruit industries 
of the State. 

Second Day— Dee 7, 
The Horticultural Convention met at 10 a. 
m. Minutes of the preceding session were read 
and approved. A. S. White, Chairman of the 
Fruit Growers' Committee, submitted the fol- 
lowing 

Report of the Fruit Growers' Committee. 
The committee appointed by the Fruit Growers' Con- 
vention would rec mmend the fo. lowing report: 

Whskeih, The fruit growing interests of this State 
whic'o are of so vast importance, are threatened with de- 
struction by insect pests, of various kinds, and 

Whereas, Any individual action is totally inadequate 
to mtet the enemy successfu ly. 

l»t —Resolved, That the fruit growers and farmers of 
the State be requested to give their earnest snp| ort to 
the horticultural laws, and give their united efforts to 
sustain the Chief Health Officer in the execution of the 
same. 

2 1 — Resolved, That the fruit growers in every county 
where commissioners have not already been ap- 
pointed shall demand of the Supervisors that they ap- 
point commissioners according to the requirements of the 
law. 

3d. — Resolved, That we recommend that the orchard- 
ists of i he State shall purchase only 6uch trees, plants or 
cuuings as are kn-»wn to be free from infectious diseases, 
and are accompanied by a clean b II of health from the 
commissioner or inspectors. 

4th. — Resolved, That all nurserymen shall be required 
to disinfect all trees and j lints to the satisfaction of the 
commissioners or inspectors before delivering them to 
their customers. 

5th — Resolved, That we recommend to each and ev- 
ery farmer and f> uit grower, as good citizens of the State, 
to use all practical means to keep his trees free from all 
insect rests, that his orchards may not become breeding 
grounds to the damage of his neighbors. 

6th.— Resolved, That we request the transportation 
companies not to return fruit boxes or baskets between 
the 25th of June and the 31st of December. 

7th.— Resolved, That we recommend that the study of 
entomology be introduced into otir public schools, so 
that the rising generation may be wiser than their fathers. 
Discuesioo. 
Mr. Cooke would alter the section on return 
ckages. It is too broad. If the producers 
would give up the return box for one year, he 
felt sure the benefit of such a course would be 
evident to all. Disinfection was suggested. 
Mr. Wilson, of Placer, said that disinfection 
would be too expensive if done by the commis- 
sion merchants. 

A. T. Hatch agreed to disinfection, but at the 
producer's station. 

Senator Wm. Johnston left the chair to 
move that the section concerning return pack- 
ages be stricken out, as it would work a hard- 
ship on producers. Let a man be employed in 
San Francisco by producers, to whom boxes 
shall be sent to be disinfected, and a small fee 
paid. Dr. Chapin believed that free packages 
should be used, to be sold with the fruit. Re- 
turn packages are certain to become infested 
with germs of disease, and decay, mold, etc., as 
well as insects, so that fruit will not keep as 
long as in new boxes. Fruit in new boxes is so 
much more salable, that the commission mer- 
chants would | robably share the cost of a free 
package with the producer. 

Mr. Halen, of Folsom, thonght Dr. Chapin 
right in the main, but his proposition cannot 
be carried out. Canners make so small a profit 
and handle so much fruit that new boxes can- 
not ba afforded each year. J. H. Elliott, of 
Newcastle, said commission merchants Bay they 
sell our fruit at 8% commission, but they give 
us what they can buy it for in the market, less 
the 8%. 

P. H. Murphy favored return boxes. 
Prof. D*inelle believed the return packages 
as at present used, to be a curse upon the hor- 
ticultural interests of the State. Not at present 
being a producer, he could not advocate any 
special measure, but earnestly urged careful 
search for some better system. He believed 
that cheaper and better free packages could be 
made than were yet generally known. Some 
months ago he suggested in the Kural Press 
that the waste steam of San Francisco might 
be utilized for disinfecting packages. Possibly, 
carbon bisulphide might be used. 

Report of San Francisco Commission Mer- 
chants. 

The committee of San Francisco commission 
merchants reported as follows: 

Mr, President and Member*: — The undersigned 
commission merchants of the city of San Fran- 
cUco, appointed by this convention to report 
such advice as we deem proper for the improve- 
ment in quality of orchard produce, respectfully 
submit the following: In order to meet the re- 
quirements of the trade, a choice fruit is an im- 
perative requirement, add we are perfectly Bat- 
tened that any work done in an intelligent man- 
ner will well repay the producer and have a 
marked effect on the advance of sales and net 
pr« ceeds, as it coats the same freight and dray- 
age on inferior fruit shipped that it does on first 
quality. We earnestly recommend to the fruit 
growers to use every effort to improve the pro- 
duce of the orchard; and in every respect we 
will use our endeavors to assist in your work. 
We wish it to be understood tbat we cannot in 
any way be held responsible for any cost that 
may be attached to the shipment of fruit to us 
in violation of the quarantine rules and regula- 
tions and other laws for the protection of horti- 
culture. — J. M. Hixson, S. Littletield, Robt. 
Hall. 

The report was adopted. 

Report of Committees on Nurseries. 
The following was submitted and adopted: 
Your Committee on Nurseries begs leave to 
report that, whereas sundry kinds of insects in- 
jurious tj fruits and frnit trees, vines, plant?, 



etc., are infesting the orchards and gardens of 
this State, and whereas, these insects are spread- 
ing very rapidly, and if not checked, bid fair 
to ruin the great horticultural interests of our 
country; and whereas, the nurserymen and tree 
dealers who disseminate trees and plants all 
over the country, are necessarily in position to 
scatter these pests far and wide; or, on the other 
hand, to aid materially in checking the spread- 
ing of them; therefore, we, your committee, 
recommend and urge all nurserymen and others 
disseminating trees and plants, to thoroughly 
disinfect all trees and plants of every descrip- 
tion before sending them out or offering them 
for sale.— Robt. Williamson, Felix Gillett, S. 
McKinlay, C. M. Silva. 
The report was adopted. 

Report on Fruit Packages. 
To the Board of Stale Horticultural Com- 
miisioners : — Your committee appointed at a 
convention of fruit growers, held at Sacramento, 
Dec. 5th-8th, on the subject of "disinfecting of 
fruit packages" and "a cheap free package" re- 
port jointly as follows: 

To make a perfect system one of two plans 
must be adopted. Either that of providing at each 
station or landing whence fruit is shipped, an 
apparatus for the purpose of fumigating or 
disinfecting, or a general location in the princi- 
pal cities where the packages can be treated 
in large quantities before reshipping to the 
grower. 

Under the first pUn the cost of apparatus in 
so many places would result in such a tax on 
the shipper as to be altogether too expensive to 
be generally adopted, except under compulsion, 
while at the same time it does not prevent the 
spreading of the pest during the journey to the 
proposed point of treatment. Dnder the second 
plan the obtaining of sufficient room in cities to 
handle the immense number of packages accumu- 
lating daily, together with the extra cartage and 
the elaborate system of accounts necessary to be 
kept between the commission merchant and the 
manager of the disinfecting establishment 
would make it, while perhaps more efficient, 
quite as expensive. It is estimated that under 
either plan an average charge of 1£ cents per 
package will be necessary to cover the cost, 
every time it is disinfected. 

So far as the process of disinfection to be ob- 
served your committee after investigating the 
various plans proposed and submitted, submit the 
following as the most economical while equally 
sure, that each package be placed in a close 
tank and exposed to the action of live steam at 
a minimum temperature of 200° F. for a mini- 
mum period of 5 minutes. 

Your committee is clearly and unanimously 
of opinion that a free package system is prefer- 
able to any system of disinfecting that can be 
adopted — numbering among its advantages: 

First — The saving on freight to market on ao- 
count of the lefser weight of the free package of 
^ cent each, on an average. 

Second — The saving of cartage on return 
package for which the commission merchant is 
willing to make an allowance of 1 cent each. 

Third — The greater price that can be realized 
for fruit by the commission merchant from the 
actual consumer on account of its being in c'eio, 
new packages, and the fact that Tanneries are 
willing to pay an additional price if they do not 
have to nail up and reship empties, both of 
whom have agreed that an increased price can 
be realized of 2J cents on a 25 lb., and 5 cents 
on a 50 lb. package. 

Fourth — The saving of the cost of free disin- 
fecting, which we before stated to be 1A cents 
each. 

Fifth — We have figured closely that with the 
advantages already claimed, and the low prices 
at which free packages can be procured, say, on 
the standard fruits that are marketed in boxes, 
about 50% of the cost of the present return 
package, and for chests about 25%, the fruit 
grower will find, after a full trial of the free 
package system for a term of years", that he has 
been at no actual additional expense, and tbat 
he has by its adoption reached the only success- 
ful method, outside of the orchard, of ridding 
it of pests. 

We find an ordinary free package of 25 to 30 
lbs. weight of peaches, plums or apricots can be 
furnished for about 6c; one holding 40 Ibj., for 
Eastern shipping, 9. ; one holding GO tt>j., reg- 
ular apple size, 11c; berry crates, with trays or 
baskets, holding 40 lb', strawberries, or 40 lbs. 
raspberries, or 50 lb-«. blackberries, or 60 lbs. 
currants, or 60 lbs. cherries, for 25c. 

As an illustration of the actual saving, by 
using the free package in place of a return pack- 
age, we submit the following estimate of saving 
on a 25 lb. box: 

Allowance by commission merchant for drayage 1 e 

Cost of disinfecting lie 

Freigl't to o.arket Jc 

Incr» ased value from i onsumer or canner 2jc 

Loss in transit and wear and tear 3f0 

TotaL 8 e 

R B. Blowers, 
Wm H. Jessdp, 
A. T. Hatch, 
A. D. Cutler. 
M. Cooke said he was placed in a delicate po- 
sition in relation to return boxes, being a box- 
maker. He referred to the rules of quarantine, 
in which the boxes are required to be disin- 
fected in San Francisco at the expense of the 
grower. He instanced the practice of the late 
Mr. Saul, of the Oak Shade orchards. He 
would not allow a box to be returned to his or- 
chard. The result was that he kept his orchard 
clean, and sold last year 9 500 boxes of pears. 
Others who allow return boxes have their or- 
chards infested and their crops destroyed. He 



8* 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 7, 1882 



instanced the Grand Island orchards, from 
which a few years ago were shipped 4,000 
boxes. List year the truit on the whole island 
sold for $500, and this year they couldn't get 
anything for it, in consequence of the introduc- 
tion of worms. 

Mr. Wilson, of Newcastle, said if the boxes 
are not returned the commission merchants 
make the price of the boxes, and they should 
pay the producer for them. 

Mr. Hixon, a commission merchant, said that 
the boxeB from Oregon are all free or not re- 
turned. If the n atter was understood that all 
boxes were to be free, then the commission mer- 
chant would make nothing on the boxes, and 
would charge nothing for them. P'ruit in free 
boxes was pieferred by retailers and consumers, 
because the boxes were not required to be re- 
turned or paid for. 

Mr. Frazar.of Elmira, said we are all herewith 
one object — to get rid of the insect pest, and we 
must stick to this subject. The worms lay their 
eggs in all boxes, free as well as return, and 
they, too, go to all parts of the State and spread 
the worm as well as the return boxes. It would 
be a hardship on those who raise fruit not in- 
fested by worms. 

A. T. Hatch moved to amend by the adoption 
of a thorough system of disinfection. Second- 
ed. 

R. Williamson was in favor of the amend- 
ment It would work a great hardship on that 
class of fruit growers who produced fruit, as 
peaches, cherries, plums, etc., to require them 
to send free boxes. The point he wished to get 
at ip, to have the convention recommend a thor- 
ough system of disinfection. 

Prof. Dwinelle (aid that any radical change 
in doing business appeared difficult to make at 
first sight, but with careful investigation, many 
obstacles would be cleared away. Statementa 
in regard to cost of boxes had been made, which 
were altogether too high as regards free boxes, 
which need not be nearly so strong and heavy 
as return packages. Most purchasers would al- 
low a part, if not all, of the cost of the package 
to be added to the price of the fruit rather than 
to be troubled with returning it when empty. 
Mr. Crane, of San Lorenzo, when sending fruit 
to Sacramento, specified that the boxes should 
not be returned, as he feared the codlin moth. 
He was paid for the boxes. Some one 
present bad shown a difference of six cents 
in the cost of a return box, as compaied 
with a free box. The late Mr. Kerchival found 
that on the average there were six apple worms, 
larva- of the codlin moth, in the crevices of each 
of his return boxes and peach baskets. That 
gave one for a cent. Cheap enough ! But as 
Mr. Kerchival did not want them at any price, 
he scalded the packages in a weak solution of 
potash. An apple box holding 48 Iba. is made 
of redwood, at Wright's statioD, in the Santa 
Cruz mountains, for 0.J cents each in the shook. 
Grape boxes are made for 4 cents each. These 
boxes are used by all orchardists and grape 
growers in that region, no boxes being returned. 

After two years' experience, no one wishes to 
change back to the return package. A confer- 
ence should be had with the transportation com- 
panies to see if lower freights could not be se- 
cured if no return boxes were used. Save a 
cent or a fraction of one wherever possible, and 
soon the margin in favor of a return package is 
cut do» n so low as to be more than balanced by 
the greater security in using the free package. 
If anyone doubts that insects are spread by re- 
turn packages, let him take apart en old apple 
box from an infested district and split open the 
nail holes and cracke. Let no one think that 
because he has no apple or pear trees he is not 
iatirested in this question. What pmne reiser 
can say that his next return box will not bring 
the plum weevil, the dreaded curculio into his 
orchard? 

Lately a vineyard supposed to be healthy, 
was found to be infested by the phylloxera 
about the spot where the return boxes are piled 
up and no where else. It is now a serious 
question whether the owner of the vineyard 
can stamp out the pest, or the phylloxera will 
stamp out the vineyard. A committee should be 
appointed to report on possible savings in the 
construction and handling of free packages, 
and also on the cost of disinfection. The 
speaker would contribute $10 towards a prize 
to be awarded for the best cheap apple box, or 
for the best on free packages, if enough could 
be raised to attract the attention of inventors 
and mechanics. 

M. T. Brewer said that if apple and pear 
boxes were made free a great deal would be ac- 
complished. Peach baskets are too expensive to 
renew every time used. They should be disin- 
fected at the producer's station. 

Mr. Murphy thought that the point of dis- 
infection should be at the farm. 

The amendment of Mr. Hatch, substituting 
disinfection for prohibition of return packages 
was carried, and the report as amended adopted. 

Remarks by the Chairman, C. H. Dwinelle. 

Before closing, it may be well to glance at 
what has been accomplished by this convention. 
It is safe to eay that more genuine horticultur- 
ists have been here than ever before assembled 
from the length and breadth of California, for 
the purpose of discussing matteis involving 
their best ioterestp. There had been a profitable 
oomparison of views between fruit growers and 
those with whom they have business relations. 
The extent and magnitude of the existing evils 
from insect pebts have been set forth in a way 
that should convince every one of the need of 
immediate measures for checking their spread, 
and, if possible, securing their destruction. 



Not the dismal side alone has been presented 
to your view. Those who have met our insect 
enemies, and inflicted more or less complete de- 
feat upon them, have been with us or sent us 
letters. 

Dr. Chapin has maintained a model orchard 
of deciduous trees in health, in the midst of a 
region where scale insects abound. Ellwood 
Cooper has vanquished the black scale on his 
olive trees. William Jessup and others have 
found the weak points of borers. John Cox, if 
he had not been too retiring, could have told 
you, as he did me, that he had saved all but 1 % 
of his Bartlett pears from the codlin moth, 
where his neighbors lost met of theirs. 

Other valuable points have been brought out 
in regard to pests and their suppression, the cul- 
tivation and pruning of trees, the packiog, 
preservation, shipment and tale of their fruit. 

We certainlv Lave a right to go home encour- 
aged to new »ff irts for the development of hor- 
ticultural industries and looking forward with 
pleasure to a profitable meeting next year. Let 
etch one, then, come with his year's experience 
in readiness to be poured out for the good of 
others. 

Discussk o on Mlldt>w. 

Dec. 7th. Previous to the regular session, 
an informal meeting was held for the discussion 
of points in orchard management, Prof. Dwi- 
nelle presiding. 

The subject of "White Mildew on Fruit 
Trees" was introduced. 

F. Gillet reported the trial of powdered sul- 
phur as a remedy in Nevada county, but with- 
out apparent results. 

W. B. West had similar experience at Stock- 
ton. He found phenyle the best remedy as a 
Bpray. The carbolio sheep wash, or anything 
else containing carbolic acid, was good. For 
roses, the English Gizhurst's compound was his 
favorite, but it is too expensive for trees. 

The chairman remarked that what was good 
for the rose ought to benefit its close relatives, 
the apple, peach, etc. Mildew is a kind of 
fungus growth propagated by minute spores. 
The white mildew of the vine is easily kept in 
check by sulphur. Perhaps this remedy failed 
on trees because applied too late, when the 
mildew was well started. Mr. W. W. Smith, 
of Vacaville, has reported good results from 
cutting off the ends of twigs as soon as they 
show mildew. In that hot climate they dry up 
at once. 

Dr. S. F. Chapin, of San Jose, said that he 
had similar experience in the treatment of ap- 
plee. He noticed that the Jonathan apple was 
more susceptible to mildew than most otherr. 
J. Fuller, of Saratoga, on higher laud, said that 
the Jonathan was a thrifty tree there, not 
showing mildew, although peaches do. W. B. 
West noted that the Alexander peach is not 
very susceptible to mildew, while the Red May 
is BO. 

F. Gillet, spoke of the red spots on grape 
leaves, which have been so common in our vine- 
yards of late. The disease has also appeared in 
Europe, where it is called the "American mil- 
dew," but is different from the white mildew. 

Matthew Cooke being called upon, paid that 
the codlin moth wash, when used by John Cox 
in his orcha r d, had kept the pears free from the 
brown spots, sometimes called "scab," "mil- 
dew, " etc. Similar results had been observed 
at Oak Shade. The disease is also produced by 
a fungup. The good result from the wash is to 
be attributed to the sulphur carried in suspen- 
sion, and fastened on the bark by the soap. 
The air in an orchard treated with it is, on a 
hot da}-, Buggestive of sulphur springs. 

IDiscusBlon on Pruning. 

Dr. Chapin was called upon to give his expe- 
rience with pruning, and stated that he pre- 
ferred the saw and pruning shears to the knife, 
as more convenient; and all wounds made in 
pruning should be covered with wax, or other 
material, to keep the air from the wood. The 
cut should be made close to the bud and above 
it, and the WQiind will readily heal over during 
the season's growth, and not leave a projection 
of dead wood. All trees should be pruned while 
young, bo as to keep them in form and render 
the cutting away of large limbs unnecessary. 
The saw ueed should be of a narrrow blade, like 
a butcher's saw, and not the ordinary pruning 
saw. The saw blade, too, should be so adjusted 
as to be turned by the handle in the frame. 
Men should not be instructed to cut a tie 3 sim- 
ply to produce beautifully rounded symmetry, 
but inside branches and improper growth should 
be trimmed out. Summer pruning should be re- 
commended by pinching back the tender ends 
when the shoots have obtained about the re- 
quired length, and pinching the second or even 
the third time, as may be necessary, as will be 
the case in some instances. Further, the fruit 
should be thinned out — too numerous fruit 
causes loas by the seeds. The seed of the fruit 
remains about the same for small fruit as for 
large, and a tree overloaded suffers a heavy 
drain from this source. The peach and apricot 
should be pruned out. With regard to cherry 
trees, they ehould be pinched back when green. 

Robert Williamson said that he was decidedly 
in favor of the low training of trees, so that they 
might protect their stems from the sun and be 
lens liable to blow over; also recommended cov- 
ering all wounds with grafting wax or paint; 
favored fall pruning to develop fruit buds, and 
did not favor pinching back terminal buds during 
summer, hut would cut off; gave illustration of 
benefits of low training by stating that the best 
cherries he had ever eaten were picked within 
six inches of the ground, and that a first-class 
oherrj -grower said be could pick six times as 



many cherries if within six ft. of the ground aa 
he could if twenty ft. from the ground; had 
picked peaches from low trees and got more 
than from high-trained ones. 

W. H. Jessup said that Mr. Williamson had 
struck the key-note of the subject in recom- 
mending low training, and to use saw or knife 
in preference to shears. After the saw should 
follow the knife, and the rough scar pared down 
smooth and clean. He prunes mainly in sum- 
mer. Cherry trees are pruned as soon as the 
fruit is off. 

Mr. Frazer stated that it was an undeniable 
fact that low pruning must be resorted to as 
adaptable to California fruit growing. Dr. 
Chapin and Mr. Hatch concurred. 

Communication from Cancers 

To the Convention of Fruit Growers at Sacra- 
mento, Cat : — The undersigned manufacturers 
of hermetically sealed goods recommend to the 
fruit growers who ship their peaches to the San 
Francisco market the abolition of baskets, and 
the substitution of closed boxes of uniform 
size, holding 25 ft. a. each, thereby preventing 
much of the stealing and mashing of fruit which 
now causes a large percentage of loss to both 
shipper and purchaser. Signed: Cutting Pack- 
ing Co:, by A. D. Cutter, Sol. Wangenheim & 
Co.. J. M. Spafford & Co., Code, Elfelt k Co., 
A. Lusk tc Co., King, Morse ft Co., J. Lusk 
Cauning Co., Schammel, Reynolds ft Co., M. 
Banner ft Co. 

San Francisco, Dec. 5, 1881. 
Report on Fruit Shipping to Eastern States. 

To the State Convention of Horticulturist*. 
Your committee appointed on fruit shipments 
to the Eastern States would beg to report as 
follows: 

We have given the subject as careful examina 
tion as time would permit, and we find that the 
amount of green fruit shipped to the Eastern 
States is of great importance to the fruit grow- 
ers of our State. Over 400 carloads of green 
fruit has been shipped east of the Missouri 
river during this year. We find that several 
important matters stand in the way of Eastern 
shipments of fruit; one being the high rate of 
freight charged per car, and another the codlin 
moth pest. Both of these ought to be overcome 
The first demands, and should receive, careful 
consideration at the bands of the railroad com 
panics, and the other can be remedied by a vig- 
orous and persistent effort on the part of the 
fruit growers. Fruit that is at all infected by 
codlin moth becomes almost worthless before it 
reaches the Eastern States. We would say that 
we deem it of the utmost importance to growers 
to do all in their power to make it of profit to 
the fruit shippers to still further extend their 
already large field of outlet for California's fruit 
productions. 

Some have said in words that nothing can be 
done to exterminate the pests; others have 
spoken still louder by their acts and their fail 
ure to fight the destroyer, thus injuring them 
selves and their neighbors. However, enough 
has been done to prove beyond a peradventure, 
that systematic work will save the orchards and 
vineyards of our State, and cause them to con- 
tinue to be the fruitful source of income to their 
owners that they have been in the past. * We 
will not here individualize, but we will say that 
many fruit growers have, by their persistent ef 
forts, saved their crops in a marketable condi- 
tion, when, if they had not used precautionary 
measures, their fruit crops would have been fail 
ares. But freight rates and the codlin moth 
are not the only obstacles that meet the Eastern 
fruit shipper — the state of the weather while 
on the way, and the condition of the market 
when his fruit reaches its destination giving 
him, if possible, even more concern. 

The contents of a car is often spoiled by the 
heat in transit.aud both fruit and freight money 
become a total los?. Again, it has often occurred 
that fruit that cost $1 50 per box on the track 
in Sacramento, is sold at 25 cents or 50 cents 
per box in Chicago, owing to a glutted market 
or the heated condition of the fruit on arrival. 

These last obstacles are unavoidable, but the 
others can and should be remedied. 

In conclusion, we here express our earnest 
hope that all growers will cc-operate and, by 
united and systematic effort, completely eradi- 
cate our fair land of the pests that are gnawing 
at and sapping the foundations of all hopes of 
prosperity to fruit raisers: J. F. Farnsworth, 
Edwin T. Earl, P. E. Piatt, Committee. 

The report was adopted. 
Report on "Fruit Shipping: West of Omaha.*' 

The field belonging to this committee covers 
a great but sparsely populated territory, em- 
bracing eastern California, Nevada, Idaho, 
Montana, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado and Ne- 
braska. This territory has a great variety of 
climates and soil, and is generally of high alti- 
tude, with frosts during a large portion of the 
year, and generally deprived of rains and moist- 
ure for long periods; and with no facilities for 
propagating fruit or fruit trees, the supplies in 
the future, aa heretofore, will be required from 
this State. 

As the resources of this growing outlet for 
California fruits are constantly increasing, it is 
but fair to presume that the population will in- 
crease in proportion and the demand for fruit 
will be greater in consequence. To meet the 
requirements of this trade, it will necessitate 
the production of the best quality of every de- 
scription of orchard products, the cultivation 
of the best varieties, and the careful picking, 
packing and handling of the same. We would, 
therefore, suggest: 

First — The varieties to be cultivated: The 
choicest and most desirable for flavor, Biz<-, 



color, beauty of form. Our instructions from 
consumers are to "ship nothing but choice 
fruit," with the invariable advice that the cost 
of transportation is fully as much on the poor 
fruit as on the good. 

Second— Fruit required for this trade should 
be carefully picked just before reaching ma- 
turity—that is. when it is hard and firm in 
every part. Even a day's delay in picking will 
so hasten the softening of fruit as to render it 
unfit for shippers' use. Fruit gathered before 
being fully developed is of no value to the 
dealer or consumer — never ripening, but becom- 
ing shriveled, tough and tasteless; yet, if 
gathered and packed when ripe, it will soften 
and decay before it can be marketed. Great 
care should be exercised, and more attention 
given to these points than heretofore. 
♦.Third— In packing, the greatest care should 
be used. Fruit of uniform state of ripeness 
should only be put in the same box, and Bhould 
be as uniformly sized as possible, placed oare- 
fully in layers, packed solid and full. Inferior 
or bruised or overripe fruit placed with hard 
and choioe, ruins and renders the whole unfit for 
trade, and very often ruins the reputation of the 
dealer, while it at once points out the careless- 
ness of the grower. 

Fourth — Honest, intelligent and careful fruit 
growers cannot fail to be well paid for their la- 
bors, while on the other hand, the slovenly and 
dishonest must certainly Buffer the reverse. 
"Be sure your sins will find you out," may be 
well applied in this, as in all.other careless or 
dishonest dealings. 

Fifth — We recommend uniformity in style 
and dimensions of boxes for use by fruit packers 
and growers. For apples, 50 lb. boxes, Sacra- 
mento Btyle and dimensions; pears, 40-tb. boxes, 
as used for Eastern trade ; plums, 20 lt>i. ; 
peaches ami apricots, 20 to 30 lb a. ; depth from 
4.1 to 7 inches, according to size of the fruit. 
For cherries and small fruits, the San Francisco 
boxes that are used in chests — 10 Ilia. each. 

Sixth — We recommend the adoption of the 
"free box" system, as they can be made lighter 
than return boxes, and furnished at little more 
than half their cost. The fruit is then sold by 
the box, and will command a higher price, as 
the free package presents a new, smooth and 
bright appearance, which goes far towards the 
sale of the contents. The return box has been 
the cause of much of the dissemination of the 
codlin moth and worm, and of other insect life 
which has brought ruin to our orchardists 
throughout all parts of the State. 

Seventh — Every grower should place his ini- 
tials on all the boxes leaving his premises, and 
should be scrupulous to mark the name of the 
variety of fruit, and its size and quality, the 
state of ripeness— hard, medium or soft — on 
the end thereof. The adoption of this system 
will be at once a great benefit to dealers, a con- 
venience to growers, and a certain help towards 
repressing much unnecessary profanity among 
dealers that are obliged to burst open boxes in 
order to ascertain their contents. 

We believe that the fruit production of Cali- 
fornia is but yet in its infancy. Twenty-five 
years ago scarcely anything in the way of fruit 
was raised in this State. At that time one of 
your committee purchased the first peaches pro- 
duced in Smith's gardens (near this city) for 
$1.50 each, selling them readily for $2 apiece. 
Apples were first imported from South America 
in 1851, and sold from 50 to 75 cents per pound. 
After this, Oregon fruit orchards came into 
being and partially supplied the wants of Cali- 
fornia. From 1S55, attention was turned to the 
capabilities of the soil and climate of this State, 
and the river bottoms and desirable lands near 
the coast, and afterward the foot-hill regions, 
and even higher altitudes, were set out to a con- 
siderable extent with fruit trees. The almost 
universal success in production has demon- 
strated that California can yet be made one of 
the greatest fruit countries in the world — equal- 
ing in quality, size and beauty that of any other 
portion of the earth. 

We believe that the terrible pests of the 
moth, worm, scale and other insect life that has 
developed itself, can be entirely eradicated 
from our State if the efforts now being made 
under the laws passed by our last Legislature 
are heartily sustained by all, and the combined 
intelligence and experience acquired on this 
subject be put into force. 

The territory assigned to this committee em- 
braces but a small portion of the population 
which has to be supplied from the produce of 
the California orchards; San Francisco, with 
its 300,000 population, and other portions of 
the State with equal or greater population, has 
to be supplied through dealers; the large and 
constantly increasing outlet for carload ship- 
ments to the great cities and dense populations 
east of the Mississippi river, and the immense 
and rapidly growing demand for California can- 
ned, dessicated and dried fruits in Europe and 
elsewhere, putting to test the capabilities of the 
immense canning establishments already in suc- 
cessful operation, and leading to the establish- 
ment of others — point unerringly to the great 
future extended to the cultivators of fruit in 
this State and affords much encouragement to 
dealer?. 

In conclusion, we urge upon all engaged in 
the growth, packiog and sale of fruit, that the 
most studious care and good judgment should 
be exercised, and strict and unswerving justice 
and honesty of purpose in every transaction 
should be observed. No business has suffered 
more by a neglect of these self-evident facts. 
The grower has often shown himself more anx- 
ious to palm off his products with reckless dis- 
regard of the interests of the dealer and con- 



January 7, 188 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FB1SS. 



8* 



Burner, and without a thought of his future repu- 
tation. Such men only rain business, and cer- 
tainly do not deserve success. They should be 
discarded as unworthy of countenance. 
All of which is respectfully submitted: 
W. K. Strong, ^ 
Eugene Gregory, | 
Samuel Gerson, ] 

C. T.Adams, f Com - 

D. De Bernardi, 
W. J. Wilson, J 

Sacramento, Dec. 7, 1881. 
The report was adopted. 

"The Use of Carbon Bisulphide and Su:r>ho- 
Carbonateof Potassium as Insecticides." 

The extensive use of carbon bisulphide for 
destroying phylloxera in France and other coun- 
tries, and the marked success accomplished by 
it as a remedy, led Prof. Hilgard, of the State 
University, to propound to the fruit growers of 
California, over a year ago, the question: "Why 
may not this, opeiating as a vapor, be confined 
by proper appliances and made to serve the 
purpose on trees which it does confined in the 
soil on vines ? " Pursuant to his belief in its 
efficacy for this purpose, a number of experi- 
ments were made by fruit growers, who had 
become quite as sanguiue as himself. All of 
these resulted unfavorably, for reasons which 
will be seen further on. A few remarks on the 
chemical and physical properties of this mate- 
rial will render intelligible what is to follow. 

Carbon bisulphide ( symbol CS2 ) is a heavy 
liquid of oily appearance and volatile at ordin- 
ary temperature. A small quantity exposed to 
free air evaporates almost immediately, forming 
a toxical vapor which is three times heavier 
than air; this vapor is so heavy, indeed, that it 
may be readily poured from one vessel into 
another, from this into a second, from the sec- 
ond into a third, and from the third into a fourth 
before it becomes at all dissipated; in the fourth 
we have it sufficiently strong to burn, which it 
will do like coal gas. In a good light it may 
be readily seen. We therefore possess in its 
vapor something bearing a close analogy to a 
liquid, and operating, in many respects, entirely 
different from ordinary vapors. 

The carbon bisulphide, in liquid or vapor 
form, has the power of readily dissolving oils, 
wax, paraffine, India rubber, etc., and cannot be 
contained in vessels composed of or sealed with 
any of these materials. Many materials, which 
are, however, soluble in water, like glue, glycer- 
ine, mucilage, resist its attacks perfectly. Ani- 
mal tissue is a good material to oppose its dis- 
solving propensities with. On the evapora- 
tion of liquid carbon bisulphide intense 
oold is produced, so intense, indeed, that 
it is often used for making ice. Now, as any 
liquid depends on its inherent heat or that of 
surrounding bodiep, so the carbon-bisulphide, 
when its own temperature and that of surround- 
ing bodies is bound to the freezing point, ceases 
to give off vapor. A vessel, for instance, placed 
within an inclosed space in which the atmos- 
phere in immediate contact with the liquid be- 
comes eoon saturated, nearly ceases to give off 
its vapor. 

With these qualities in view, we may now 
proceed to consider the failure which first sig- 
nalized the use of carbon-bisulphide for disin- 
fecting trees. 

One man makes a balloon of oil-cloth, another 
of rubber, another smears his canvas with wax; 
the sulphide is applied. All fail. Why ? Be- 
cause these materials, readily soluble in the 
vapor, are penetrated easily by it, and its power 
in saturated atmosphere is dissipated and lost. 

Another makes a balloon or tent to drop over 
the tree, expecting the ground to answer as a 
bottom to the inclosed space; he therefore drops 
a curtain to the ground from the bottom of his 
tent, and on the superfluous cloth which drapes 
on the ground, he heaps ordinary earth, pack- 
ing by treading or other convenient meane. 
This he believes to render the inclosed space 
gas or vapor-tight. Remembering that he must 
have a saturated atmosphere to accomplish the 
destruction of the insects; and, granting even 
that his tent be made of impenetrable material, 
he relies implicitly on the results, after placing 
within the tent, by some means or other, the 
necessary bisulphide. 

Let us ask this experimenter if he would think 
of filling the tent, prepared as above, with water ? 
No, on the contrary, the hydrostatic pressure 
of the water rising would force it down and 
out around the bottom. So with the heavy 
vapor of bisulphide, rising to 3, 4 or 5 ft. within 
the tent, the weight of the column becomes suf- 
ficient to prevent the saturated atmosphere 
from reaching any considerable hight in the 
foliage. Still another prepares his tent for the 
work of disinfecting, and, in introducing the 
liquid bisulphide, places it in a vessel at the foot 
of the tree, and, in timing the experiment, 
reckons on the saturated atmosphere within 
five minutes after introducing the liquid. As 
has been already seen, the vapor, in forming, 
lowers the temperature of the liquid to its 
free &ing point in this confined space; the column 
of vapor formed weighs upon it and retards 
evaporation. Here, therefore, the error becomes 
immediately apparent, and we are not cow sur- 
prised that after eight hours' subjection to such 
a vapor as is to be found at the top of the tree, 
the insect continues alive and active. 

All of these errors coinciding, it is scarcely 
to be wondered at that this remedy fell into 
disrepute. 

Through correspondence and conference I be- 
came informed of the above named failures and 
also of the mistakes to which they were attrib- 
utable, and as soon as time permitted, believing 



firmly in the efficacy of the material, I deter- 
mined to contrive an apparatus which should 
overcome the mistakes of my predecessors. 
With this conviction I left San Francisco (in 
answer to a kind invitation from Mr. S. P. 
Stowe to visit him at Santa Barbara) last Au- 
gust, clothed with the necessary contrivances 
lor destroying the scale with carbon bisulphide. 

My tent was of canvass coated with perfectly 
tight and resistant impenetrable material. The 
body of the balloon wa? fashioned with hoops 
like a cylindrical Chinese lantern, which could 
be lowered from a derrick and on completion of 
the treatment, might, by tackle, be drawn up 
or closed up like a Chinese lantern. From the 
lower hoop hung a curtain, gathered at the bot- 
tom by means of strings, which could be drawn 
up about the trunk of the tree and wound tight 
by the strings. The hoops which held the can- 
vas off from the tree was so made that by 
means of a thumb-screw they could be made 
large or small, the tent following of course; by 
this means economy could be effected in treat- 
ing trees of small horizontal diameter. Again, 
by the raising or lowering of the lower hoop the 
tent would fit trees tall or short. By means of 
the above adjustments and the formation of the 
top of the tent which was conical, there need 
be no waste space within and no consequent 
waste of material. This tent when put up 
would hold water to the very top. 

To supply the sulphide of carbon and to 
produce a saturated atmosphere as quickly as 
possible, I devised a series of three cotton disks 
suspended one above the other. On to the top 
one (the whole being suspended in the 
apex of the cone at the top of the balloon or 
tent) was poured the liquid bisulphide, which, 
evaporating in part, run through onto the sec- 
ond and then to the third in such a manner that 
it all turned to vapor immediately, and, flowing 
down into the tent would fill up the bottom 
first and then rise to the top in a manner analo- 
gous to the filling of a vessel with water. Con- 
cerning the time required to put this balloon 
over a tree and inject the necessary bisulphide 
it was found to take five minutes. 

The insect to be experimented upon in Mr. 
Stowe's orchard was principally the cottony 
cushion scale or Ictrya purchasi, which gave his 
orange orchard, in parts, the appearance pro- 
duced by a snow storm passing over it, so thick 
were they on the foliage. 

The experiments made comprised many a dose 
of one-half lb. of carbon bisulphide, continuing 
15 minutes.destroyed nearly all of the insects — 
as many, and more than any other remedy which 
had ever been applied; and close observation 
any time within 24 hours following the experi- 
ment, failed to reveal any signs of life. After 
this time a few were seen to be yet living, or 
coming into life. The experiment, although en- 
couraging on the whole, was by no means suffi- 
cient. I could be satisfied at this point with 
nothing less than the complete extermination of 
the parasite. Other periods of time were ac- 
cordingly tried, and larger quantities of bisul- 
phide were used. One experiment even reached 
two and three quarter hours duration with one- 
half lb. of the bisulphide. Unable to deter- 
mine its effects within the three days spent at 
Mr. Stowe's, I left instructions for the proper 
continuance of the work, and came to San Fran- 
cisco. Here, after one month, I received a let- 
ter from Mr. Stowe, in which he stated that the 
experiments had been perfectly successful for all 
times tried above one hour. 

On my request for particulars concerning the 
work after my departure, I received the follow 
ing letter, which I crave Mr. Stowe's indulgence 
for publishing to this convention. Before giv 
ing it, I will state that one experiment was 
made on the black scale or Lecanium olta, the 
results of which Mr. Stowe refers to in his let 
ter. 

J. H. Whkslkr, Esq.— Dear Sir: The experiments 
which were tried after your left were as follows: One tb, 
1 hour; } lb, 1J hours; } lb, 2 hours. These experiments 
killed the insects completely, as far as we could discover. I 
think the success was due in great measure to the tent 
having been freshly coated with the material. I am 
hardly prepartd to say what would be most economical 
on a large s c »le, but should think a pretty heavy dose for 
one hour would be most convenient. I am ptepariug a 
large tent and will then order bisulphide from you. 

Yours truly, S. P. Stows. 

P. S.— The tree operated upon for black scale is now 
entirely free from the same (Lassen tells me). I was not 
able to find it yesterday, but I know it commenced im 
proving immediately. 8. 

Santa Barbara, November 1, 1881. 

In these results we have all that could be 
hoped for as regards its toxical effect. That 
it can be used successfully in destroying the 
cottony cushion scale and the black scale, there 
is no doubt. For each other scale, its effect 
must be determined in detail similarly to the 
foregoing; but, as to these two varieties of par- 
asites the destruction is complete. For insects 
other than scale — viz., those like lice, red spi 
der, etc. — it is evident that, owing to their 
more extensive and actively working breathing 
apparatus, a much leas quantity for a shorter 
time will answer the purpose. To make fur- 
ther experiments in this line, Mr. Shorb of Los 
Angeles has kindly offered to have work con 
ducted under his personal supervision in an at- 
tempt to destroy the red scale as well as the 
black scale. Mr. Seward Cole of Los Angeles 
will also be supplied with a tent by me to con 
duct experiments on the black scale infesting 
his orchard. With the kind assistance of Mr. 
Cooke and Dr. Chapin, experiments will soon 
be made on the San Jose scale, and so on. 

The question now arises, What is the cost of 
this treatment? 

For trees 10 to 14 ft. high and 4 to 6 ft. in 
diameter, the cost, including labor, cost of tent 
for 1,000 trees, bisulphide to be used and inci- 



dentals will not exceed 15 cents per tree. For 
large trees the cost multiplies rapidly, in pro- 
portion to the space occupied by the tree. In 
comparing the cost with that of treating by 
means of a wash, it is to be remembered that 
the complete extermination accomplished by a 
single treatment with carbon bisulphide is 
equivalent, if not more, to the three* or four 
treatments necessary when a wash is used. We 
find therefore, that, even if the treatment with 
carbon bisulphide were necessary to repeat each 
year (of which I think there is little probability) 
it would then surpass in economy the treat- 
ment by means of washing. 

The advantages possessed by the above des- 
cribed process, over other remedies for the re- 
demption of our orchards become immediately 
apparent. 

The work of applying is as follows: 

Picture to yourself a man, woman, or child, 
backing up a two -wheeled cart (weighing not 
more than 200 Ibi. — tent, cart and all), on which 
is erected a derrick. The tree coming between 
the wheels the tent is lowered by string or rope, 
the bottom drawn up about the trunk. One 
stroke of the piston of a small force pump on 
the cart injects the necessary quantity of bisul- 
phide after passing through a pipe which fol- 
lows over the arm of the derrick. By using a 
little brush broom, and caustic solution or even 
water alone the trunk of the tree is freed from 
the insects and a cordon of tar, lime or similar 
material put about its foot to prevent others 
crawling up. Thi3 is the work of five minutes. 
For the hour or hour and a half during which 
the vapor is actively accomplishing its work of 
destruction, the laborer may be engaged with 
other balloons or in pruning, hoeing weeds, etc. 
Disrobing, the tree is found in virgin condition. 

On the other hand, I might refer you to the 
man who sprays with a solution almost as ob- 
noxious to the person applying it as to the in- 
sects intended to destroy. View the elaborate ap- 
paratus for transporting, heating, mixing and 
pumping the liquid to be applied. Then, too, 
he is performing a labor which must inevitably 
be repeated a cumber of times during the sea- 
son, for it is utterly impossible to destroy every 
vestige of the insect with one application. 

The cracks, crevices, under parts of some, 
and upper parts of other leaves and branches, 
are necessarily left with germs of the disease 
continuing. Again, a wash may be applied 
which will destroy one species and leave sur- 
viving another. 

With carbon bisulphide vapor, on the other 
hand, we have one of the most penetrating of 
vapors known. The best champagne cork will 
not prevent it emanating from the mouth of the 
bottle containing it. No crack or crevice, no 
leaf, limb or knot hole can escape the complete- 
ness of its work, and in destroying one species 
it destroys all. Its work is complete. 

Each remedy added to our list assists in forti- 
fying us against insect enemies, and this, I be- 
lieve to be on 3 to assist. Very large trees and 
deciduous trees generally must rely to a large 
extent upon the application of washes; and I do 
not think that in this sphere the sulphide of 
carbon will supplant them. In nurseries, how- 
ever, young orchards and orchards of citrus 
trees, in fact of all trees not deciduous, the sul- 
phide of carbon seems destined to play an all 
important part. 

Disinfecting Fruit with Carbon Bisulphide 
Vapor. 

I desire, further, to call attention to the fact 
that carbon bisulphide vapor may be used as a 
means of saving infected fruit. No article to 
which the bisulphide vapor has been applied 
will preserve any trace of the odor or vapor 
after 15 minutes exposure in the open air. 
Fruit will stand the vapor for a considerable 
time without any injury. Never would it have 
any injurious effect on the consumer; but how 
long it would retain its fresh appearance re- 
mains to be experimented upon; though there is 
but little doubt that it would perfectly retain 
its appearance for any length of time necessary 
to destroy any insect infecting it. I mention 
this merely to signalize the experiments which 
I shall make at an early date in the future. 

Sulphocarbonate of Potassium. 

I will further ask the indulgence of this Con 
vention to the extent of a few remarks on the 
sulphocarbonate of potassium. 

Symbol K2 CS3 . It is made from carbon 
bisulphide and sulphide of potassium, both pow- 
erful insecticides. It is, practically speaking, 
the rendering soluble of carbon bisulphide in 
such a manner that it may be diluted with 
water, and instead of having its vapor pass off 
quickly, it is allowed to escape the combina- 
tion only as decomposition of the material pro- 
gresses. Sulphocarbonate of potassium is the 
best known remedy for phylloxera. It is not 
used so extensively as carbon bisulphide be 
cause of the cost of applying it. For 
instance, to saturate the soil to a depth of three 
inches in summer requires one inch of the solu 
tion over the surface; one inch of water over 
one acre of ground represents in weight 113 
tons. You may readily see why, to saturate to 
a depth of six feet, a liquid becomes inadequate 
except for small spots. In spite of those ob 
jections France has treated during the last year 
2,500 acres of vineyard with it. 

Until the present month not a pound of this 
material has been produced in the United 
States. In answer to a demand for the sulpho- 
carbonate for use against the phylloxei a, I have 
begun its manufacture on this coast. In ex- 
periments on the toxical effect of its solution, I 
have found the following to be its effect on the 
phylloxera : 



One part to 200 destroys the phylloxera a 
its eggs in 15 minutes. 

One part to 200,000 destroys it in 24 hours. 

To prove these experiments, which were 
made by immersing infested roots in the solu- 
tion; other infected roots were placed in pure 
water and even caustic solutions, and on these 
the insects continued to live — showing that the 
destruction was due entirely to the decompo- 
sition product, and not to the potash which re- 
sults. Its insecticidal effects are thus seen to 
be very great, and it occurred to me that, as 
solutions are applicable economically to trees, 
this might prove of advantage among other 
washes. 

The liquid, as prepared for use, is of a deep 
red color, gives an alkaline reaction and color* 
very perceptibly half a million parts of water. 
I have destroyed readily many kinds of insects 
by a weak solution of it, and, at the same time, 
find it does no injury to the most tender plants 
when applied in the proportion of 1 to 25 parts 
water. Its application is not as unpleasant to 
the workmen as is that of strong caustic .solu- 
tions. Above all, its decomposition is what 
commends it most highly, being so purely eco- 
nomical. Weak acids, like carbonic acid gas, 
will decompose the sulpho-carbonate of potas- 
sium with the evolution of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen and sulphuret of carbon ga3, according to 
the following reactions : 

K 2 CS3 + H2 O + CO3 = K 2 COs + H 2 S + CS2 . 

Now note how beautifully this works out. 
All animal life, including insects, give off in 
ordinary respiration, carbonic acid gas. This 
gas coming in contact with the wash applied, 
decomposes it, and the gas returned kills the 
insect. Its own respiration, therefore, accom- 
plishes its destruction. 

The decomposition of the liquid may be ef- 
fected also by boiling the solution, it then reacts 
thus: K 2 CS3 + 3 H 2 0-3 Hj S + K2CO3. 
The same change takes place if allowed to re- 
main in the open air and exposed for several 
days. 

In both of these cases, the only remnant of 
the wash after a few days, besides the poisonous 
gases given off, is ordinary carbonate of potas- 
sium, known under the names of potash, pear- 
lash, which are superior to concentrated lye, in- 
asmuch as the latter consists of the carbonate 
of sodium, an element injurious to plant life 
and soil. This residue of potash serves to keep 
off other insects, stimulates the bark as do 
all washes and soaps containing potash, and, 
on the advent of the first rains, is washed down 
into the soil to act as a fertilizer to the plant. 
There is nothing about it to effect the trees as 
does coal oil in closing the spores by its invola- 
tile residue; but, as I have said, the potash 
serves to stimulate the tree. 

With the belief that the more remedies we 
have in our possession, the better we are off, 
I think this may well be added to our list of in- 
secticides possessing certain economic advan- 
tages over some others, at least. 

As to the cost of sulpho-carbonate of potas- 
sium, it can be furnished in quantities at a rate 
which will place it within the category of cheap 
insecticides. During the ensuing year, 
extensive experiments will be made. 
Dr. Chapin has already offered aid, 
and I respectfully ask the aid of other fruit 
growers in determining its application to insects 
peculiar to the different districts. 

Let it be particularly understood, that in the 
sulphide of carbon and sulpho-carbonates, we 
are not dealing with new inventions; they are 
both established insecticides, only needing de- 
termination of their adaptability to the differ- 
ent orders of insects troubling California. 

In view of this last fact, I hope I may be par- 
doned for consuming so much of the valuable 
time of this convention. 

(TO BE CONTINUED.) 

Engraving by Electricity. — M. Plants 
has succeeded in engraving on glass by means 
of electricity. The process is as follows : The 
glass is laid in a horizontal position, and cov- 
ered with a concentrated solution of nitrate of 
potash, the liquid being retained by a shallow 
vessel in which the glass is placed. A plat- 
inum wire is dipped in a horizontal position in 
the solution along the edges of the glass. The 
wire is attached to one of the poles of a sec- 
ondary battery of 50 or 60 elements. The 
lines are traced by hand with the point of an 
insulated platinum wire connected with the 
other pole of the battery. The parts of the 
glass covered with the alkaline solution become 
engraved when touched with the end of the 
platinum wire, however rapidly this is moved, 
the thickness of the lines varying with the 
thickness of the wire. The ourrent from either 
pole may be used in the writing wire. 

Solid Petroleum. — According to a St. Pe- 
tersburg paper, a German, Herr P. N. Dittmar, 
has practically solved the problem of rendering 
petroleum solid — a problem considerably studied 
by chemists of late, in view of the large ques- 
tion of transport. A company has been formed 
in Russia to work the patent when completed. 
The mode of treatment is not yet disclosed, and 
chemists to whom small samples of the solid pe- 
troleum have been sent have not been able to 
make out the nature of the foreign substances 
that are added in a proportion of 2, or at most 
3%., to solidify the petrolenm. 

Dr. Glenn, at Jacinto, has 35,000 acres in 
wheat, and expects to sow 25,000 more. H > has 
a force at work on the levee building from 
Bounds' to Sheppard sloughs, a distance of tire 
miles. This force at present is 43 teams and 
scrapers and over 50 men. 



9 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 7, 1882 



J. F. FARNSW0B.TH. 



M. T. BBEWER. 



M. T. BREWER, & CO., 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Green and Dried 

FRUITS. 




PRODUCE, SEEDS, 
Nuts, 
AND HONEY. 



FRUIT AND PRODUCE MERCHANTS. 

1006, 1008 & 1010 Second St. (bet. J & K), 

SACRAMENTO, - - - CALIFORNIA. 



Grangers' Business Association of Cali- 
fornia.- Principal pla.e of business, No 38 California 
street, San Francisco, Slate of California. 
NOTICE— There are delinquent upon the followingde- 
scribed suck on account of an assessment levied on the 
Twenty-first (21st) day of November, 1881, the several 
amounts set opposite the names of the respective share- 
holders, as follows: 

Number of Number of 
Name. Certificate. Shares. Amount 



Adams, D <J 467 

Allen, James 1461 

Allen, H M 1220 

Ashley, Geo W 1429 

Bagge, Emily C 172 

Bagge, Christian . 167 

Baldwin, John M '.'31 

Bennett, Albert 671 

Bouton, A 1187 

Bolliiger, A J S12 

BoswoHh, CM 1029 

£oawoith, lira C M 1027 

Barnes, Nathan 919 

Buford, 8H «22 

Brake, G W B10 

Carpenter, J H 873 

Carroll, M 633 

Castro, Juan B 435 

Castro, Juan B 1693 

Clack, Mrs Sarah D 1621 

Clark, Jas A 611 

Clark. Jas A 277 

Clark, Annetta 695 

Clark, Anuetta 276 

Coburn, A P 771 

Colby, GW 12,3 

Cooper, J T l«i 

Corcoran, Jas 362 

Coulter. KachaelM 1082 

Cox, William W 1374 

Cox, Mrs M E 1376 

Cox, E J 607 

Cook, Mary E 4 

Coulter, ST 1639 

Campbell, S A 1679 

Elliott, J M 1131 

Emert, M F 475 

Floruney, W 8 456 

Fraaer, Thomas 1680 

Frazer, G W 270 

Fraxer, G W 1681 

Fraaer, Mrs A E 612 

Frost, TG 271 

Frances, Joseph 356 

Frances, Joseph H 357 

Fulton, James 693 

Gamble. Mary C 579 

Gates, T M 602 

Oartleman, Daniel 994 

Gartleman, Daniel 1001 

Gaston, Hugh 663 

Gibbs, W H 103 

Gibbe, W H 1209 

Gibbs, Mrs W H 103 

GilchriBt, J B. 364 

Glenn, DC 273 

Glen/), Mrs Mary E 594 

Gladden, W N 1191 

Gyte, Joseph 139 

Basset, E Aaron 1501 

lleald, J G U98 

Heald, J O 1166 

Heald, J G 1664 

Heald. Rachael 1064 

Heald, D U 1128 

Heald. Mrs E 1129 

Hereby, Ella h 476 

Hershy, Ella L 1709 

Hershy, D N lautt 

Hershy, D N 17<'8 

Hutson, J L 1475 

Johnston, T M 661 

Johnson, LB 238 

Lindner, Lucinda 839 

Lindner, Jonn D 847 

Long, Peter 22 

Lyman, Charles 498 

Han in, S M 79 

Martin, 8 M 483 

Marshall, A 8 645 

Marshall, A 8 1615 

Marsh, James 1348 

McMullin. FA 327 

Meyer, Waldemar is'i 

Meyer, Waldemar 1635 

Meese, William 1158 

Miller, Rudolph J 393 

Miller, RudolpB 1625 

Moore. Samuel L 1146 

Morris, J R 1176 

Morris, J K 1609 

Morris, J R 1687 

Morris, Maggie C 1177 

Moch, J L. 066 

Oliver, Win Q 804 

Perdue, Mrs Mary 599 

Perem, F 12H 

Pittman, Carri. 689 

Pktroan, Mrs C J £8) 

Pilkingtoo, Thomas 897 

Filkingtoo, Tnomas. 358 

Proctor, U«o W 1656 

Proctor, Geo W 1713 

Priuce, NJ «4S 

Prince, N J 877 

Putnam. T C fi«7 

ftauscbamp, Geo 282 

Rector, W 11 1085 

Sawyer, Jackson 91 

Sayward, J W 129 

Beett, PH 7 

Scott, P H 1876 

Smith, W A 251 

Soittle, J W 6*« 



1 
1 
1 

40 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 
S> 
6 
5 

10 
1 
6 
4 

10 
I 
6 
1 
1 
2 
2 
6 

20 
1 
2 
2 
4 

10 

& 



10 

a 

10 

2 

6 

2 

5 

2 
10 

5 
10 

1 

2 

i 

& 

6 

* 
10 
10 

2 

2 
18 

2 
20 

1 

h 
20 

■ 

1 

1 

2 

2 

S 

2 

2 
12 

8 
10 

• 

» 1 

2 

S 

2 

2 

1 

1 
10 
1* 



$10 00 

5 00 
100 00 

7 60 
2 50 
2 60 
25 00 
10 00 

6 00 
10 00 

5 00 

7 50 
20 00 

5 00 
2 50 
12 60 
10 00 
20 00 
5 00 
10 00 
20 00 
5 10 
2 50 
2 50 
2 50 
100 00 
2 50 
2 50 
10 00 
5 00 
2 50 
12 50 
12 50 
12 50 
25 00 
2 60 
17 60 
10 00 
25 00 
5 00 
15 00 
2 50 
2 50 
5 10 
5 00 
12 60 
60 00 
2 50 

5 00 

6 00 
10 00 
25 00 
12 50 

2 50 
10 00 
2 50 
2 60 
10 00 
2 60 
25 00 
10 00 
6 00 
2 50 
2 60 
10 to 
10 00 
25 00 
6 00 
25 CO 
5 00 
12 60 

5 00 
12 50 

6 00, 
25 00 
12 50 
25 10 

6 00 
6 00 
12 50 
12 50 
12 60 
6 00 

25 00 

26 00 

5 00 

6 00 
45 00 

t 00 
60 00 

2 50 
12 50 
60 00 
12 60 

2 60 

2 60 

6 00 
» 00 

7 50 

1 00 

t 00 
30 00 
20 00 

25 00 
12 50 
12 50 
|5 00 
20 00 

k 00 
6 00 
t 50 

2 50 

26 00 
25 40 



Number of Number of 
Name. Certificate. Shares. Amount 

Sollars, S W 602 1 .12 60 

Stoddard, O L 719 2 5 00 

Taber, G R 189 2 5 00 

Tierney, Edward 94 2 5 00 

Troxell, J R 1589 fj 15 00. 

Troxell, J R 1679 1 2 60 

Turner, W H 1603 25 62 50 

Unger. Frederick 1241 4 10 00 

Vauderbilt, Wm 867 6 12 50 

Var.derbilt, Wm 038 10 25 00 

Valpey, Mrs Elizabeth 1728 2 5 00 

Weymouth, Almoo 1448 6 12 50 

Weymouth, Harris 1166 3 750 

Wynn, Jess 883 1 2 50 

Whitcomb, C 8 1642 14 35 00 

Wilsey, Amasa 201 2 5 00 

Wilsey, Amaea 486 8 20 00 

Wilhout, Jessie 436 4 10 00 

Wilkinson, J 1216 2 5 00 

Wilkinson, Mrs E J 1217 2 5 00 

Wood, George 1164 1 2 60 

Yeiser, Daniel 182 10 25 00 

Young, A J 1153 1 2 50 

And in accordance with law and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 21st day of November, 1881, bo 
many shares of each parcel of such stock as may he neces- 
sary will be sold at public auction at the office of tbe 
company, No. 38 California St, San Francisco, Cal , on 
Mnnda., the 17lh day of January, A. D., 1882, to pay the 
delinquent atsessment thereon, together with costs of 
advertising and expenses of sale. 

AMOS ADAMS. Secretary 
Of Grangers' Lusiness Association of California. Office, 
No. 38 California St., San Francisco. 

Nash Bros.'s Pulverizing Harrow 
and Clod Crusher. 

The Best Implement for Pulverizing, Harrowing, Cul- 
tivating; using steel curved teeth, and can be regulated 

to any depth. 

GARDINER'S HAT ELEVATOR AND CARRIER. 
This is Automatic and 3< It-regulating, raisirg hay or 
straw to any hight, and carries to any desired point. It 
will pay for itself in one season. L. D. BURGESS, 
Agent, Rio Vista, CaL 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse 

San Francisco, CaL 
65, OOO tons capacity. Storage at lowest rate 
OHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 818 California Street, Room 8. 



Harvey's Hot- Water Radiator 

For Warming and Ventilating Private 
Residences and Public Buildings. 

Introduced into TEN PUBLIC BUILDINGS and ovei 
FORTY PRIVATE RESIDENCES the pastvear with satis- 
factory results. Less attention and less fuel required t« 
heat 4 rooms with this system thau would warm 1 room 
with the open grate. HigheBt testimonials. Address 
C. D. HARVEY, 
213 Mission St, bet. Main and Beale, 8. F. 
Residence, 1227 Eleventh Avenue, East Oakland. 

M COOKE EL. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 
JV Communications Promptly Attended to. "Vs. 
COOKE & SONS. Successors to Cooii & GuooftT 




KNOW THYSELF 



(.(HI) MEDAL AWAKUfcl) 

the Author. A new and great Medi- 
cal Work, wan-acted the best and 
cheaiteat. indtevenaable to eYerj 
man,. entitled tbe "fckienceof Life or 
Self Preserratioi.;" bo una in tin eat 
French mualin, euboaeed, full gilt* 
300 pp. Contains beau'ifui steel en- 
gravings; 125 nreacriptions Pike, 
only $1.25, sent by mail; illustrated 
sample. rents. Send now. Addr- se 
Peab dy Medical h atitute or Ur.W 
H. PAKKER, Mo. 4 .Bui ouch street 
Boston. 



THE NEW IMPROVED VANELfcSS 

ALTHOUSE WINDMILL AGENCY. 



S. H. Kiler, of San Rafael, has the Agency for all 
Counties North of the Bay. Haviug them in slock orders 
for any siae can be filled at once. 



Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates Etc. 

K.I*. HANSOJIE, 402 Montgomery St., S. F. 
ARTIFICIAL 8-TOMK. 8md for Circular 



W. JEl,. STRONG Sc CO., 

WHOLESALE 

SEED MERCHANTS. 

KVERY DESCRIPTION OP 

Field, Garden, Flower and Other Seeds, Flowering Bulbs, Etc. 

CAN HE OBTAINED AT OUB ESTABLISHMENT. 

FRESH, PURE AKD GENUINE, AT THE LOWEST RATES. 



California Alfalfa, Eastern Clovers and Grass Seeds a Specialty. 



(Seed and tree Catalogues sent by mail free on application.) 



ALSO, 



Wholesale Fruit and General Produce 



Special attention will be given and prompt returns rendered for consign- 
ments placed with us. Orders for merchandise of every description promptly 
and carefully filled at lowest rates. 

Our constantly increasing line of customers attest to the fairness of our 
prices and quality of our goods. 

Nos. 106 to 1 10 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



COOKE & SON, 

Pioneer Box Factory, 



SACRAMENTO, CAL. 




IllLS 




January 7, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



94 



Rainfall for 1880-81. 

The following are the amounts of rain for the 
twelve months ending June 30, 1881, at the 
various stations of the C. P. R. R., and its 
branches, which make returns to Chief Engi- 
neer, S. S. Montague. The stations from San 
Francisco to Truckee, inclusive, are on the 
main line of the Central Pacific in California; 
tho9e from Boca to Tecoma in Nevada, and 
those from Terrace to Ogden in Utah, are all 
on the same line; those from Marys ville to Red- 
ding are on the Oregon branch of the Central 
Pacific; those from Modesto to Kingsburg, on 
the Visalia division of the Central Pacific; those 
from Martinez to Willows, on the North- 
ern railway; those of Antioch to Byron, on the 
San Pablo and Tulare; those from Sjuth Val- 
lejo to Knight's Landing, on the California Pa- 
cific and it? branches; those from San Mateo to 
Santa Cruz, on the northern division of the 
Southern Pacific; those from Lemoore to Mam- 
moth Tank, ou the Southern Pacific in Califor- 
nia; those lrom Yuma to Pantano, on the South- 
ern Pacific in Arizona; that of lone, od the Am- 
ador branch of the Central Pacific; that of Farin- 
ington, on the Stockton and Copperopolis; that 
of Anaheim, on the Los Angeles and San Diego; 
and that of Petaluma, on the San Francisco and 
Northern Pacific: 

Rain. Rain. 
Station. Inches. Station. Inches. 

San Francisco 29.89 

Oakland 20.79 

NUes 20 00 

Pleasanton 19.57 

Livermore 16.45 

Tracy 10-68 

Lathrop*. .. :. 13.34 

Stockton 15.31 

(Jalt 15 93 

Brighton IS 83 

Sacramento 22 14 

Rocklin 21.32 

Auburn 37.42 

Colfax 48.14 

Alta 50.97 

Emigrant Gap 62.2(5 

Cisco. 82 71 

Summit 6*>-3» 

Truckee 21.97 

Boca 15 80 

Reno 5.74 

Wadsworth 4 23 



Hot Springs 2.9S 

Brown's 3 :i8 

Humboldt 5.52 

Winnemucca 10.18 

Oolconda 4.92 

Battle Mountain 6.07 

Beowawe 6.26 

Palisade 10.61 

Carlin 10.35 

Elko 5.31 

Halleck 4.64 

Wells 3 97 

Otego 5.3! 

Toano 2.34 

Tecoma 2.65 

Terrace 4 24 

Helton 6.03 

Promontory 2 93 

Blue Creek. 
Cjrinne. . . . 



Kingsburg 9.49 

Martinez 19 66 

Dunnigan 19.65 

Williams 15.00 

Willows 13.67 

Antioch 17.39 

Brentwood 12.49 

Byron 16.05 

South VaI:ejo 21.98 

Napa 28.19 

Calistoga 40 48 

Suisun : 24 52 

Davis. 18.55 

Woodland 18 54 

Knight's Lauding 17.96 

San Mateo 21.09 

Menlo Park 18.36 

San Jose 12.46 

Tennanfs 24.81 

Gilroy 23.42 

Hollister 12.48 

Pajiro 19.91 

Salinas 12.48 

Suledad 6 78 

Monterey 13 91 

Santa Cruz 29.64 

liCmoore 8 69 

Visalia 10.6: 

Coshen 9.69 

Tulare 9 

''elano 6 76 

Sumner 3 69 

Oalicnte 9.80 

Kecne 11.12 

Tehachipi 8.16 

Mohave 1.27 

rtavena 5.40 

Vewhall 9.15 

San Fernando 9.46 

Los Angeles 10 00 

12.0llspadra 10.22 

14.57iColton 6 0S 



Ogden 11 55[Whitewater 4.69 

Marysville 17.43|Indio 1.20 

Chico 17.62, Mammoth Tank 1.82 

Tehama 10.40 Yuma.. 1.29 

R°d Bluff 28.9. r .;Texas Hill 1.62 

Redding 50 77 Maricopa 88 

Modesto 8.40lPantano 1 25 

Turlock 9.06'Ione 17.26 

Merced 11.59' Farmington 13.20 

Borden 10.68! Anaheim 7.08 

Fresno 8 22j Petiluma 23.29 



San Luis Obispo Notes. 

Mr. C. Bagge, of Oakland, who recently vis- 
ited this county "land experting," speaks well 
of the opportunities offered for investment in 
farming lands. It is not an uncommon thing for 
cultivators to clear the expenses of raising and 
first cost of the land from a single crop of Lima 
beans. Twenty to thirty sacks are raised to the 
acre, weighing about 72 R>3. each. They have 
sold this season for 3 to 3.J cents per lb. A large 
quantity are now steamed and canned at Lusk's 
and other canneries, in a manner that the pros- 
pector and camper roving over the country can 
set a superb dinner of "Boston quail" in a twink- 
ling, and rejoice over even a better article than 
the old diet of baked beans. Mr. Bagge 
reports in this connection, that Steele Bros, 
have established an important enterprise in the 
way of a pork packing establishment, which is 
doing a good run of business to the advantage 
of producers. He also speaks favorably of the 
Bystem of settling up lands adopted by these 
large landowners, whereby they assist the set- 
tler in furnishing him and his family with teams, 
Beed, provisions, etc., while making a crop, to 
pay interest and principal on the purchase of 
the land set apart for them. Here is an exam 
pie for other land owners to imitate, and, if pos 
Bible, improve on. 



The Sackett School. — This well-known 
Oakland sohool for boys began its new year on 
January 3d, most auspiciously. The attendance 
of scholars has increased 50% since last term, 
and everything promises a prosperous year for 
the institution. 



Horticultural Society Meeting.— The 
State Horticultural Society held an interesting 
meeting in this city last week, but Sacramento 
horticulture has us by the throat this week, 
and we are obliged to drop our notes of the 
other meeting for the present. 



Distributing Risks in Fire Insurance. 

The great fires of Portland, Chicago, Boston 
and St. Johns have caused a revolution in the 
system of fire insurance in more senses than one, 
not insignificant of which is distribution of risks 
and division of lines. 

This theory had its incipiency with the large 
underwriting corporations of the time, and was 
by them taught their agents, and by their 
agents taught the insuring public with ever va_ 
rying success, until the oft occurring conflagra. 
tions and consequent crippling of companies, 
with its attendant confusion and loss to the in- 
sured burned into the reason of property own- 
ers the absolute necessity of small lines and 
many companies to be reasonably protected 
against large fires. 

In the scramble for business single compan- 
ies under exclusive management have gone 
down under the weight of heavy lines closely 
huddled together in burned districts, and the 
policy holders have bean left with but their pre- 
mium receipts to console them, where the facili- 
ties for distributing the risks among several 
companies and a disposition to make use of 
these facilities would not only have saved the 
company's life, but would have protected the 
interests of the policy holder, and possibly saved 
him from financial ruin. 

Now, companies and property owners have al- 
most universally wheeled into line on this ques- 
tion, admitting its importance and practicing 
its lessons, until it is difficult for the former to 
put out or the latter obtain a policy of insurance 
covering more than $10,000; whereas, two de- 
cades ago, it was not an unusual thing to find 
individual companies carrying from ^50,000 to 
to $150,000 on a single risk. 

To accomodate this demand of the insuring 
public, the well known firm of Messrs. Hutch- 
inson & Mann, of our city, have gathered 
around them a large liet of staunch Fire Insur- 
ance companies, which, during the past ten 
years have promptly and satisfactorily met and 
paid their large losses (reaching more than $2,- 
000,000), entitling them to their justly merited 
position of one of the First amoung the under- 
writing fraternity of our coast — th6 heartfelt 
thanks of hosts of victims of fire, and the re- 
spect of all our business and commercial circles. 

An individual or a corporation's success in 
any field or enterprise is usually the measure of 
capacity and energy; and in the peculiar profes- 
sion of tire underwriting, these two elements are 
especially requisite to success. That Messrs. 
Hutchinson & Mann have been successful in es- 
tablishing and controlling in its minutest detail 
their enormous business of $000 000 annually 
an unquestioned fact, attained through 
eternal vigilance and personal solicitation and 
application. They have not, like the hen in the 
fable, sat still after requesting others to scratch 
for them; but they also have scratched early 
aud late, and we point to them with pride as 
probably the largest in point of premium re- 
ceipts of any insurauce agency in the United 
States. 



The Grangers' Bank. 

The official statement in our advertising col- 
urns this week shows the condition of the 
Grangers' Bank at the close of the year, as re- 
quired by law. It must be gratifying to the 
friends of the bank to see so creditable a show- 
ing made. We cite items from the reports 
of the last three year?, that an idea of the 
growth of the business from year to year may 
be had: 

Capital Stock. Total Assets, Undivided Profits. 

1879 S400.COO §673,814 25 $36.569.0« 

1880 $400,000 $1,700,84 t.fil $43,141.30 

1881 $500,000 $1,917,577.06 *00,57S.% 

This shows that the bank has greatly in- 
creased its business, and has increased the 
profits accruing to stockholders. In 1879, 
the percentage of profit was 9.18%; in 1880, 
10.50% and in 1881 12% and a trine over. By 
the confidence gained by its management, capi- 
tal was freely supplied for its use in loans on 
agricultural securities; and, on the other hand, 
its transactions and the low rate of interest 
charged made the bank popular among the pro- 
ducers. The result is that a large business has 
been done, and a good profit secured, while at 
the same time the public interest has been 
served. An Eastern paper remarked the other 
day: "Why is it that some banks with a small 
capital stock are enabled to do a more success- 
ful business than other banks with much greater 
resources? It is in the management." The 
Eastern paper was right. Albert Montpellier, 
cashier and manager of the Grangers' bank, is 
entitled to such credit. 



What I Do With My "Rural Tress" 

First, read it attentively, especially the "Cor- 
respondence" and "Agricultural Notes," and sci- 
entific observations of Prof. Hilgard or others. 
Then, have one of the children read aloud, as oc- 
casion presents itself, portions that will be inter- 
esting to the whole family. Then, should I have 
inquiries from some of my Eastern friends, mail 
the paper East. If not, I lay it carefully away. 
At the end of six months I have a good sized 
volume of the best agriculture on the ooast 
with a full, well-arraDged index at the end of 
the volume. I arrange the papers in regular 
order, punch holes with an awl completely 
through the backs at the top, middle and bot- 
tom, and with a darning needle and coarse 
thread sew all together. Then press a rule or 
square on the book; with a sharp knife I trim 
the front, top and bottom, by repeatedly run- 
ning the knife along the edge of the rule. Then 
sew on pasteboard covers, and I have a very 
neat agricultural work of inestimable value to 
any resident of California. If I wish to know 
all that has ever been known or written upon 
any agricultural matter on the coast — soils, 
treatment of the various kinds of soils, manures, 
grains, fruits, fruit trees, pests, squirrels, goph- 
ers, insects, poisons; in short, anything that is 
interesting to farmers in California that has 
ever been published in the agricultural paper of 
the State— I take down my Rural Press, 
glanoe over the tables of contents, and in a few 
moments I usually find that for which I am in 
search. In point of fact, no one can afford to 
farm in California who does not take the Rural 
Press. S. P. Snow. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 



Wheat Growers' Meeting. — The Wheat 
growers' Society will meet in Grangers' hall, 
No. 40 California street, up stairs, on Monday 
Jan. 9th, at 2 p. m. Matters of much impor 
tance will be presented, and a full attendance 
of growers is desirable. 

The London Times says the Chileans, who 
obtained a victory in a just war, will not be in 
clined to submit to dictation unless the Amer 
ican army and navy are largely reinforced. 



General Le Due.— Gen. Le Due, ex Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture, is now in San Francisco. 
On Wednesday afternoon he visited Grange head- 
quarters, and was entertained by Bro. Amos Ad- 
ams, manager of the Grangers' Business Associ- 
ation, and Bro. J. V. Webster, Secretary of 
the State Grange. The general was shown the 
workings of the Grange institutions, and exhib- 
ited much interest therein. 



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Agricultural Articles. 



(A fc> 



COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLER'S GUIDE, 

A Popular Exposition of our Public Land 
System. 

PRICE— On fine paper and in substantial cloth bind- 
ing, 81. 

Send to the office of this paper and get a copy of this 
popular book. 



Thoroughbred Jersey Bull 

FOR SALE. 

Four years old. Perfectly gentle Pedigree can he had 
on application. W. AITKEN, 

Healdsburg, Cal. 



F. MANSELL & CO., 
Sign and Ornamental Painters, 

Removed to NO 434 PINE ST., S. F. 

(Opposite their old stand.) 



Gilbs H. Gray. Jambs Haven. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

630 California St., SAN FRANCISCO 



THE CALIFORNIA ADJUSTABLE 

Spring Tooth Harrow 

CULTIVATOR & SEEDER. 




Mulberry Cuttings 

For sale from choice selected varietit s of Morns Alba or 
Wnite Mu'berry. 

Address MRS. S. A. SELLERS Antioch, Cal. 



YOUR NAMEiTnWarSl lO?. 

styles, tj best MUM-: *....»«.<*. /■'"'». <•••'«« 



III SKSSfc 

■ W Agent's Complete Sa Uook.SSc. < 

Advertising and BevclKdue Card*, lanrmt pr* 
ami primers. IOO »"»/'''« /''""•!/ Advert 



I-, in d values 
. Cards. 60a. 

STKVKNS BBOS.. llux 21. Norlliloril. CI. 



Instructor and Piano Teacher, 

German, single, respectfully solicits offers from the coun 
try. Expectations modest. P. W krnsr, San Francisco, 



As IMPROVED and PERFECTED for 1881 will work 
equally as well on loose or wet land as in hard or dry 
soil, and are what every farmer needs to destroy vegeta- 
tion on the summer fallow. Will savereplowing and put 
the land in the best possible condition for early sowing. 

LOOK TO YOUR INTERESTS 

And make money by saving time and working your fal- 
lows before harvest. Our new size six foot ORCIIARD 
or VINEYARD HARROWS are provided with handles, 
rendering them as easily ';ontrolled as the Cultivators. 
These implements are acknowledged by all who are fa- 
miliar with their work, to be the most practical for gen- 
eral use in the orchard or vineyard of any yet offered to 
the public. Manufactured only by 

BATCHEL0R, VAN GELDER & CO., 

Nos. 0OO & 902 K Street, Sacramento, Cal 

Under the original patents now owned by 
D. C. & H. C. REED & CO., Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Beware of Infringements. 

The Famons "Enter-wise," 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixlurtt. 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infer 
matlon 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 

& CO.. 323 <& 335 Market Street. 



Engraving.! 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav 
ing, Electrotyping und Stereotyp- 
ing done at the office of the Mining 
UIP SoiBNTirio Prbss, San t r&ncisce. at lavo-able rati* 




MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match In 
Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the business and know what is required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is bo constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble GaDg Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 

THE DINGEE & CONARD CO S 

BEAUTIFUL EVF.R-K LOOM DIG 




The only establishment making a SPECIAL 
BUSINESS OF ROSES. 50 LARCE HOUSES 
for ROSES alone. Wo deliver Strong Pot Plants, 
suitable for immediate bloom, safely by mail, postpaid. 
5 splendid varieties, your choice, all labeled, for 8 1 : 
1 2 for 82: 1 9 for S3 ; 26 for $4; 35 for 85; 75 for 
• 10; IOO for 813. We CIVE AWAY, in Pre- 
miums and Extras, more ROSES than wo-t es- 
tablishments grow. Our NEW CUIDE, a compute 
Treatise on the Hose ,10rip.etegantty illustrated — free taall 

THE DINCEE & CONARD CO. 
Rose Growers, West Grove, Chester Co., Pa. 



^ AMERICAN 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 

All kinds of Light Iron and Wood Work, including Pat- 
terns, Gear Cutting, Planing. Engine, Musical Instruments 
and other repairing. Dies. Taps, Reamers, etc., a specialty. 

HEALD 4 BANKS, Proprietors. 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January y, 1882 



.A.civns" 

PULVERIZING HARROW, CLOD CRUSHER AND LEVELER 



at 



a — 

0> Q_ 



re 



re 




The "ACME" subjects the §oil to the action of a Crusher and Leveler, and at the eame time'to the Cutting 
Lifting, "turning p? .cess of double rows of STEEL COULTERS, the peculiar shape and arrangement of which give 
Immense Cutting Power. The entire absence of Spikes or Spring Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially 
adapted to inverted sod, hard clay and "slough land" where other Ilarrowj utterly fail, and also works perfectly on 
light soil. 

NASH & BRO., Sole Manufacturers, 

22 College Place, New York City. 

SOLD IN CALIFORNIA BY: 0. B. Adams & Son, San Gabrel; Oliver Holden, San Jose, Jonn 

Tuohy, Visalia. 



IMPERIAL EGK3- FOOD. 




Will make your Hens Lay, keep 
them in the best possiblo condition and 
ward off disease. When fed accor- 
ding to directions, sick and 
drooping fowls are never 
seen. It furnishes the J. 
needed material for 
fonningbonc.mus-^^iA 
clc and feath- -^^^V^^^ 



crs, 



and 



Invaluable for Youngr Chicks and Moulting 

Fowls. It comes packed in various sized packages 
»nd being a powder, is easily mixed with the ciuv 
tomary feed. Give it a trial. Send Stamp for 
t.'iroUr and Tr timonials. 

Price.— Single pound, 50 ce-.ts; TV. 
and a half pounds, $1.00; Six pounds, 
»I00; 25 pound ke? $fi.25. Addiess, 



-Th«- 

EcUpse Mr 
Regulating Incu 
bators are now in act 
ual use in most parts of 
- State, and giving genera] 
satisfaction. Tin y are a success, 
and being such are invaluable to all 
who attempt to raise chickens; are easy to 
manage, and cost merely a trifle to keep In op 
erati'in. and wih do much bt tt. r w<"k than can b 



tl.i. 



6. G. WICKSON, 

tlcneral Pacific Coast Agt 
No. :J19 Market St. 

Francisco, 
California. 



done with 
liens, vitli a 
small portion of 
the labor and risk. 
J-rTThe "Eclipse" is the 
only entirely self-regulating In- 
cubatorknown;istheonly one that 
will hear investigating, so it Is the only 
safe'one to purchase. Send Btamp for Cir- 
cular of California Testimonials (not Eastern.) 




Tho Eclipso Self -Regulating Incubator, 



PARKER SHOT GUN. 



MODEL 188i. 




Shooting Qualities 

UNSURPASSED! 



Send stamp for 50-page Catalogue. 

If you want REVOLVER8, RIFLES, GUNS, IMPLEMENTS, or AMMUNITION, 
send for Circular and Prices. Large Stock and Fine Assortment. 

E. T. ALLEN, Agent for the Pacific Coast, 



NO. 416 MARKET STREET, 



SAN FRANCISCO. CAL 




Tubbs Hotel, 

OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA. 

An elegant family residence in charming grounds. Two 
hundred rooms. Near steam and street cars. Forty 
minutes to or from San Francisco. Trains every half 
ho jr. Five-cent fare. Table d'ilote or Restaurant. 
Splendid suite* of sunny apartments or single rooms with 
or without bathrooms. The most HKALTHY and agree- 
able location on the Pacific Coast. Mean yearly tempera- 
ture 65* Sun unobscurod from March to November. 
A HOME for tourist or invalid Good cuieind under a 
celebrated Chef. Prices more reasonable than any hotel 
of its character in California. Livery stable, laundry, 
billiard room, telegraphic communication, etc., in con- 
ncetion with the hotel. Special terms made. All appli- 
cations answered. 

SHELDON I. KELLOGG Jr., Prop r. 



SOKES. 



M. J. PAILLARD & CO., 

Manufacturers and Importers of all Kinds of 

MUSICAL BOXES 

Of Standard Reputation. The largest and finest assortment in the city. Musical 
Boxes with changeable cylinders always on hand at low figures. The latest style 
patented, "THE INTERCHANGEABLE," patented February 11, 1879. 

Repairing Musical Boxes and Furnishing Material a Specially. 

23 DUPONT STREET. SAN FRANOISOO. 

A. E. JUILLERAT, Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. (Branch Hons* ot 680 Broadway, N. Y 



W.Il. ALLEN & CO., 




IMPORTERS OF 

Iron Pipe and Fittings, 
Lift and Force Pumps, 
Brass Cocks and Valves, 

For Steam, Water and Gas, 

Sheet Zinc, Iron Sinks, 
Plumbers' Goods. 

Nos. 327 and 329 Market Street, Cor. Fremont, S. F. 




JOHIST OAIITE, 
Proprietor of the Globe Foundry and Machine Shop, and 
Stockton Improved Gang Plow Man'fg Works. 



AGENT FOR 

Studebaker Farm and Spring 
Wagons, Header Trucks with wide 
and narrow tires, Rakes, Derricks, Belt- 
ing, Cordage, Oil?, Forks, Hardware.etc. 

I3T Steum Engines, and general re- 
pairing, with large assortment of extras 
for Agricultural Implements, and the 
STOCKTON GANG Plows, Reversible 
Molds and Land Sides. Address 

JOHN CAINE, Stockton, Cal. 

GLOBE IRON WORKS. 

P. O. Box, 95. 




HARDWOOD LUMBER, 

Oak Timber and Flank, Thin Fancy Woods, 

— AND — 

VENEERS and DOWELS. 

JOHN WICMORE, 129. 131, 133 and 135 Spear St., S- F. 

PURE B RED P OULTRY. 

Langshans, Cochins, Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Dorkings, Pekin and Rouen Ducks, Bronze Turkeys, Etc. 2 

I have a large stock of the above varieties for Sale Cheip, considering the quality of stock. For further informa- 
maUon, send 3 cent stamp for new circular and price list to R. C. HEAD, Napa, Cal. 





Lands for Sale and to Let. 




For Sale In large or small tracts, on easy terms. In 
the best parts of the State. 

MCAFEE BROTHERS, 

328 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



SANTA CRUZCOUNTY 

Goods Crops every Season without Irrigation 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Ranches and homesteads of every 
class and description in this and adjoining counties for 
sale or rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estate 

EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Fruit Farm For Sale. 

Containing 24 acres fronting on Davis Arenne, one mile 
noth of the hVmriehing town of Los (Jatoe. Oood bouse, 
barn, chicken bouse ami yard. A good well of soft water; 
1.000 fruit trees, assorted, and 650 grape Tines, all set out 
last winter. About 50 oak trees, large and small, adds to 
the beauty of the place. This beautiful, healthy place, situ- 
ated in the charming warm belt climate of the foothills, is 
sold for the want of health and means to carry it on. 

Price, $2,700. Address O. W. McGRKW, Los Gatos, Cal. 

Refereuce— Dewey & Co , Rural Press. 



CHOICE FRUIT FARM FOR SALE. 

Located about } of a mile north of Los Gatoa, fronting 
on the county road. Containing 42 acres— 20 of which is 
planted to fruit and 10 acres to grapes. All planted out 
last winter and having made a splendid growth. The 
orchard consists of the best varieties of apple, pear, peach, 
plum, prune, cherry, apricot and about 60 orange trees. 
Oood house, barn, chicken and outhouses; 2 wells of 
water. All improvements new. Price, (5,200. 

Address J. B BIBBEE. 



LADIES' 

Purchasing Agency- 

Commissions executed and purchases made of all kinds 
of household articles, dry goods, art and fancy work ma- 
terials, etc. 

MRS M. 8 HARMON, 

131 Hancock St., S. F. 



'ASTHMA 



Quickly and 
Permanently 



Dr.Stinson's AslhmaRemed y I 

Is unequaled as a positive I 
Alterative and Cure fori 

Asthma and Dyspepsia, I 

and all their attendant evils. It dors not merely 
aftord temporary relief, but Is a permanent cure. 
Mrs. B. F. Lee, of Belmore, O., says of it : " / am 
surprised at the speedy effects of yemr remedy. It is 
the first medicine in six years that has loosened my 
ciniah and made expectoration easy. I now steep all 
niahl without couphlng." If your druggist does not 
keep It, send for treatise und testimonials to 
* II.P.H.PF<K4IO.. 

SKI IlrouUvvu}, Mew York. 



NOTICE I 

II IK MEMBERS OF THE 

Wheat Growers' Association of California 

And others interested are notified that there will be a 
meeting held at Grangers' Hall, corner Davis and Califor- 
nia streets, San Francisco, Cal., on Monday, January 0th, 
1882, at2 o'clock p. H. for the purpose of adopting a code 
of by-laws, and the transaction of such other business as 
may properly come before said meeting. A full attend 
ance is desirable. J. W. MCCARTHY, Sec'y. 

SEND TO 

CADIEN «fc BAGLEY, 

Stockton. Cal., for 

AXTTZ - RHEUMATIC 

Shrunk Flannel Underwear. 

Measure arouod chest over vest for undershirt; around 
waist under vest for drawers. Goods sent C. 0, D. per 
W. r. & Co. Price, f 6 a suit 



We can furnish immediately in any quantity, 

CUTTINGS and ROOTED VINES 

Of Rupestrls. 

These stocks are phylloxera- proof, and will grow readily 
from cuttings as the vintfera. For particulars apply to 
M. FISH EL St CO., 

Oranby, Newton Co., Ho. 

Short Horn Bulls For Sale. 



The undersigned now have for sale a fow choice Thor 
oughbred and high grade bulla from the best milk strains 
Our herd consists ol "Young Marys," "Daisies," "Imp 
Britannia*, " etc. Prices Reasonable. 

HYDE & MOORE, Visalia, Cal 



January 7, 1882.^ 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



11 



Six lines or less in this Directory at 50 eta a line per month. 

CATTLE. 

COL. C. YOUNGER. Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horn Durham?, and pare bred 
Cotswold Sheep. Young Balls and Bucks always for 
sale. Herd took Gold Medal, 1881. 

WILLIAM NLLES, Los Angeles, Cal Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Jersey Cattle, bred from Importation direct from 
Jersey Island, and winners of most of the prizes at 
Oakland, Stockton and the State Fairs. " Victor of 
Yerba liuena," of noted butter strains on the Island, 
and known to be the best Bull ever imported to this 
coast, now stands at the head of this famous herd. 
" King of Scituate," son of the famous 705 pound butter 
Cow, Jersey Belle, of Scituate, which now stands at the 
head of Mr. Pierce's noted herd, at Scituate, Mass., 
will soon be brought here. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. T. Importers 
and Breeders fur past eleven years. Berkshires, 
"Jerseys," "Short Horns," and all varieties of Sheep, 
and their grades. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petal uma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Spanish Merino Sheep- 

MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn cattle and 
Berkshire hogs. A choice lot of young stock for 
sale. 

R J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of 
Short-Horn Durhams and Norman-Percheron horses. 



ROBT. BECK, San Francisco. Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Jersey cattle. Herd took Six Premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, 188L 

GEO. BEMENT, Redwood City, San Mateo Co., Cal. 
breeder of Ayrshire Cattle. Several line young Bu'ls, 
Yearlings and Calves For Sale. 



R. NOELL, Grass Valley, Nevada Co., Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Thoroughbred Jerseys. 

R. McENESPY, Cbico, Butte Co., Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons. 



HORSES. 



JAS. A. PERRY, of River View Stock Farm, Wil- 
mington, 111., has in Petaluma, Sonoma county, several 
fine Norman Stallions of his last importation direct from 
France. Catalogues on application to J as. A. Perry, 
Fashion Stables, Petaluma, Cal. 

P. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Marin Co., Cal. Breeder of 
choice Jerseys, bred from butter strains. Hambletonian 
horses by the Silver Gray Stallion, "Rustic," remark- 
able for size, speed, and kind disposition. 



J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co.. Cal. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Devon*, roadster horses and Percheron 
draft horses. 



E. A SACK RIDER, 325 Eleventh St., Oakland, 
Cal Importer of Norman-Percheron horses. Horses 
on hand and for sale at reasonable terms. 



WM. FARRINGTON, Santa C ara, Cal. Breeder 
of Norman norses; owuer of the horse "Cunard," of 
slock of Perry's importation. 



W. A. MUNNION, Dixon, Solano Co., CaL Owner 
and Breeder of the celebrated Jack, "John Henry." 
Took First Premium State Fair, 1881, also Percheron 
Half-breeds. 



J W. BRYAN, Santa Clara, Cal. Breeder of Nor- 
maL-PorcheroDs from the celebrated Hercules Stock. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, CaL Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co , Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 



E. W. WOOLSEY St SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co. 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Meriuo Sheep. City office, No. 118 California 
SL.S F. 



POULTRY. 



H. S SARGENT, Stockton, Cal. Importer, Breeder 
and Shipper of Poland China Pigs, and Bronze Turkeys. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. M E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown and White Leghorns, Plymouth Rock, 
Pekin Ducks 



HALSTED'S NEW INCUBATOR. Price $30 
1011 Broadway, Oakland. Send for circular. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. WAITE, Brighton, Sacramento Co. Breeder of 
Thor ugbbred Berkshire Hogs and choice Imported 
Poultry. Took Premium State Fair, 1880 and 1SS1 
of Leghorns (brown and white), Speckled Himburgs 
Plymouth Rocks and Pekin Ducks. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal., Breeder of Poland 
China Swine. Stock recorded in American Poland 
China Record. Are descendants of the celebrated Mc- 
Crary-Bismarck, bred by D. M Magie, Oxford, Ohio. 
Took five First Premiums at State Fair in 1880 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of thor- 
o ugh bred Berks hires of stock imported by L. Sta nford. 



The Fresno Colony, 

On the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and adjoining Fresno City and the Central Colony- 
Has the most favoroble location of any Colony, as well as other superior advantages. Abun- 
dant water secured. Land unsurpassed for Vine Raising and Fruit Culture, Send for Map and 
Circular, or come and examine. Address 

THOMAS E. HUGHES <fc SONS, Fresno City. Cal. 




GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 
In 10.OCO Shares of SlOO each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $500,000. 

Reserve Pond and Paid np Stock, 35,760. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEK Cashier and Macager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 



S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

rFree Coach to the House. O. F. BECKER. Proprietor 



O- ID. I_ 

821 Kearny Street, ----- San Francisco, Cal. 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST FOR 

THE BALLARD RIFLE, AND MARLIN S NEW BALLARD REPEATER. 



A FULL LINE OF 
WINCHESTER 
and KENNEDY, 

SHARPS, BALLARD 

and REMINGTON 
RIFLES. 

Complete Assortment of Shot Guns and Pistols of all Makers. Ammunition in lots to 
Suit. Liberal discount to the trada Send for Special Price List for Marlln's 
New Repeater and Ladd's Improvement on the Kennedy Rifles. 

SEND FOR 1881 PRICE LIST. 




JOS. FREDERICKS & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

CARPETS, FURNITURE, BEDDING, 

Rugs Mats, Linoleum, Oilcloths, Upholstery Goods, Etc. 

Lace Curtains, Window Shades and Draperies, 

649 and 651 Market St., Opposite Kearny, S. F. 



IMPORTANT!!! 

That the public should know that for the past ELEVEN" year- our SOLE BUSINESS has been, and now is. importing 
(OVER 100 CARLOADS) and breeding imp-nved Liv* Stock Horses. Jacks, Shor: Horns. Ayrsbires and Jerseys (or 
Alderoers) and their grades: also ALL fH E VARIETIES of breeding Sheep and Hogs We an supply any and all good 
animals that may be wanted, and at VERY REASONABhE PRICES and on CONVENIENT TERM 



us. LICK HOl'sE, Sm Fraucisco, Cal.. October 22. 1SS1 



Write or call on 

PETER SAXE & HOMER P. SAXE 

PETER SAXE & SON. 



THE MYERS PLOWS. 



All extras for Patent 



Slip-share Gang Plows, 
SIDE-HILL. SUB-SO L 

AND 

SIXTCIiE PLOWS, 

Constantly on hand and for sale at 

RICH'S E1VGI1VE WORKS, 

Sole Aoenct, 
Nos. 52, 54 , 56 and 60 Bluxome St., S. F , Cal. 



BEES. 



J. D. EN AS. Sunnyside, Napa, Cal , Breeds Pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Comb Foundation. 



40 



Comic Transparent Cards, name on, 10 cents, or 50 
Sue Chromos, 10 cents. Wise & Co., Clintonvillc. Ct. 



HOPE -DEAF 

Dr. Peck's Artificial Ear Drums 

PERFECTLY RESTORE THE HEARING 

and pvrform the work of the Natural Drum. 
Alwavs in position, bat Invisible to other*. 
All Conversation and even whispers heard dis- 
tinctly. Wi rater to tho«« using them, .-end for 
descriptive circular with testimonials. Address, 
H. P. K. PECK & CO., Sitf Broadway, Now York. 



Hunter's Eccentric Patent Coupling. 

For carriages, pumps and wbiffletrees and other coup- 
lings. No bolts, no rattling and no unhitching. State 
and County rights for tale. Address HUNTER & 
FRANCIS, Merced, CaL 



B. STEACE7, 

Lockeford, San Joaquin Co., Cal., 

MA.MTACTrRKR OF ALL KINDS OF 

FARMERS' WAGONS, 

Backboards, Family Buggies 

Of all kinds and sizes. 



Keeps a good supply of well seasoned wood en hand 
Blacksmithing and painting departments in connection 



Napa Co 

Stanislaus Co 

Santa Clara Co 

Solano Co 

Yolo Co 

San Mateo Co 



DIRECTORS 

JOHN" LEWELLING, President 

J. H. GARDINER 

T. E. TYNAN 

URIAH WOOD 

I MERYFIELD 

H. M. LARL~E 

I. C. STEELE 

DANIEL R HO ADS . . . . . . . . . .... Mussel Slough^Tulare Co 

J. CRESSEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER. Xapa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way. bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deoosi:s receireu 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on de 
niand. 

TERM DEPOSITS are retired and interest allowed as 
follows: 4 c per annum if left for 3 months; 5~. per annum if 
eft for 6 months: 6 per annum if left for 12 months. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 
and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco. Jan. 15, 1BBL 



in Gattle. 



CLYDESDALE AND HAMBLETONIAN 

HORSES. 

The largest and deepest milking herd of 
Holsteins in the world. 225 head, pure bred, 
iuosrlj- imported, males and females of dif- 
ferent ages. 

A Large and elegant stud of imported 
Clydesdale Stallions 3nd Mares of all ages 

Hambletonian Stallions and Mares of superior breeding 
Personal inspection invited. Separate catalogues of each 
class, and milk records of cows mailed free on application. 
All inquiries promptly answered. State that you caw 
this advertisement in the Pacific Riral Press. 

SMITHS & POWELL, 

Lakeside Stock Farm, Syracuse, N. Y. 




WINDMILLS! HORSE POWERS! 

IANKS AND ALL KINDS OF PIMPING MACHIN- 
ERY BCILT TO ORDER. 
No. 51 Beale Street, S. F. 
Send for Circulars. 

F. W. KROGH &c CO. 

(Successors to W 1. Ttstin.) 



California Washer. 



This machine is an improvement on the ce'ebrated 
"Humboldt." For Families or Hotels it will pay for 
itself in le>s than six months. Lace curtains and other 
delicate fabrics can be washed without injury. Price $15. 
Manufactory, 431 Fourth St., S. F. Local or traveling 
Agents wanted. G. M. PL'RSELL, Patentee. 



California Improved Rotary Churn, 

TATR-NTED AIOIST, 1SS1. 

A Box Churn with dashers, or can be used without 
dashers. Can be run with reverse motion with one man 
or two. A trial will couvince that this is the bee; Churn 
in use. For Churns and Agencies, apply to 

E. I. PRIEST * CO., 

tH9 .Market St., Oakland. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH. 

$2 per Gallon 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON. 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1-60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply vo FALKNER, BELL 6* CO., 

Sole Agents. 4SO California Street. S. F. 



To Fis h Ra isers. 

I am now ready to sell Carp which were Imported from 
Genu any in 1871 in lots to suit. Address 

J. A. POPPB. Sonoma. Cal. 



rA Varieties French Chromo Sv.in, Pearl Finished Etc 
OU cards, name in gold, 10c. Card Mills, NorthfordCt 



Poultry and Stock Book 

V subjects 
connected with successful Poultry and Stock raising on 
the Pacific Oust. A New Edition, over 1C0 i>ages, pro- 
fusely illustrated with handsome life-like il ustrations of 
the different varieties o* poultry and live Btock. Price 
by mail, 60 cents. Address WILLIAM NILES, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., a F. 

First-class Fire- proof Brick Building. Capacity 10,000 
ton*. Goods takeu from the Dock and the Oar* of the C. P. 
K K and S. P. R. B. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Hatns Advances and Insurance effected. 

CO Gold, Crystal, Laos, Perfumed & Chromo Cards.name 
Da iu gold and Jet, 10a Clinton Bros., Clin ton ville, Co 



12 



f HE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 7, 1882 



'afents and I nventions. 



List of u. s. 



Patents for Pacific 
Inventors. 



Coast 



From the official list of U. 8. Patents iu DEWEY & 
Co 's SCIENTIFIC Pkkss Patent AliKNeY, No. 252 Market 
St. S. F. 

For the Week Ending Dkikmiier 20, 1881. 

251,018. — Hat Unloading and Staukiso Apparatus- 
Jos. C. Austin, Imusdale, Cal. 

251,021 — Oau Runner— Wro. M. Blaine, Salinas, Cal. 

251,337.— Drbk— J. H. Burrows, Boise City, I. T. 

251,023.— Transom Adjuster — B. II. Carter, Oakland. 

251,201— Washing Machine— M. J. Fenwiek, Cottage 
Grove, Or. 

251,034— Footstool for Rocking Chairs -Ferdinand 
Franz. S. F. 

251.044— Ore Crusher and Grinder— Wm. Cutenbar- 
ger, Sacramento, Cal. 

251.114— Wire Hope and Carlk — A. S. Hallidie, S. F. 

251.045— Attachment for Ci.eanisg biioen ok Thrash- 
ing Machlnes — H. Hamilton, Visalia, Cal. 

251.115 — Buckboard Wagon— J. Hansel, Stockton, Cal. 
251,064— Paint Compound for Metallic Surfaces - 

Eugene Jones, Gold Hill, Nev. 

251,119— Field Thkasiirr— H. Jory, Marysville, Cal. 

9,985 (re-issue)- Artificial Tooth— C II. Mack, Walla 
Walla, W. T. 

251,204— Stamp Mill -Jas. F. Marvin, Ft. McDowell, 
A. T. 

251,127— Picture Feedino Device for Magic Lanterns 
E. J. Muybridge, S. F. 
251,287— Plow— C. H. Remington, Gilroy, Cal. 

251.069- Piano Stool— S. W. Shaw, S. F. 

251.070— Sash Fastrne..— S. W. Shaw, S. F. 

251, :)02— Hydraulic Motor— W. J. Silver, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

251,076— Faucet— M. Tommasi, Smith's Ranch, Cal. 

251,145— Explosive Compound-G. von Plauitz, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



Notices of Recent Patents, 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 's Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Grain Cleaner. — Franklin Dalbey, Sheridan, 
Placer Co., Cal. No. 250,789. Dated Dec. 1!», 
1SS1. This grain cleaner consists in a combina- 
tion of mechanism for adjusting a double seive- 
ing box whereby the grain which is discharged 
above and subjected in its fall to a blast of air 
is cleaned up, the chaff and lighter grain being 
blown onward into the farther receptacle and 
the good grain dropped closer in, from where it 
is conducted upon a shaking screen for further 
cleaning. The object of the invention is to clean 
up grain after it has been thrashed to render it 
suitable for market or for seeding purposes. 
For these two objects a different degree of clean- 
ing is required. For the market it is not 
necessary to clean the wheat aa thoioughly as 
for seed. In the latter case not only the chaff 
and foreign stuff must be separated, but all the 
light and imperfect wheat, commonly known as 
"chicken feed," must be taken out, because a* 
seed the best grains are required, while in the 
former case if the wheat is not quite so thor- 
oughly cleaned, it is just aa good and a con- 
siderable portion is saved. 

Fruit-Pittino Machine. — Antonio Dona- 
tella, Healdsburg. No. 250,794. Dated Dec. 
13, 1881. This fruit-pitting machine consists 
in the employment of a peculiar combined punch 
and knife, which is brought down upon the fruit 
with a sudden force, the effect of which ia to 
drive the pit downward through a perforated 
bed plate, and cut the fruit in half. The bed 
plate is provided with a rubber cushion for the 
purpose of more thoroughly cleaning the pit as 
it is forced through. The employment of the 
rubber cushion is beneficial in that it scrapes 
the pit cleaner, and presents a softer surface to 
the fruit than the metal could, and thus is not 
liable to bruise or injure it. For different fruits 
the apertures in the cushion and plate are made 
of different sizes, to permit the passage of dif- 
ferent sized pits. The device is worked by the 
foot. 



Pacific Coast Weather for the Week. 

(Furnished for publication in the Rural Press by Nelson 
(Jekom, Sertrt. Signal Service Corps, U. 8. A.J 

The following is a summary of the rainfall 

for each day of the week ending Wednesday, 

Dec. 21st. at noon, for the stations named: 





J 


■6 


if 




'3. 


c 


s 


Date. 


a 


03 


E 




>, 


X. 


00 




s 


o 
B, 


O 

X 


Thursday, 29th 


\07 


.02 


.00 


Friday, 30th . . . 


.00 


.00 


.00 


Saturday, 31st. 


.37 


.16 


.00 


Suuday, 1st . . 


.33 


.8*1 


.75 


Monday, 21. . . 
Tuesdav, 3d< 


.44 


.48 


.38 


.08 


.24 


.43 


Wed'sday, 4th. 


\34 


\46 


Ml 


Total for Week. 


"1.83 


'2.14 


>1.67 



.00 00 

♦Sixteen hours missing from Olvmpia, and 8 hours from 
Portland. Roseburg and Red Bluff during week. Reports 
missing from north of Red Bluff this P. M 



The State Fish Commission has received 
from the East 50,000 Eastern trout and 500,- 
000 whitetish eggs for distribution in the wa- 
ters of this State. Twenty thousand of the 
trout eggs are being hatched at Saa Leandro, 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

[Established in San Francisco in 1870 ] 

Thin is the leading fanning journal ou the western half of 
the continent, and second to none in America. It is well 
printed and illustrated, weekly. Contains an unusual amount 
of fresh, original farm, household and family circle litera- 
ture. Careful attention is paid to giving full and reliable 
weekly market reports. The following are among its ably 
conducted departments: Editorials on agricultural and 
other timely and important subjects of live interest to 
farmers and their families; agricultural, and other useful 
and ornamental illustrations ; correspondence from various 
quarters of our new and rich developing fields of agriculture 
on the Pacific coast, embracing new hints and ideas from 
progressive men and women in all branches of rural industry: 
Horticulture; Floriculture; The Garden; The Home Circle; 
The Grange; Young Folks; Domestic Economy; Go* d Health- 
Entomological; Sheep and Wool; The Dairy; Tho Stock 
Yard; Poultiy Yard; The Swine Yard; The Apiary; The 
Vineyard; Queries and Replies; New Inventions (and illus- 
trations of new and improved machinery); Agricultural 
Notes; Items of General News, etc. Its columns are stu- 
diously rilled with chaste, interesting, fresh and useful read- 
ing, devoid of questionable literature for old or young and 
fancifully alluring clap-trap advertisements. Send for sam- 
ple copies. 

Subscriptions, in atlrntn't, S3 a year. Agents wanted, on 
liberal pay Dewrv & 06., PubPshers. 

No. 252 Market St.,, 8. F., Cal. 



Business Offices and Sunny 
Rooms to Let. 

We have some desirable rooms to let adjoining th 
offices of this paper which will be rented on favorable 
ierms. Stair entrance, No. 252 Market SI. Elevator, No. 
12 Front St. Parties wishing offices, etc. , will do well to 
call and see them. DEWEY & CO. 



Volunteer Testlm'o Dials of Those Who Have 
Ueed Booth's Exterminator. 

San Luis C bispo, Cal., Aug. 9th. 1880. 
The undersigned Committee, appointed by San Luis 
Obispo Grange, P. of H., No 28, have used the Squirrel 
and Gopher Poison prepared by A. R. Booth, at the Eagle 
Drug Store, San Luis Obispo, during the growing season, 
when there was plenty of green things for squirrels 
and gophers to live upon, and we find that they 
take the Poison above described, at this season of the 
year, and that the effect is as destructive as could he 
wished; and it is the cheapest and best Squirrel and 
Gopher Poison with which we are acquainted, or ever ex- 
perimented with. 

E. W. Ftkklk, 1 



Attest: 

A. T. Mason, 
Sec'y P. of H., No. 28. 



F. F. Whits, Com. 
L. M. Warden. I 



Front st Dewey & Co. s Patent 
Agency and News- 
paper Offices. 

2 — 

^| p Dewey At Co. 's Patent Agency 
™ and the business offices of the 

rtMinlnpr and Scientific 
Press. Pacific Rural 
Press. Pacific States 
Watchman and the Fra- 
ternal Record are now 
favorably situated at No. 252 Market Street. Elevator 
entrance, A'o. 1: Front St,. S. F. 




Our Agents. 



Our Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

G. W. McGrkw— Santa Clara county. 

M P. Owen — Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wright— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties. 

Jarsd C. Hoao— California. 

1). W. Crowbll — Humboldt and Trinity counties. 

D. W. Kklleiibr— Merced, Fresno and San Benito. 

A. C. Ksox— State of Nevada. 

Epwarii A. Weed- San Francisco. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will flud the date they have paid to 
printed on the label of,their paper. If it is not correct, 
or if the paper Bhould ever come beyond the timedesired, 
be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal card. 
If we are not notified within a reasonable time we can- 
not be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



PKR80X8 receiving a sample copy of the Pacific 
Rural Prrss trith thin notice marked, are requested 
to examine the merits of the same, and consider fairly its 
claims for support, and if consistent, subscribe for the 
paper through the P. M. or agent delivering it, or other- 
wise. We will send it, on trial, at the rate of $3 per an- 
num for any period the reader may wish. Please notice 
our torms elsewhere, and if desired, send for further 
samples and information. Those who can circulate this 
No. further to our advantage are invited to do so. 



Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances The floral 
department is replote and the wild animals i.i good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 



Mansion Hoimb.- First-class in every respect, and 
reasonable price3. - When you visit Stockton atop at the 
Mansion House. Free Coach to the house. 

J. H. CKOSS. I'roprietor. 

St. James Hotel. First-class in every respect- 
When you go to San Jose, take free coach to the 
St. James. TYLER BEACH, Proprietor. 

Annual Statistician of 1881.- "It is the most com 
plete and accurate work of its kind in the world "S. F 
Call. Address L. P. McCarty, 8i6 California St. Price, 84 

Aoknts can now grasp a fortune. Outfit worth 810 
sent free. Full particulars address E. G. Rldbout & Co 
10 Barclay St., N. Y. 



The New Year. 

Acknowledging all favors of the past, the publishers of 
the Rural solicit their patrons to renew their subscrip 
tions as promptly as possible at this season. The expense 
of our recent removal and the desire to advance a notch 
higher for the true interests of our intelligent readers 
"the wide-awake farmers of the Pacific coast"— make it of 
more than ordinary benefit to our enterprises to receive 
old and new subscriptions at the present. We are happy 
to say, that in no past season have the prospects of the 
Rural been more promising than its present outlook for 
the year 1882. Will you help us go ahead? 



Livery Starle in Oakland— We call the attention of 
farmers visiting Oakland, and others to hire teams or 
stable teams in Oakland, to the Hay, Sale, Boarding and 
Livery Stable of T. A. Cunningham, 13(18 Broadway, 
Oakland. Mr. Cunningham (recently from Haywards 
where be still owns a ranch) has purchased a homestead 
in Oakland, and will do his best to give satisfaction to 
his new customers and old friends who may call. 



S. p. f/I^KEJ l\EpOf\T. 



Kotk— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 4, 1882. 

The Wheat market has gathered strength and tone 
again the world over. In this market there has been a 
gain of about 5B per ctl in ruling rates, and there has been 
a renewal of transactions both for shipping and milling' 
The latest from abroad is as follows: 

The Forelem Review. 

London, Jan. 2d. — The Mark Lane Express says the 
young plant is at present strong and healthy, except in a 
few districts, which are subject to floods. The scarcity 
of sound samples of English Wheat is becoming pro- 
nounced, and they are in some markets slightly dearer. 
Flour is firm, and the best makers are 1 shilling higher 
in the country and fid. higher in London, as compared 
with a fortnight ago; the rise is due to the slackening in 
supply of the foreign trade. The other home grain pro- 
duce remains similar to that in Wheat. The trade in for- 
eign breadstuff's in London is at least as good as it has 
been for some weeks Wheat is slightly dearer; fine 
qualities are particularly affected by the smallnees of the 
slock. Red Whe it is rather scarcer, and consequently in 
better demand than White, but the trade is very small. 
Choice flours are occasionally dearer. The cargo trade 
is quiet and light. Cargoes were sold of 25 vessels off 
coast. Red Winter Wheat generally is 63 • Gd. Thosales 
of English Wheat during the week were 32,227 quarters 
at 44s. 3d. per quarter, against 27,140 quarters at 41s 
lid. iu the corresponding week of last year. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Jan 3d — The Wool market is firm with a 
steady demand, and full prices continue to be realized for 
all kinds. Sales of Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces at 43 
to 45c for X and XX, and good average double XX is 
generally held at the latter price. Michigan X fleeces are 
held at 42c and are firm. Combing and delaine selec- 
tions remain the same at 4' ■ for fine delaine and 
fine combed. Unwashed combing is in moderate de- 
mand at 25(<r.13c for course and medium grades. Un- 
washed fleeces are in demand and firm at 25i"32c for fine; 
25ec34c for medium grades. Full prices are maintained 
for Pul'ed Wool, and it is in good demand. The feeling 
is very firm for all kinds of Wool, and a good range of 
prices is looked for. 

Philadelphia, Jan 3d.— Wool continues Ann and with- 
out change in prices 

Freights and Charters. 

Since Saturday there have been 10 arrivals, of which 
the following were chartered: Iron Ship Khorassan, 1,039 
tons, 75s to Cork, U. K ; iron bark Royal George, 899 tons, 
70s Cdto Cork; iron ship Plantagenet, 1,318 tons, 62$ Qd 
to Cork; iron ship Anglesey, 1,200 tons, private; iron ship 
Tilkhurst, 1,570 tons, 62j 6d to Cork, Quotations were 
nominal and exporters are bearing freight rates It was 
not thought possible that Saturday's rates, which were 
70s for wood to Liverpool, Havre or Antwerp direct, 
could be duplicated. Holders of tonnage make a straight 
fight against any decline, hoping tint exporters will soon 
be forced into the market by previous Wheat engage" 
ments. 

BAGS— Bags are about the tame as at oar last report. 

BARLEY— Barley still goes forward, Feed having 
gained 5c, and Brewing 2kc per ctl, over last week's rates. 

BEANS— Beans are unchanged. The inquiry is now 
very slack. 

CORN— All sorts have advanced to $1.52J ¥ ctl for best 
samples. Sales are not many, but the tone is strong. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— There Is a little freer arrival of 
new Butter, but rates are not changed as yet. Cheese is 
scarce and firm. 

EGGS -Choice California Eggs are still in demand and 
few. The best have sold at 40c— a shade better than last 
week 

FEED -feed is quiet and steady. Hay has ruled rather 
lower this week. Ground Feeds are unchanged. 

FRESH MEAT— There is no change, the recent ad- 
vances being still retained. 

HOPS— Hope are quiet, the best Californias still quo- 
table at 27 Jc ■ lb. 

FRUIT— Apples and Pears are unchanged. Citrus 
Fruits have held a very even course and have sold fairly. 

OATS— Oats still run up. Choice Northern Territory 
have sold up to #1 ; :••> i -:>, and Surprise are quoted up 
to $1 90 per ctl. 

ONIONS— Onions are plenty, and rule from 60 to 75c 
psr ctl. 

POTATOES— Potatoes are a lit'le weak and some of the 
commoner sorts hare shaded off a trifle. 

PROVISIONS— The trade is quiet, with rates a little 
more favorable to buyers. 

POULTRY AND GAME— The reaction has brought 
fairer prices both for fowls and game birds. 

VEGETABLES— The selection is very small and price* 
stationary. I 



WHEAT— Trade has been more active at an advance. 
We note sales chiefly of lower grades: 75 toos No. 2, tl,- 

C2J; 1,800 sks do, 31.61}; 2.000 sks do, $1.00, and 1,000 sks 
off grade, 81.57J. No. 1 is worth 81.G7J per ctl. 

WOOL— There is no change. The report of the Wool 
trade for the year may be found in another column. 



Domestic Produce. 



,'5 



WHOLESALE. 

Wednesday m.. Jannay 4. 1882 

BKt.S'S A PEAS. Peanuts . 

Bayo. ctl 1 75 (32 25 Filberts. 14 (3 15 

Butter 3 00 «3 25 ONIONS. 

Castor 3 50 (a! 4 00 Red — (3 

Pea 3 50 (33 80 Silveiskin. 60 & 

Red 1 76 «zl 85 Oregon — 8 — 

Pink 1 75 ^1 85 POTATO!'.*. 

Large White 3 00 (33 25 Early Rose 1 05 (31 15 

Small White 3 50 S3 80 Pctaluma, ctl 1 20 (31 30 

Lima — 84 00 Toiuales 1 20 Si 30 

Field I-eas.blk eyel 50 Ml 75 Humboldt 1 30 Si 35 

do, green. .2 00 (32 25 " Kidney 1 30 (Si 35 

" Peachblow..l 30 Si 35 
3i Jersey Blue 1 30 Si 35 

6 Ouffey Cove 1 25 Si 321 

iRiver. red 90 Si 00 

4J Chile — M 25 

7 ' do, Oregon 85 M 00 



ItltOOH 40KV. 

Southern 3 & 

Northern 4 @ 

4 1114 4 OKI . 

California 4 4? 

German. . 



DA I It! I'ltOltl 4 t:. IITC. Sweet 1 00 Si 25 

I'OILTUV «V 4iAMK. 

37& Hens, dot 4 00 & 7 00 



butter 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb. 35 (ft 

do Fancy Brands. — & 

Pickle Roll 20 (3 321 

Firkin, new 27 & 30 

Eastern 20 S 25 

New York — @ — 

CUEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb... 15. @ 17 

■(KM. 

Cal. Fresh, doz. . . 36 <a 40 

Ducks — S 35 

Oregon 36 (3 38 

Eastern, by expr'ss 27{S 30 

Pickled here — @ — 

Utah - Ig 32J 

FEED. 

Bran, ton @16 00 

Corn Meal (S32 00 

Hay 9 00 tdl* 00 

Middlings ,^23 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. S25 00 

Straw, bale — 62|@— 67J 

TLOIK. 
Extra, City Mills . 5 25 (35 50 
do, Co'ntryMillB.4 75 (35 00 

do. Oregon 4 75 (35 12J 

do, Walla Walla. 4 50 (35 00 

Superfine 3 50 (34 25 

FKKSII MEAT. 
Beef, lBt qual'y.tb. 6|< 

Second 4| 

Third 4 

Mutton 4 

Spring Lamb 

Pork, undressed. 

Dressed 

Veal 

MUk Calves 

do, choice. . . 

GRAIN, ETT. 



Roosters 4 00 S 6 60 

Broilers 4 00 S 4 50 

Ducks, tame, doz. 5 50 S 7 00 

Mallard 3 00 @ 3 50 

Sprig 1 50 S 2 00 

Teal 75 S 1 00 

Widgeon 1 0U Si 25 

Geese, pair 1 £0 Si 75 

Wild Gray, doz. — $i2 64J 

White do - <gl SO 

Turkeys 13 S 15 

do, Dressed 13 @ 16 

Turkey Feathers, 
tail and wing. lb. 10 & 20 

Snipe, Eng 1 00 Si 25 

do. Common.. 50 & 60 

Quail, doz — Si 00 

Rabbits 1 00 Si SO 

Hare 2 00 S2 25 

Venison 5H J 

llt<>\ v». 

Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, fb 13 & 

Medium 12 (3 

Light 13 S 

Lard 13 S 

Cal. Smoked Beef. !lj-< 

Shoulders 9f 

Hams, Cal 12i 

Dupee's 16 @ 

Whituker 16 «* 

Royal 16 S 

Stewart 16 ® 

Eastlake 16 @ 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 12 a 

do Chile - 5 

Canary 34i 

Clover. Red 14 



13J 
131 
lit 
17 
v:i 

m 
is! 

Hi 
161 
|M 
UJ 
icj 

13 



ia ST, I » . '. 1' ' ■ I ■ XLt."l IV 

Barley, feed. ctl..l 31 57|i White 45 

do, Brewing . 1 fiO (a\ 65 Cotton.. 
Chevalier 1 55 (31 67 S Flaxseed 



do, Coast .1 40 (31 50 

Buckwheat 1 621(31 65 

Corn, White 1 471(31 52 J 

Yellow 1 47|(3l 52j 

Small Round. .. 1 47)fl 521 

Oats 1 70 Si 77[ 

Milling 1 75 (ctl 90 

Rye 2 00 m UJ 

Wheat, No. 1 1 65 @I 67 J 

do, No. 2 1 60 (31 62| 

do. No. 3 1 45 Si 50 

Choice Milling.. — @1 

■IDES. 

Hides, dry 18 (9 

Wet salted 9i@ 

HONEY, ET4 . 

Beeswax, lb 23 (<* 

Honey in comb. . . 15 S 
Extracted, light.. 9 S 
do, dark . . 7tS 
HOPS. 

Oregon 20 & 

California, new... 25 S 

Wash Ter 23 S 

Old Hops — a 

M T* Jobbing. 

Walnuts, Cal 10 & 

do. Chile . . . 7iO 
Almonds, lid shl fb 8 H 

Soft sbeU 14 (3 

Brazil 10 ® 

Pecans 13 S 



v4 

Hemp 

Italian Rye Grass.. 

Perennial 

Millet, German.... 

do, Common... 7 (jr 10 

Mustard, White... IjS 2J 

Brown 2iS 3 

Rape 2| 

Ky Blue Grass 20 (3 25 

2d quality 16 S 18 

Sweet V Grass — S 75 

Orchard 20 S 25 

Red Top — & 15 

Hungarian 8 S 10 

Lawn 30 S 40 

Mesquit 10 S 12 

Timothy 9 a 10 

TALLOW. 

Crude, fb 7 & 71 

Refined 3 Jig 10 

WOOL. ETC. 
fall — 1881. 

San Joaquin. 9 (3 14 

do. Lamb.... 13 S 15 

Southern Fall 9 W 12 

| do lambs' 13 S 14 

11 Northern, free 16 S 20 

8 do. defective.. 14 S 16 

10 Mouotatu, free. ... 1< «' I; 
15 do, slightly seedy. 13 S 15 

11 Humboldt k Mm 
15 . docino 18 @ 21 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

(WHOLESALCl 

Wednesday sr., January 4, 1882. 



FBI IT MAKKET. 

Apples, bx - 75 & 2 03 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 S 4 00 
Cocoanuts, 100.. 6 00 S 7 00 
Cranberries.bbl.14 00 (.316 00 
Limes, Mex.... 4 00 (3 6 00 
do, Cal, box.. 1 50 (3 2 00 
Lemons Cal, bx 1 00 S J 50 
Sicily, box.... 6 50 5» 7 60 

Australian S 

Oranges. Cal. bx.l 50 S 3 50 

do, Tahiti M & 

do, Mexican. 15 00 (320 00 

do, Loreto... @ 

Pears, bx. 1 00 (sf 2 SO 

Pineapples, dnz 7 00 (3 8 0U 

i»uit:it i i:i 1 1 

Apples, sliced, lb — 6 
do, quartered...— 5 A 



Peaches — 11 4*— 111 

do pared — 14 ®— 18 

Pears, sliced....— 9 @— 91 

do whole. — 7 W— 8 

Plums — 6 S— 6 

Pitted - 13 S- 14 

Prunes — ( W— 121 

Raisins. Cal, bx. (3 2 75 

do, Halves S 3 00 

do, Quarters.. S 3 25 

Eighths S 3 60 

Zante Currants.— 8 (3— 10 
t h4.KI Altl l> 

Artichokes, doz. <a — 50 

Beets, ctl S- 65 

Cabbage, 100 lbs- 75 S 1 00 
Carrots, sk — 30 < 

- 61 1 Cauliflower, doz— 83 L 

- 6l!Oarlic fb. — lift 



Apricots — 15 17 'Lettuce, doz....— 10 I 

Blackberries....— 14 S— 18 Mushrooms, fb.. I 

Citron — 38 (3— 30 Okra. lb — 5 I 

Dates — 9 ®— 10 ' Parsnips, fb - 

Figs, pressed....— 4 (3 — 6 Squash, Marrow 

do. loose — HM— 5 fat, ton 10 00 i 

Nectarines — 14 @— IS Turnip*, ctl.. 



\ 2 76 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

San Francisco.— Week ending January 3, 1882. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST BARUHETEK. 

Deo. 28' Dec 29 Dec. 30 1 Dec 31, Jan. 1 i Jan. 2 I Jan. 3 



30 367 
30 236 



30 358 
30 293 



30 308 
30.235[ 



30 264 
30.172 



30.201 
30.069 



30 101 
30.059 



30173 
30.059 



MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THKKMOMETER. 



56 


1 66 


| 56 | El 1 61 1 


68 


56 


52 


48 


1 49.5 1 46 1 45 1 


50 


60 






MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 






90.7 


86 


! 82 | 87 I 89.3 I 


90.7 1 


89.7 






PREVAILING WIND, 






N 


NW 


1 NW I NW I 8K | 


BE 


SE 






WIND— MILES TRAVELED. 






146 


130 


| 195 | 208 | 145 | 


149 | 


119 



STATE OF WEATHER. 

ir. | FaBr. | Fair. I Cloudy | Foggy I (Roast) | Cloudy. 

RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 

I I I I I .II I .03 

Total rain during the season, from July L 1881, 6.78 Inches. 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro 4 OoJ 

San Francisco, January 4. 3 P. M. 

Silver, l@i. 

Gold Bars, 890@910. Bilver Bars. 10@18 V cent, dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New York, 1 premium; London, 
50: Paris 5.20 francs V dollar; Mexican dollars, 
New York (4 per cent), 117J, 



January 7, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



13 



Commission Merchants. 



J. P. HULME. 



Wool and Grain 

Corr\missior\ Merchants. 

10 Davis Street, near Market. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



<grLiberal advances made on all consignments, and 
mpt personal attention given to all tales. 



COSTIGAN, COHEN & CO. 
COMMISSION 

Grain and Wool Brokers. 

OFFICE 1 — US California St., San Francisco 
REFERENCE— LAZARD FRERES, BANKERS. 

WOOL and GRAIN. 

J. H. CONGDON & CO-, 
Produce & General Commission Merchants 

6 STUART ST , COR. MARKET, S. F. 
Orders for Goods not in our line will be carefully pur- 
chased by experienced buyers. Ranch Supplies and the 
best Sacks and Twine, Tohtcco, Sheep Dips, etc , fur- 
nished to customers Doing business exclusively on com- 
mission. Liberal advances made on consignments at 
low rates of interest. Personal attention given all con- 
signments. We are agents for the 

PARADISE MILLS FLOUR. 

The lowest priced first-class Family Flour in the market 
—try it All orderB from the interior promptly filled. 



L. G. SRESQVICH & CO., 

Iniporte-s, Wholesale Dealers, and Cjmmission Merchants 

FOREIGN AND 

DOMESTIC FRUITS 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUITS, 

Walnuts, Brazil Nuts, Pecan Nuts. Filberts, Pea- 
nuts, Almonds, Dates, Etc. 
505 4 507 SANSOME ST., N1ANTIC BUILDING, S. F. 

Packing House of all kinds of Green Fruits in Paper, 
Third and Fourth Sts.. bet. Julian and Empire, San Jo i * 
, Branch house in Honolulu. H. I. 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers In all kinds of 

Conutry Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Da via St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, 8AN FRANCISCO 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants, 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



PETER MEYER. LOUIS MEYER. 

MEYER BROS. & CO , 

— IMPORTERS AND— 

Wholesale Grocers, 

—AND DEALERS IN — 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS 

412 FRONT STREET. 

Front Street Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Francisco 
tW Special attention given to country traders jgy 
P. O Box 1040. 



Good Land and Sure Crops. 

There has been steady and tolerably rapid advancement made in 
the growth of a majority of the towns in Colusa, Butte, Tehama 
and Shasta counties. Especially is this so in the agricultural dis- 
tricts where the land produces at least fair crops in all seasons — 
wet or dry — as does the land on the Reading Ranch. Those look- 
ing for homes in California where diversified farming will pay every 
year; where wood and water are plenty and easy to be obtained, 
and other desirable advantages are to be had, should address the 
proprietor of the Reading Grant. 

Some 14,000 out of 26,000 acres of the grant remain for sale 
at comparatively low rates, in quantities to suit purchasers, on easy 
terms. Prices range from $5 to $30 per acre. The tract is be- 
tween two and three miles wide, with the Northern Division of the 
P. R. R. passing centrally through its entire length. Send 
postage stamp for free circulars containing information about 
Shasta County and these lands, to the proprietor of Reading 
Ranch. EDWARD FRISBIE, 

Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



HOLIDAY MUSIC 

Send the prices mentioned below, and receive by return 
mail one of these splendid new Music Books for holiday 
presents: 

Norway Music Album, |! 5 g nt p ' ain: ® 3 c,otl ' ; 



HATCH &. BARCLAY, 

Corr\missior\ Merchants 

(Members of San Francisco Produce Exchang 
»0 California Street. San Francisco. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rkfrrkncis.— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.;C. W. Reed; Sacra- 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, i ' il 



RICHARDS & SNOW, 

SUCCESSORS TO BARKER & SNOW, 
JOBBERS OF 

IRON PIPE AND PLUMBERS' STOCK. 

Sole Agents for the Yale Lock Mfg Co., 
American Tack Co., 

AND FOR THE SALE OF AMOSKEAG AXES. 
406 & 408 MARKET ST., S. F. 



Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

The Steamships of this Company will fail from SAN 
FRANCISCO during the year 1882 as follows: 

From wharf, corner of First and Brannan Sts., 
Hour of departure, 2 p. m., 

For Yokohama and Hong Kong. 

CITY OF PF.KING, CIT? OF TOKIO, 

February 11, July 29 January 7, June 22 

May 6, October 19 April 1, Sept. 13, Dec. 6 

Connecting at Yokohama with Steamers of the Mitsu 
Bishi Co for Hiogo, Nagasaki and Shanghae. Excursion 
tickets to Yokohama and return at special rates. 

For Sydney and Auckland HO nomiu 



CITYOD'NEWYOKK U1TY OF BYUJNJiiY. 



March 11th 
July 1st. 

October 21st. 



ZEA.L.ANDIA. 



A pri 1 8th. 
July 29th. 

November 18th. 



Fig: I + 



January 14th, 

M:iy6th, August 20th, 
December 16th. 



AUSTRALIA. 



PATENT ELASTlcljZU 

iFILEHQtDER F 



A sample File- 
holder sent post 
paid, from this 
office on receipt 
of 50 cents. 



Fcbiuary 11th, 
June 3d. 

September 23d. 



Round the World Trip, via New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia, $650 

For New York, via Panama. 

ON THE 4'ru AND 19tii OF EVERY MONTH, 
At 12 o'clock, noon. Taking Passengers and freight for 
Mexican, Central American and South American ports, 
for Havana and all West fndia ports; for Liverpool, Lon- 
don and Southampton; for St Na/.iric, and for Hamburg, 
Bremen and Antwerp 

WILLIAMS, UIHOM0 & CO., (iin'l Agents. 



BROWN LEGHORN HENS 

FOR SALE. 

Parties desiring to obtain stock from this wonderful 
breed can t'o so by addressing the un tereigned. I have 
about 

Sixty Fine Hens 

That I am w lling to sell cither as a whole or in small lots 

— AT — 

TWO DOLLARS EACH. 

Ihev have finished moulting and are in excellent 
condition. Address 

WILLIAM H. JORDAN, 

Oak 'and, Cal 



J. H. Wythe, M. D. 

Residence: Office: 
966 West Street, Oakland. 759 Market St.', San Francisco 
Be ore 10 A. M.. after Sr. m. I From 11 a.m. to 3 r. M. 



This i3 the best durable file-holder 
in use. Send for sample, or further 
information, to tbis office. 



BOONE & MILLER, 
Attorneys & Counsellors-at-Law, 

Rooms 7, 8 and 9 
No. 320 California Street. S. F., 

(Over Wells, Fargo & Oo.'s Bank.) 

Special Attention Paid to Patent 
Law. 

N. B.— Mr. J. L. Boone, of the above firm, has been con 
nected with the patent business for over 15 y ars. and de 
votes himself almost exclusively to patent litigation and 
kindred branches. 



The Fearless, 




I Is the only machine that received an award i 
on both llorse-powcr and Thresher and 
Cleaner, at the Centennial Exhibition; was 
awarded the two last Cold Medals given 
by the New York State Agricultural Society 

I on Horse-powers and Threshers ; and is the 
only Thresher selected from the vast num- 
ber built In the United States, for Illustration 
and description in " Appleton's Cyclopedia I 
of Applied Mechanics," recently published, 
thus adopting it as the standard machine of I 
this country. Calalogue sent free. Address. I 

I sin a ut> HAUuElt, Coblcsktll,Scho.Co.,N.Y. I 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chan. Eneu Johnson & Co.. 609 South lOth 
St, Philadelphia & 5C CJold St.. N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 527 
Commercial St.. S. F. 



PRICE 
or 

Each Book, 

$3 Fine Gilt, 
$2.50 Cloth, 
$2 Board, 



Beauties ot Sacred Song, 

58 songs. Elegant. 

Gems of English Song, 

The best and newest. 

Gems of Strauss, 

Brightest music. C 

Franz's Album of Song, 

Best German Songs. 

Creme de leCreme, 2 vols, j 

Standard Piano Music. j 

Rhymes and Tunes. $1-50. 

Charming Nursery and Kindergarten Songs. 
PIANO SCORES, containing all the airs of 

Olivette, 50 cts. 
Mascot, so cts. 
Patience. 50 cts. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON. 

H Ditson & Co.. 843 Broadway, N. Y 



POULTRY 

Hogs & Cattle. 




■5 



Langshans, Brahmas, Cochins. Leg- ^ 
horns, Houdans. Plymouth Rocks, W. 
F. Black Spanish, Guinea Fowls. Aylesbury, Boucn 
and Pekin Ducks. Bronze and White Holland Turkbts. 
Peacocks, Etc. Also, Eggs for Hatching. 

Dish-Faced Berkshire Pigs, Poland China 
Pigs, Jersey Cattle, etc. 



PACIFIC COAST POULTRY 
STOCK BOOK. 



AND 



New Fdition, ( ver 100 pages, Handsomely Illustrated 
Price by mail, 50 cents. 

Stock or Eggs for Hatching guaranteed true to name, 
and to arrive safely. For further Information please 
write, enclosing stamp, circular and price list sent on 
application. Address 

WILLIAM NILES, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshircs are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the- 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit cane 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 

American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs eold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 

18th and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 



Manufacturers & Ranchmen. 




HEADER WAGON ATTACHMENT, 

Which keeps the load level and over the center of gravity 
at all times. Patent Right for sale, or contract given for 
its manufacture on royalty. Send or call on TAYNTON « 
DERRICKSON, Clayton, Contra Costa County, Cal., or 
Jackson & Truman, (125 Sixth St., S. F. 



JOSEPH F. HILL, 

MANUFACTURER, OF FIRST-CLASS 

Buggies, Farm & Freight Wagons, 

OP ALL DESCRIPTIONS, 

Cor Thirteenth and J Sts , Sacramento, Cal. 

f3T Repairing promptly attended i" X 

HARFORD'S ADJUSTABLE 

SINGLETREE CLIP. 

THE FINEST ARTICLE OF THE AGE. 
Warranted of First Class Malleable Iron. 

Territory in County or State right for pale, apply to T. 
M. Lash, agent for the Pacific Coast, 601 N St., Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

E. MAIN, 315 Folsom Street, 

Makes tn order Gents' Fiuo French Calf Boots from $6 to 
slO; GalterJ from #3 to $G; Alexia from $3.50 to $5* Men*' 
Heavy Kip Boots. $6; Oxford Ties, French Calf, $4- Cali- 
fornia Leather, $3.50; Men's Wnrkiug Shoes from $2.50 to 
$3; Children's Shoes made to order. Persons in the conn- 
try ordering to the amount of $12. I pay the express 
charges. I sell nothing but my own manufacture. 



14 



GEO. BULL & CO., 

—IMPORTERS OF- 

Agricultural Implements. 

AND SOLE AGENTS FOR THE 

J, I. CASE T. M. CO.'S 

Celebrated Straw and Wood-burning En- 
gines, Separators and Horse-Powers. 

Also a complete assortment in stock of the J. L CASE 
PLOW CO 'S Center and Side draft Wood ami Steel beam, 
Racine Chilled, Breaking;, Vineyard, Sulky and Gang 
Plows and Harrows. 

Every plow or implement sold is warranted to guc un- 
exceptional satisfaction, or m-ney refunded. Send for 
Catalogue and Price List, or call and examine stock and 
prices at the store, 

No. 31 Market St., S. F. 

BRANCH HOUSE, 

332 Market St., San Joae, Cal. 
lySpecial inducements offered to Dealers, Farmers and 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



1881. THE H. C. SHAW 1881 



Ranchers. 



Moore's Prepared 




The most successful Poison in use for Squirrel Killnr; 

C. E. WILLIAMS & CO , Proprietors, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Moore's Sulphur Dip; Safe, Sure and Cheap prepara- 
tion for the cure of Scab in Sheep. 



PETALUMA INCUBATOR. 

[Illus' rated in Rir*l Press, Dec. 3, 1881.] 

Awarded the first premium over the Axford or National 
and others at the Petaluma fair of 1881. 

Furnishing ample heat, easily managed and nothing to 
get out of order. 

PRICES: 

300 Egg capacity $60.00 

H60 Egg capacity 75.CJO 

(itO Egglcapacity 9J.OO 

I L. DIAS. 
Manufacturer and Proprietor, 
Box 242, Petaluuo, Cal 
WIESTER & CO., 17 New Montgomery St., S. F.. Agt's 




EGGS TO HATCH 

From the following varieties: 

L AN GS H ANS, 

Black Cochins, Plymouth Rocks', 
Brown anil White Leghorns, Toulou e 
Geese and Pekin Ducks. 

My breeding jards arc composed of 
selected birds from the leading strains 
mated to secure the best results. 

Fair dealing and satisfaction guaran- 
teed. Corresfo >dence promptly an- 
swered. Send lor liriul&rand prices. 

CEO. TREFZER, Napa City, Cal. 

LAUREL RANCH! 

Thoroughbred 

Spanish Merino 

SHEEP. 

We offer for sale 400 HEAD OF YOUNG EWES AND 
RAMS. Prices always reasonable and terms liberal Qual 
Ity and condition superior to any Hock in this State. 

J. H. STROBRIDGE, Haywarda, Alameda Co. 

E. W. PEET. Agent. 




GANG PLOWS 

No. 201 and 203 El Dorado Street, 



Whitmore's Improved Gear, 

ADAPTED TO 

Buckwagons, Buggies and Light Business 
Wagons. 

Weight carried to the extremities of the Axles. Long, 
soft, double bweep *i r • No sine sway or pitching 
motion. It is jointed, relieving all strain. 

E. WIlirMORE, Maker, 
■ 1507 Polk St., San Krancisco, Or Charles Whitmore, 
Traveling Agent for the Pacific Coatt. 

Hubbell's Self-Cleaning Harrow. 

This Harrow fills a long desired want am ing farmers. 
As it is built in sections for one or six horses, and can be 
cleaned while in motion without lifting the harrow- 
Address T. J. HUBBELL, Patentee, Mayfield, or Mo 
McKENZIE & CO., San Jose. Manufacturers. 



Stockton Savings and Loan Society 

Paid up Capital, $500,000. 
Transacts a Ceneral Banking Business. Foreign and Dom 
estic Exchange; receives Deposit* or makes Loans on tb 
most favorable terms. L. U. SHU'PEE. President 

FEED. M. WEST. Cashier. 




AND EXTRAS. 



Stockton. 



THE STOCKTON GANG PLOW, 

Over 2,000 of H. C Shaw's Improved Patent Stockton Gang Plows Sold in Five Years 

Caiioon and Gem Seed Sowers, Harrows. Etc. Extras for all Plows and Machines I have sold for the past 
TWKM'J V YEARS in this valley. a3T.Send for Circular and price list. Always on hand a full stock of Singh- Plows. 
Have used these Gangs for over 16 years. Now using 70. Adapted to all soils. - John W. Jomm, Atlanta, San 

Joaquin Co., Cal. 



Nathaniel Curry & Bro., 

13 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 




AGENTS FOR 

W. W. Greener's Celebrated Breech ^ 
Loading Double Guns. 

FULL STOCK OF COLTS, PARKER AND REMINGTON GUNS, SHARPS, BALLARD, WINCHESTER, 
KENNEDY, MARLIN, and REMINGTON SPORTING RIFLES; PISTOLS OF ALL KIND8 
A liberal discount to the trale. 



Ammunition in quantities to suit 



Price List on Application 



SECURE PATENTS 




Through 
Dewey & Co. '8 



Scientific Press 

Telephone No. 76. 



Patent 
Agency. 



Or/R U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency pre 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in 
timatc acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, tiles of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices aie 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 

A. T. DEWET. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG 



HENRY F. GULLIXSON <fc CO , 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

CARPETS, OIL-CLOTHS, LINOLEUM, UPHOLSTERY 
GOODS, LACE CURTAINS, CORNICES, Etc. 

Orders from the Interior promptly filled, and goods sent C. 0. D. 
G30 Market St., Opposite the Palace Hotel, - San Francisco 



Woolsey's Steam Genrrator and Power 
and Steam Cheese Vat for Ranch- 
men and Dairies. 



Thie is the Cheapest and Best Steam Generator ever 
invented; and the cheese vat is so constructed that the 
temperature can be kept even and steady. 



WOOLSEY'S TARPOLA GOPHER TRAP, 

never fails to kill all varmints when properly set. Price 
S2.50. WOOLSEY'S IMPROVED LAWN 
SPRINKLER. Cheapest and Best in use. Price, $5, 
Address JOHN S. WOOLSEY, Inventor and Mauufac. 
turer, Gilroy, Cal. 



50 



Landscape, Chromo Cards, etc. , name on, 10c. 20 Gilt 
Edged Cards, 10c. Clinton & Co., North Haven, Ct 



THE DAVIS IRON WAGON. 

E. A. SCOTT dl CO., 

Sole Importers and Dealers for the Pacific. 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 
The La France Steam Fire Engine. 

Circulars furnished on application. 



[January 7, 1882 

FELIX GILLET'S 

XTT7HSZHXES, 



Nevada City, 



California. 



SPECIAI/TaKS-Nuts of all kinds (Walnuts. 
Chestnuts, Almond* and Filberts.) 

PRCEPARTURIENS. 

Or early bearing Walnut, introduced Into C«lifomla from 
Europe in the spring of 1871 by Felix Gillet, of Nev.da City. 



H H. WILSON & SON, 

513 Clay St., S. " 

Importers and Dealers in Guns, Rifle*, 
PistolB, and Fishing Tackle, etc. 

WC LOVELY FRENCH CHROMO CARDS with name 
t on 10 cents, Chas. Kay, New Haven, Conn. 



The poInU of superiority which the Prncparturlens poaseas 
are: 

> Irst It bears earlier than any other kind, very often 

when 3 years old ; hence its name, Pnuparturlens— fertile or 

precocious. 

Second— It Is a hardy variety, getting in bloom late in the 
spring, and being very leklom Injured by frost in the spring 

or fait 

Third— It matures its wood well before the winter; thus 
insurng a crop of nuts for the ensuing year. 

Fourth- It is a regular and prolific bearer. 

Fifth— The nut is large, the shell soft, and the meat full 
and easily extracted from its socket. 

A*-rTOne, two, three and Ifour-year-old trees for sale One- 
year old trees, heavily rooted, sent bv mail to any part of 
California and the United States at $1 lor tree, or $10 per 
dozen, including packing and mailing. 

Also, GAND WALNUT, the largest of Boft-ehcll va le- 

tles. 

8EROTINA or LATE WALNUT, a kind that leafs rut 
late In the spring. Very desirable for a cold climate. One- 
year-old trees of the two above kinds at the same rates as 
Pifcparturiens. 

FILBERTS. CHESTNUTS, 

Pears, Cherries, Peaches, Etc. 

STRAWBERRIES, RASPBERRIES, 

Blackberries, Currants, Gooseberries, 
Grapes, Etc , Etc. 

Send for descriptive catalogue and price list. 



SILKWORM EGGS 

From Felix Gillet's Cocoonery, 

AT $5 PER OUNCE. 

Sent by mail to any part of the United States, packing and 
mailing included, in • luentities from 50 cents and over. 

FELIX GILLET. 

Nevada City, Cal. 



Riparia Grape Cuttings. 

Qmuine Riparia Crape Cuttings by (he hundred, thou- 
sand or the million, as may bo desired. For particular*, 
address 

FURNAS FRUIT FARM, 

Brownville, Nebraska. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

15,000 Barllett Pear and Apricot trees. Also Apple, 
Peach, Prune, Nectarine, Plum, and other trees for sale, 
retail or wholesale at reasonable price). Address, BELLE- 
VUE NURSERY, Box 304, Los Angeles, Cal., Care of 
Hilton Thomas. 



The American Driven 
WELL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

FOR MINING, IRRIGATION, MECHANICAL 
DOMESTIC (i MUNICIPAL PDRPOSES 

Send for Circulars. 
BABCOCK, HOWARD & CO, 
lO Merchants' Exchange San Franc isco, Cal, 

YOSEMITE HOUSE. 

MAIN ST., STOCKTON, CAL. FIRST-CLASS UOUSE 

JAMES CAVIN, Proprietor. 

This House is the Leading Motel of the City, containing 
al' the modern improvements. General Ticket Office for 
the Big Trees, Yosemite Valley, Bodie, and General Stage 
OfHi e for all the Southern Mountain Towns. The Yo- 
semite Coach will tonvej guest* from the boats and ull 
t ains, free of charge 



PENSIONS 

Hi cured. Al*o Bounty. Back-pay, Increase of Pensions 
New and Honorable discbarges. Patent*, etc Thousands 
entitled. New Laws. Now is th« time! 1» not delay, 
soldier**. Widows, Children. Parent*, Brothers and Sisters 
entitled- Hare your claims investigated. Apply at once 
Rend two stamps for blanks and ir structlonn complete, t ■< 
JENKINS A F!ZT<;KKALI>, U. S. Claim AND Patkm 

\ •■:•!.. P. <J. Box : -'t Washington, D. C. 



January 7, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



15 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO. 

Importers, growers of, .wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 

BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. tS Trade prfee 
list on application. 

We issue the most complete truide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instruc- 
tions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

607 Sansome Street, S. F. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS. — O or Debcriptivb Ilwjs- 

RATBD CATALOGUE OF SBBD8, TR8K8, PLANTS, ETC. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



IMPORTED 

SEED WHEAT and OATS, 

Direct from AUSTRALIA by late steamer. Sold in lots 
to suit by S. L. Jonks & Co., 207 & 209 California St., and 
M. WATERMAN & CO 
113 Clay St., S. F. 



KELLER'S NURSERIES, 

Oakland, Cal. 

For Sale Cheap, 

Trees, Seeds, Shrubs, Ornamental Fruit and Shade 
fSft Tre«s. Nurseries at Mountain View, near Ceme- 
3C tery. Floral, Plant and Seed Depot, Seventh St., 
bet. Washington and Clay. Send for catalogue and price 
list. Address KELLER & CO., Oakland, Cal. 



TURNER'S NURSERY, 

San Bernardino, Cal - - - P. O. Box 275 

I have a few thousand left of my half-yearling or June 
Budded Trees, Jrom 15 to 18 inches, consisting of 
Lemon Cllngr, Smock's Free, Cranfords, etc 
Also, Royal and Large Kit rl y Apricot. 
Price, $15 per ICO this season. I am also prepared to 
make contracts for the season of 1882-83. 

DAVIS TURNFR 



J". OP. SWEBHET 5c CO., 

SEEDSMEN, 

Dealers in all Kinds of Field and Garden Seeds at Reduced Prices in 
Large Quantities. 

SPECIALTIES: 

ALFALFA, RED AND "WHITE CLOVER; AUSTRALIAN, ITALIAN AND ENGLISH 
RYE GRASS; BLUE GRASS, LAWN, ORCHARD, MISQUIT, RED TOP 
■ AND TIMOTHY SEED; CALIFORNIA FOREST AND EVER- 
GREEN 1 REE SEEDS. ALSO FRUIT AND ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AT LOWEST PRICES AT OUR 

SEED W AHEHOT7SE. 

No, 409 and 411 Davis Street. - - San Francisco, Cal. 



CYPRESS and GUM TREES 



Blue or Red Gum trees. Monterey Cypress, Acacias, 
and Pines of all sizes or the seed of each kind, very 
cheap for cash. Trees in condition to ship long dis- 
tances. Send $1 in stamps for samples of each kind 
with prices. GEO. R. BAILEY, Berkeley, Cal. 



W. STRONG &c CO. 

WHOLESALE 



Every description of Field, Garden, Flower and other Seeds, Flowering Bulbs, etc. Can be obtained at our 
Establishment Fresh, Pure and Genuine, at the Lowest Rates. California Alfalfa, Eastern Clovers and Grass Seeds 
Specialty. (&eed and Tree Catalogue sent by Mail free on Application.) 

-ALSO- 

Wholesale Fruit and General Produce Dealers. 



Special attention will be given and prompt returns rendered for Consignments placed with us. Orders for Mer- 
chandise of e v ery description promptly and carefully filled at lowest rates. 

Our constantly increasing line of customers attest to the fairness of our prices and quality of our goods. 

Nos. 106 to 110 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established In 1858. 

Tor sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised without irrigation. Also, a general assort 
merit of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower 
ing Shrubs; Roses in assortment. Conservatory and Bed 
ding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma Sonoma County, Cal. 

Apple Root Grafts 

For Spring planting. Order now. Address 
PHOENIX BROS. & EMERSON, Nurserymen 

Bloomington, Illinois. 



Russell's Hollow Tooth Harrow. 

This Harrow is guaranteed to do double the work of 
any other Harrow and do it better. GEOBGE SEANOR, 
Los Gatos, Agent for Santa Clara Co. 



CO 

Q 
W 
W 

CO 

Z 
63 
Q 
« 
< 



GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. 
ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives, Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



r 
o 

03 

K 
O 

C/3 



GARDEN SEEDS. 



THOS. MEHERZN, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer In 

SEEDS, TREES AND PLANTS. 



Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, 



Australian Rye Grass 



, Timothy and Orchard Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Bur- 
'garian Millet Grass, Red Top, etc. 



Also, a large and choice collection of FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL 1 REES, 

BULBS, ROSES, MAGNOLIAS, PALMS. ETC , AT REDUCED I RICES. 
Budding and PmniDg Knives, Greenhouse Syringes. Hedge and Pole Shears. 

4S"Price List ready Jan. 1st. THOS. 111,11 1 It I \ . Mi Itallery St.. Silil Fran fix ro. 



Agent for 33. S. Fox's Nursery. 



CHOICE TIE^IEjI&jS FOR SALE. 

We will soon be in receipt of the following varieties of choice 
yearling trees : 

Silver Prunes, Yellow Egg, Coe's Golden 
Drop, Petite Prune de Agen. 

The above trees are all selected and on Peach Roots and free from 
scale and other injurious insects. 

Orders taken now for above trees in lots to suit. 

HIXSON, JUS II &. CO., 

316 and 318 Washington St., S. F. 




ALBERT DICKINSON, 

Dealer In Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red-Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, otc. 

POP CORN. 

Warkiiouhks: 

116, 117 & 119, Kinzie St., Office! 115 Kinzie St. 

104, 106, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO, ILL* 



MAKE HENS LAY. 



traveling In this country, says that most of the Horse 
and Cuttle Powders sold heio are worthless trash. Ho 
says that Sheridan's Condition Powder* ore absolutely 
pure and Immensely valuable Nothing on earth will 
make hens lay like Sheridan's Condition Powder*. Do6c, 
onctcaspoonful toonoplntfood. Sold ejgT where. or sent 
by mail for eight letter stamps. I. S. JOHN SON * CO., 
Boston, Mass., formerly Bauyor Me. 



50 



Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike 10c. Natr< 
In fancy type. Conn. Card Co., Nortffoid, Ct. 



Lowest prices ever known 

on Cti <■<•<-!■ - l.o.Mlcrs, 

i;.ii<'-*, and St<>» ol » er», 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

I at greatly reduced price, 
send stamp For our New 
Illustrated Catalogue ( B) 
P. POWELL AS r,N 9SWMain Street. CINCINNATI, (V 




TREES! TREES! TREES i 

—AT THE — 

CAPITAL NURSERIES, SACRAMENTO, 

— AND— 

Orange Hill Nurseries. 

Penryn, Placer Co., Cal. 



We desire to call attention to our stock of native fruiV 
trees, viz: Petite Prunes, Silver Prunes, Yellow Egg 
and Coe's Golden Drop Plums, Bartlett Pears, Apricot?, 
Apples, Cherries, Peaches, etc. Also 100,000 Rooted Grape 
Vines of leading kinds, such as Muscat. Tokays, Ham- 
burgs, Zinfindel, Seedless Sultana, etc. Also ornamental 
trees and plants, Buch as Magnolias, Arbor Vitas, Pines, 
Cypress, Palms, etc. Orange and Lemon trees, best 
budded varieties Also Elms, Maples Poplars and Mul- 
berries for avenue and street planting— in fact every- 
thing usually kept in first-class Nurseries. We have 
many new and rare Fruits and Plants, for description of 
which our Catalogue will he mailed free to any address. 
Office and Tree Depot, 1 and Seventh streets, near Court- 
house, Sacramento. Address all communications 
CAPITAL NURSERIES, P. O Box 407, Sacramento or 
ORANGE HILL NURSERIES, Pcnryn, Placer county, 
Cal. Williamson & Co., Proprietors. 



IMPORTANT TO THE FARMER. 



—USE- 



Larroche's Fertilizer. 



It is manufactured solely of Bones and residues of Meats 
dried and pulveiized in suth manner that all the Calcium. 
Phosphates, Carbonates, Nitrates and PotaBsium, which are 
the main assimilators to plants, are entirely preserved 
in the Fertilizer and reLder it most valuable to the cultiva- 
tors of the soil. 

Stable manures require frequent irrigation in order to 
develop its properties; it is expensive, voluminous, and re 
quires great labor to spread and subsoil it; it propagates 
weeds, worms, snails and destructive animalcules, the 
pests of the farmer. On the other hand. Bone Powder can be 
easily handled, transported at low rates of freight, in bags. 
It checks the propagation of insects and luxuriates the 
growth of hops, vices, fruit trees, etc.; can easily be spread 
around the plants and is most efficacious as an impediment 
to th-j rapid and terrible encroachment of the Phylloxera. 

The Fertilizer should be sown by hand ou the ground 
when it is moist like seed, and then harrowed. About 400j 
pounds is the quantity for an acre. Price. §40 per ton. 

For further information apply or address to, 

F. LARROCHE. 

Stall 21, San Francisco Market, San Francisco, Cal. 

—OR— 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., Seedsmen. 

607 Sansome St., S. F. Cal. 



MERRILL'S PATENT REIN HOLDER. 

This is a sure and cotiain preventative to keep horses 
from running away. Price $2. 50. Address W. P. 
MERRILL, Florin, Sacramento Co., Cal, 



CHOICE NEW CROP 

ALFALFA SEED. 

FOR SALE BY THE 

Carload or in lots to suit buyers. 



E J. BOWEN, 
Seed Mercnant, 

815 & 817 Sansome St., S. P. 



GRAPE-VINES. 

CUTTINGS.— Zicfim'el, Golden Chas»el s. Black Mal- 
vois e, White hi* sling, Gr*y RiesI og. Berger, Mission, Mus 
cat He, Malaga, etc. $4 per 1,000, from well ripened, 
he a'.thy wood All selected. 

ICOOH',l» CUTTINGS, same varl-ties, .$25 per 1,000; in 
imn ities exceeding 5,010, $22.50 pr 1.000. 

Koof eri Clinton, phylloxera-proof s:ock. .$30 per 1,00 

Rooted WiltlBlparla, 94 perioo. 

CUTTINGS -Phylloxera-Proof Taylor. $9 per 1,000 
Wild R paria, $10.50 per 1,000; Elvira, Lenoir. Cynthiana. eto 

FRUIT TREES. 

Full assnrtm^nt for family orchard; also Coe's Golden 
Drop, Yellow Fgg, Feti e d'Agen, FelleuT erg, Green Gage, 
Columbia, Early Crawford, Foster, Barilett, etc., at reason- 
able rates. 

AIViXEST CHESTNUTS, very proGtablo as well a 
ornamental, B40 D6V 100. 

Trees grown WITHOUT IRRIGATION. No scale bugs 
or other noxious insects. 

MONAICI) rOATI-S, Box 2. Napa City, Cal. 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 



I offer the trade this season a LARGE and GENERAL 
ASSORTMENT of 

FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

My trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flowor Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flower- 
ing Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. 
Catalogues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 



JAMES HANNAY'S NURSERY, 



Bast San Jose, Cal. 



I offer for sale, at low prices, a well assorted, healthy, 
and well grown stock of one and two-year-old Nursery 
Stock. Prompt attention given to all orders. 

Address 

JAMBS HANNAY. San Jose, CaL 



16 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 7, 188 2 



SMALL FRUIT PUNTS 

OCR SPECIALTY 

— Np.vp and Old Yarictiks ok— 

STRAWBERRIES, 

RASPBERRIES & 

BLACKBERRIES 

Large and select stock of 
Honarch of (lie West, SUarpless, CapKJark, 
Miners' Great Prolific, indwell. Etc., 

AT LOW RATES. 



— New Yarictiks of — 

Peaches, Plums, Apricots, 

AND OTHER FRl ITS. 
jtdTSetid (or Circular. 

C. M. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer Co., Cal. 

Duroc, or Red Hogs. 

12 




The undersigned are making a specialty of raising this cele 
lirated breed of hog-H for breeding pun>nses. They are gentle, 
thrifty and < ,f very rapid growth, and better adapt- d t" this 
climate than any other breed of hois We have hogs ol this 
breed now upon ourranrh. 11 months old. weighing over 400 
It* each N. W Spaidding, V 8. nib -Treasurer. San Fran 
Cisco, killed one nf these hoss Dec. 14, 18S1. at the age of 18 
months, that wciglud 183 lbs gross, and 584 lbs. dressed. 

On Dec 22. 18S1. Messrs /imuieruiaii. Htroil-Je A I'o.. of 

the Bay City market. B, F.. killecl one weighing 1018 Itm. net 
when dressed. 3 years and 3 months old. We are prepared 
now to ship to any ■ art of this State these pigs II to 12 weeks 
of age. For prices aDd circulars address, 

HINCKLEY & GETCHELL. 

Laurelles Ranch, Monterey, Cal. 




C I HUTCHINSON. 



H. tt. MANN. 



i or 1882 an Eiega*. .tonic of 150 Page?, a <*ol- 
orr«l t'roiilis|»ii-rr ol FlowrrH, ami Iimmi llltiNfra* 
lloiiH- f (tooholoeeg Flowera, Pjinta and Vegelahle^jpd 
Dlreotipofl for grojrfng. Jt Is handsome enough for the ( Ven- 
ter Tnhle or a Holiday Present. Send on your Dftme and 
Post Office address, wilh 10 cents, an I I will seud vou a copy, 
postage paid. This is not a quarter of its co3t. It is printed 
in both English and German. If you alU-rwards ordr-r seeds 
dedut t tbe 10 cents. 

VII h'S SlCKUS arc (be best in the world Tin Fi.OKAi 
<;uidk will tell how to pet and grow them. 

»hk'» Flower and Vegetable Garden- 175 

Pages, 6 Colored Plates. 500 Engraving. For 50 cents in 
pa phi- lovers; $1.00 in elegant cloth, In (iemian or English. 
VIckN IHualrated Monthly Magazine Pa 

a Colored Plate in every muulier and many Mm- Engravin s. 
Price *\.'2) a year; Five c 'pies for $\0l Spefiinen Numbers 
sent for 10 cents J trial ro|.i-s for 25 cents. 

Address. JAMES VICK, Rochester, N Y. 



FOR SALE. 

50,000 Grape Cuttings 

20 INCHES LONG, 

Of the following varieties: Black Malvoisc, Black Ham 
hurtrh, Koseot Peru, and White Muscat of Alexandria. 
Theee cuttings are ttrong and vigorous canes and en. 
tircly 

FREE FROM PHYLLOXERA. 

Will be delivered at Railroad Station, at Xi'es, Alameda 
county, at the rate of $0 per thou and For further par- 
ticulars apply to F. CLARKE, 

Nilcs, Alameda County, California 



it* 60 



FOR ANY ONT- OF THE, 
Clinier I iillr.ii.ih. nl l:,>- 
gtarubH. Ureenhonae Plants.' 
Fruit Tree*. (.ru|»e Vims, Small 
,._rriiit», Seeds. *e. For example: 12 

HBfTI 'I rl •••Ko-.... sit I * Tub rr----,S': 12 
mSSMlMtt' -' si: |'»i.. . si; SO 

VTDenap , !«l; 8 Applen, si; O IVarh. SI; S tlraifs 
f.[k 2.>KaH,,b,-rrie.-. SI; 10 Sw.,-l Cli.-tnulK. si; 
lOQ Uardy I'afalpa. si; 25 i>:n-ketM choice Flower 
heeds, si. Hundreds nf other* CHEAP, and many 

NEW AND RARE! DIME 

Plant*. AH mailed j»..'«./-i..i;.;.:ind *</'.« rnVif .iwr 
A « atn lomic of ulinut 1 0O nncus FJBSB. 
2Sth )v,,r. 18 o'-mtoww .MO.i'V" 
Tbe 6TOBRS & HARRISON CO., Fainesville, Laie Co. .Ohio 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending December Slat. 1881 the 
Board of Directors of THri GERMAN SAVINGS AND 
LOAN SOCIETY has declared a dividend on Term De 
posits at the rate of Five (5) per cent per annum, and on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rate of four and one-sixth (4 1-0) 
|H-r cent, per annum, free from Federal Tax«f>, and paya- 
ble on and after the Ulh day of January, 1SB2. By order 
-, , .CEO. LETTE, Secretary. 



HUTCHINSON & MANN, 

INSURANCE AGENCY 

322 and 324 California St., and 302 and 304 Sansome St., 

N. E. Corner of California and SaDsome Ste , SAN FRANCISCO 



W. L. CHALMEBS, 7.. P. CLARK, J. C. STAPLES, ) 
Special Agents and Adjusters, f 



I CAPT. A. M. BURNS. Marine Surveyor, 
j F. T. HOYT, City Surveyor. 



HUTCHINSON «fc MANN, Agents for Pacific Coast. 

Cash Assets Represented, $23,610,723. 



(.Irani Insiirnni-e < om 11:111 > (in Philadelphia). 

Assets. July 1. 1881, *1, 155.809 
61. I'aul Insurance 4 oiu|>»li> lOI St. Paul), 

Assets, July 1. 1881. $854,305. 

fTatertoira Fire Insmrnnce C— ■acq (Of N. y .) 

Assets, July 1, 1881. $995,437. 
Sew Orleans Ins. Assoclalloll |i »f New Orlean ), 

Assets, July 1, 1881, $573,216. 
Peoples' lllslinincc 4'oiiiikiiiv Kit' \V\vark\ 

Assets. July 1. 1881. $474,978. 
Trnlonla Insurance < oinpanv (Of New Orleans). 

Assets. July 1, 1881. $375,291. 



Owi'lhuu Hons*- I mlcrw rlccm [Ol N - 

Assets. July 1, 1881. $2,358,068 

I n COHflHatce liisiirann- I iiani ifit Paris), 

Assets, Januaiy 1. 1881. $t!.f>79..'f)5 

f'lrc Insiir e Association (Ol London), 

Assets, January 1. 1881. $1,349,943 

London Provincial Marine Ins. Co. mi I Ion I 

Capital and Assets, Jan 1, 1881, $11,278,362 
La Fonclere Marine In sum lire lit, (Of Paris), 

Assets. January 1, 1881. $2,090.4' 8 




Prepared Especially lor Killing 



Squirrels, Gophers* Rats, Ants, Moths, 

WEEVILS, PHYLLOXERA, SCALE LICE, ETC. 

Sold by Diu^'uista and dealers in general merchandise. May alfo be obtained direC. from the manufacturer, 

JOHN H. WHEELER. 

Manufacturer, also, of Sii'pbnearbonates, Disinfectant* for Vine Cuttings, Diseased Vines, Trees and Plants in 
_" ' ■ r I. Vineyards treated for Phy loxera; Injectors lor Bisulphide Sulphur for Vineyards, and all kinds of Fertili- 
zers furnished. 

Ofllce, 111 Lelilestlorfr Street, San Francisco. 

The Merigot Pump and Spraying Nozzle. 

l.irgely used for Applying Insecticides in Orchards around .San .lose. 

FAVORABLY MENTIONED AS SERVICEABLE AND REASONABLE IN PRICE BY THE 
SPEAKERS AT THE SACRAMENTO CONVENTION 

<',' The Merigot Spray-Tip Nozz'.e is the best knows.— Dr. Chapin'i I'lilrew. 

The pump Is Well Mailt with Melal fftlTW. Price, 119. 

WESLEY FANNING, Co-Opexativc Workshop. 

■217 to 281 St. John Street San Jope, Cal. 



CHEAPEST. BEST. 

BOOTH'S SURE DEATH 

To Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, 
Mice, Etc. 

lyEudorscd by the On.i^e and all others who have 
u«ed it 

INFALLIBLE SQUIRREL and GOPHER 
EXTERMINATOR. 

STRENUTU INCREASED. PRICF. REDUCED. 

Put up in 1 lb , * tt.. , and t gallon tins. Manufactured by 

A. R. BG0TH, Eagle Drug Store, 

Pan Luis Obispo, Cal. 
KOK SALE BY ALL WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS 




DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

San Francisc i Savirg Union. 

532 California S , con ir Webb. 

F..r ihe half yearendine; vilh December 31, 1581, a divi- 
d< n I has been declared at the rate of five (5) per cent, per 
annum on Term Deposits, and four and one-sixth (4 16) 
l>er cent, per annum on ordinary DepotitJ, free of Federal 
Tax, pajable on and after Wednesday. January 11, 1882. 

LOVELL VtHl'lE, Cashier. 



{ft a HSP*r\ RUSSIAN WHITE 

1 9 U ■ i" 1 , ><<- 

eJf M ■ m.B 1 i ■ ,M,r - i 

W*» ■ 50c. 

i< hu. by freight or express, imt prepaid, ! 
1 hu., not prepaid, *2 00. New liana 25 -.eaeh.e 
Asky- .: merelHHit forclrcalar, a r. ««, 

D. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



KIT ABE 



PZAITOS 



"For biauty of tone, touch and action, I have never 
en their equal. - Clara Luuixe Kellogg. 

THE KNABE" is absolutely the 
Best Piano made. 

A. I,. BANCROFT *fe C\. 

721 Market Street, San Kranc:s>o , 

Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast 



SEMI ANNUAL STATEMENT 

OF THE 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

JANUARY. 1882. 

Amount of Capital Actually Paid in U. S. 
Gold Coin, Surplus Paid Up and Re- 
serve Fund - - $534,101.99 

State of California, City and County of Kan Francisco. 
John Lewelling and A. Montpcllier being duly sworn, 
severally depose and say that they are respectively the 
Vice-President and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of Cali- 
fornia above mentioned, and that the foregoing statement 
is true. 

(Signed) JOHN LEWF.LLINO, Vice-Presidant 
(Signed) A. MOXTPELLIER, Cashier. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me this 4th day of Jan- 
uary, 1882. 

(Signed) GEO. T. KNOX, Notary Public. 

ASSET8 : 
Loans on Wheat, Real Estate and other secu- 
rities #1,C81,2S9 (19 

Due from Banka and Hankers 21,082 V8 

Keal Estate— (Bank's interest in Grangers' 

building) 77;SOO.OO 

Other Keal Estate 27,772.04 

Otfice furniture, fixtures and safe 3,000.00 

I merest accrued 23,830 SB 

Cash on hand 83,430.76 

Total *1,917, 577.00 

And the said assets arc situated in the following coun. 
ties, to-wit: Alameda, Butte, Contra Costa, Colusa, 
Fresno. Merced, Monterey, Inyo, Kern, Placer, Stanis- 
laus , Sutter, Solano, Sonoma, San Francisco, Tehama, 
Tulare and Tolo. 

LIABILITIES: 

Oapittl Stock paid in gold coin $ MO.OOO.OO 

Surplus paid up, and reserve fund 34.101.99 

Due I ' i ositors— Banks and Bankers 1,282. 890.31 

Hills payable— Mor.g'e assumed on real estate 40.000 00 
Undivided net profit (1881) 00.578.9U 

Tota' |l,917.577.»tl 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco. 
John Lewclling and A Montpellier being each duly sworn, 
severally depose and »ay that they are respectively the 
Vice- President and Caih'er of the Grangers' Bank of Cali- 
fornia above mentioned, and the foregoing statement is 
true. 

(signed) JOHN LEWELMNG, Vice President. 

(Signed) A MON rPKLLIER. Cashier 

Subscribco and sworn to before me, this 4th day of 
January, 1¥82. 
(Signed) GEO. T. KNOX, Notary. 



Cf\ All New Style Chromo Cards no two alike, name rtoiMOV A Pn ' 25'-* Market I Dot nr Ante 
J\J on 10 cents. Clinton Bros., Clintonville, Con UcWcy<Xl*U ( street, traUlUHlJIb 



VIZELICH'S 

Insect Destroyer 

AN I M PORT AN T 1 N VENT I* >N. 



[F.nm h Htocktmi Paper J. 
Nicholas Vlsalioh had his laaeot Destroyer on exhihttlan 
to «1h>- in Courthouse mjuare before a crowd of admiring fann- 
er*. The Destroyer i« a box-shaned stnicture, tire feet wide, 
mud mounted on wheel*. The machine is s pplied with tun 
force pumps, one forward and the other aft, with a small 
smokestack In the middle. The limiid with which the scule 
biiffs'and the phylloxera are v»ii<|titahed is a comptMitinn 
«|K'cially prepared by Mr. Vi/.elien, and is sti»re<l within the 
box. In a compart men*'' umlerutath the liquid is a furnace 
fur hea t ing it so as to melt the frost or! the trees and thereby 
get at the hug* ami Insects. An additional supply of tbe 
lifiuid may bfl earri d in a barrel mounted on wheels With 
tlir pump the water m.i> >• sent through a garth n hot*e t«i a 
bight of upwards of 50 fr Mr Vi«elich gave partiil ilhtntra- 
tionsof the working of hi* Invention to-day in the*Muare, and 
threw a stream b> the top nf '.he ctdar* hold ng the h( *e in 
one baud and making the (• imp with the other, I'll- new 
Inventimi worked eitellt'iitly, ainl the fanners who watrhed 
it op ra'efatdthst it would uot bem»Dy.ujontbs b-foreev« ry 
orchnrd and farm in the country would nave one of Vint lull's 
Insect Destroyer*. Tiny can lie manufactured of any sire, 
from Ihow designed to he worked bytnerranto n machine 
large enough to lie woiked U) advantage by a rtorM nun 
The warm linuid roM 'into the t re»ices in the bark of the 
trees and dislodges and kills the vermin. « 



"VJSEIJCaTO DI>lKoilK" will bt 

three sizes— On? of *i\ one of 125 and one of 503 ga'luiit for 
field use. 

For full infonnation address the inventor, 

N VIZBLICH, 

8tocVtcu. CaJifoiriia 



J. T STOI-L'S 

OPEN TOP 

IMPROVED HORSE COLLAR 

Patented Jan ISth, 1»81. 

It saves your horse's neck. 
It is the hsst Collar in ihc. 
It e in he ad justed to any slu|>e 
or any animal's neck. 

XyScnd for sample. TBI 

JOHN T. ST0LL, 

Harness and Saddle 
Manufacturer, 

NO. (110 K ST., SACRAMENTO. 

crrnc! bulbs, 

uLLUu PLANTS. 

Deauiilni illustrated Caialoguf Free. 

1 he li il li.t of i. w. rar« u.l knutirui 
ll«<n . i.r fr.il oul. New t; ladiolo.. Tub. 
J t '«•<••. Au .t. ,u, nnea, Ornauoii.. IWl »«ri^. 
. ir.il.-, of Liii. >. (li n e Flower nod VcgeuMa 

U*^^ S^eHr. S.nl. nf H«M I' ■ Ae. All teeil* 

eie.|.l r.-e kiD.lt. re -o'tl in KlTVt'Birrr'Arta.. 
EveiylliiUK wnnifll.d Irue to n«n.«. S-e 
('itt.iurur ; pricw.it low. The 'ollowinveent 
hr nml potluilil. lOOI.dlolut. 10 »..rt! nam. d 
COc. l» IVurf Toheiotrt, 85c. 10 Lillet. tOaoria 
named. #1.60. All Sne torta and lama bulb.. 
I:- n.it rurreney or pottajce etanipa. Mv roodi 
abllthrd retmtalion and t« to all pant of ih. world. 

J. LEWIS < 11IL.DS, HI I.I.ns, N. ¥. 





Volume XXIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 1882, 



Number 2 



Eucharis Amazonica. 

We give on this page a handsome engraving 
of the Eucharist Amazonica, a plant well known 
to florists and prized by them, and worthy of 
more general attention on the part of indoor 
plant growers. It is described by some as ap- 
proaching nearer to an "evergreen bulb" of any 
in cultivation; that is,its period of rest is short, 
and it may be forced into bloom by right hand- 
ling at almost any time the grower desires. The 
flower is especially desirable in San Francisco 
at Easter, as its beautiful white serves well for 
decorations, and it is popularly called the "Easter 
lily." In New York city, the Eucharis flowersare 
in great demand during the holidays, and sell at 
wholesale at $50 per 100, which is nearly 
double the price of white camellias. 

The eograviDg which we use is reproduced by 
permission from the excellent illustrated cata- 
logue of J. M. Thorburn & Ci\, the well-known 
New York seedsmeD. They give the following 
points concerning the succjtsful growth of the 
Eucharis: With a moderate stock of plants, 
the Eucharis can be had in flower at almost any 
time, and when it is considered that the flows rs 
are delightfully fragrant, more than four inches 
across, and that they are like large, pure white 
stars, some idea may be formed of its value. 
Some complain that the Eucharis is not easily 
flowered; but this is not true. It does well in 
light soil, consisting of loam, peat and a little 
sand, all enriched with old manure. It likes an 
abundance of water, with good drainage, a 
moist, warm atmosphere, and a position near 
the glass, but shaded from scorching sun. 

Rind, in his book on bulbs, alludes to the 
Eucharis as a splendid plant of recent intrr- 
duction. It is a tbick-leaved, evergreen, 
bulbous plant of the Amaryllis tribe; a native 
of Grenada, requiring stove treatment, but 
very free flowering. It may be forced into 
bloom at any season. The flowers are pure 
white, large ani showy, on foatstalks just 
above the leaves. Eucharis Amazonica or 
gram/ijlora is the species shown in the engrav- 
ing, and is a native of South America. It is 
one of the finest of the Amaryllis family, and 
has the merit which so few have, of blooming 
with, and the flower seeming to conform to, 
the foliage. 

Pinkeye. — Pinkeye lingers around the 
stables of the metropolis, but we do not hear of 
its outbreak in the interior, probably owing to 
the fact that country horses have better air and 
are healthier than the occupants of the crowded 
city stables. It is stat'ed that within the past 
few days as many as twenty-four horses be- 
longing to the City Cab and Carriage Co. have 
been suffering from the disease, but half of them 
have recovered, with the exception of one case 
which proved fatal, and in that instance the ani- 
mal was previously unsound. Twelve are still 
afflicted. Fifteen horses of the North Beach 
and Mission Railroad Co. are suffering from the 
disease. They had thirty-five in the hospital at 
onetime. The Omnibus Railroad Co. had forty- 
five horses down with the disease last week. 
At present they have thirty- five sick. One case 
proved fatal. It is reported that the stables at 
Claus Spreckles' sugar refinery, on Brannan 
street, and also a stable on Sixth street, are 
badly infected. The symptoms vary, but the 
most common are swelling of the limbs, drowsi- 
ness, loss of appetite, running from the eyes, 
which become inflamed and turn a pinkish 
color. There are several other symptoms, but 
these are sufficient to indicate the disease. The 
best remedies are good ventilation in the stables, 
dry, clean beds, plenty of sunshine and whole- 
some food. Other remedies and methods of 
treatment were given in the Rural of De- 
cember. 

Sonoma County.— C. H. Cooley, a sterling 
farmer of Sonoma county and a good friend of 
the Rural, writes us that they have had a glor- 
ious winter so far in his region and prospects 
were never better than now. At which we re- 
joice. 



Oats at the North. — It is not surprising 
that the oat growers of the North have had a 
happy holiday season. A dispatch from Seattle, 
on Monday, gives the following patticulars: 
The oat growers of Puget Sound have done well 
with last season's crop. The yield here is enor- 
mous per acre, and the production is of the 
best. The surplus of 1881 amounted to about 
200,000 bushels. This has been all taken and 
substantially all shipped. Never before were 
oats in better demand. The high prices pre- 
vailing in San Francisco have had their e fleet 
heie, not only in cleaning up the market of its 



Blower's Ralsins. — The neatest thing we 
have seen in the form of a fancy sample pack- 
age of raisins has been contrived by Mr. R. B. 
Blowers, of Woodland, and consists of a small 
box, made of the wood of the "big trees," rilled 
with the choicest raisins, neatly papered and 
covered with a chromo of the home and vine- 
yard of the manufacturer. The wood of the fa- 
mous] big trees will be in itself a curiosity in 
all parts of the world, and will be preserved, 
and call to mind California raisins long after 
they have disappeared from view. These small 
boxes come within the size of packages by mail, 




BLOOM AND FOLIAGE OP 

surplus, but in raising the price of wheat, which I 
is now $2 per cental. The farmers realized 
handsomely from their last crop, and arc jubi- 
lant. Their preparations for the coming season 
exceed those of all previous years, and it is cer- 
tain that the acreage to be placed under culti- 
vation will be largely increased. 

A Company was recently incorporated in this 
city, for the manufacture of plug tobacco, under 
the name of the Seal Rock Tobacco Co. For 
that purpose, 30 experienced colored men are en 
route to this city from Kentucky. It is the inten- 
tion of the managers of the factory to employ from 
200 to 300 white boys and girls in the manu- 
factory. A" the tobacco leaf will be imported, j 



EUCHAEIS AMAZONICA. 

and thus it will be easy to send distant friends 
a sample of one of our most enjoyable products. 

Tifts Dalles Times says that the Oregon Rail, 
road & Navigation Co. have a track laid from 
the lower Cascades up to and across Hood river; 
also from Dalles to a point six miles below, where 
there will be a bridge 700 ft. long and 85 ft. 
wide. 

Special dispatches from points in Ireland 
show a great development of the latest form of 
lawlessness, namely, Land League hunts. A 
number organzized Friday. In rare oases, 
where the authorities had not had time to in- 
terfere, quantities of game were destroyed and 
preserves damaged. 



The Wheat Outlook. 

Everything is now contributing to an ad- 
vanced feeling in wheat, and unless rain comes 
speedily it would not be surprising to witness a 
sharp and considerable improvement in value. 
Added to the present chance of a decreased 
production in this State, there comes new evi- 
dence of the shortage of the European supply. 
Heretofore Russia has been shaken at the wheat 
holders to frighten them with the fear of large 
supplies being forthcoming. It has been under- 
stood for several months that the yield of 1881 
was much smaller than that of 1 880 in all im- 
portant regions except Russia — and now it is 
shown that Russia will not have a great surplus 
over her own wants. 

The latest information on the crop of Russia 
comes from St. Petersburg by cable, and the 
following is a summary of the announcement: 
It is very difficult in Russia to arrrive at the 
truth in regard to any question affecting the in- 
ternal condition of the country. This year's har- 
vest was undoubtedly very much better than that 
of the preceding year, but there is reason to be- 
lieve instead of being a good one, as both the 
government and private reports made out, it fell 
short of the average. Even this much can only 
be said of the grain, for the hay crop was simply 
a failure, and owing to the inaction of, the author- 
ities and indigence of the people, the effect upon 
the live stock of the country is likely to prove 
disastrous. Several weeks ago, before the clos- 
ing of navigation, an agricultural commission 
sent in a memorial to the Home Ministry, call- 
ing attention to the danger, and recommending 
prompt action on the part of the Government, 
but as usual this document was tossed about 
from one department to another, till the time 
for action had gone by. The water-ways are 
now locked up with ice, and no efforts can pre- 
vent serious loss of live stock and further im- 
poverishment of the country, already suffering 
from a series of bad harvests. A gentleman 
from Samara reports that the Baskirs last 
year lost two-thirds of their stock, and it is to 
be feared that they will now be reduced to ab- 
solute beggary. 



Lieut. C. H. Kilbourne, of the Signal Ser- 
vice Bureau, who has been making investiga- 
tions as to suitable locations for Signal Service 
stations on this coast, suggests the propriety of 
establishing a station at Cape Flattery, and one 
at the mouth of the Columbia river, or on Tilla- 
mook rock. This conclusion was reached from 
observations, which showed that the general di- 
rection of storms upon the Pacific coast is from 
west to east, with a southeasterly tendency, 
thus locating the storm center about Victoria, 
in British Columbia. In establishing the sta- 
tions mentioned, telegraphic connections with 
the Western Union will have to be made, 
necessitating the laying of a wire along the 
Columbia river for a distance of 20 miles. A 
submarine cable four miles in length will also 
have to be laid. 



Music in the Meat Trade. — There have 
been all sorts of pranks played by a part of the 
slaughterers during the last few weeks, for the 
elevation of meat prices, to the discomfort of 
the retailers. The sheep butchers belonging to 
the ci mbination having raised the price of mut- 
ton to six cents per lt>. .while the non-combination 
butchers are selling for five cents, a combination 
of retailers has been formed to tight back. Six 
retail butchers hare signed an agreement not to 
patronize, under a forfeiture of $1,000, any 
butcher who in a month from now shall charge 
the increased price for mutton. It is expected 
that five more of the largest retailers will enter 
into the agreement, and the mutton market may 
then be looked to to furnish some lively capers, 
so to say. 

Orders have been received at New Orleans 
from San Francisco to provide freight room in 
March and April for 180,000 bushels of wheat 
for Great Britain. This wheat is to be shipped 
from California to New Orleans by the Southein 
Pacific railroad, thence by steamer to its des- 
tination. 



18 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds. 

Jottings on Los Angeles. 

Editors Press:— Nothing, perhaps, is more 
diflicu.lt than to obtain a correct idea of a place 
from a description. One who takes interest 
enough in a locality to write about it is only 
too apt to exaggerate, even unintentionally, 
and while some are strongly condemnatory, 
most writers rise early to sing the praises of 
their favorite spot. Nor are the readers alto- 
gether blameless. They take an article on 
some town which usually exaggerates the good 
or the bad of the place, but whether it be exag- 
gerated or not, they take up the thread with 
their imagination where the author leaves it, 
and unconsciously, by adding a little here and 
there of what they wish for acd hope for, to 
the account, and glossing over some of it which 
they do not care to think al out, they come, in 
the end, to think that the author has writ- 
ten much better of the place than really is the 
case. 

In condemnatory descriptions and their in 
terpretations it is the same. Who hag not 
heard, for instance, of the smells of Cologne? 
But I venture to say that few travelers have 
been there who have not been pleasantly dis- 
appointed in this respect. All German towns 
smell badly, and Cologne's notoriety has only 
arisen because some clever person noticed a b .d 
odor when buying a bottle of perfume. 

I shall never forget my own disappointment 
on first seeing the celebrated Kiviera at Nice. 
I had read about the Cornice road which ran 
along the coaBt — the wonderful road which was 
built for 100 miles or more in the rock hanging 
over like a cornice. I had read of the olive 
and orange trees, and of the palms which 
were taken from there to I!ome for gala days. 
It is true that no one had ever written that 
there was a natural vegetation on the Kiviera 
at all remarkable for beauty; nor had I consid- 
ered that in a country where the road had to 
be built like a cornice there could not be a 
great deal of space proper for cultivation. 

However, what 1 expected to see was a love- 
ly mountainous country, all green with luxuriant 
woods, with the blue sea always whispering 
softly on the shore; bright sunlight shining on 
picturesque towns, surrounded with groves of 
cropical trees and stately palms. So, from the 
account of a place, with a fair climate, where 
semi-tropical trees would grow, my imagina 
tion had walked me eff into a lovely country, 
where everything was fully tropical, except that 
it was not too hot. What I did behold on ar 
riving off Nice, was a heavy sea breaking over 
the vessel, for one of their debilitating sireccos 
was blowing. On shore there was a long range 
of desolate mountains, which are never green. 
At last the wind went down, and we came into 
the harbor. A miserable place. It reminded 
me of the "Basin" in Baltimore. With care 
you could turn a mediuir.-3ized boat around in 
it if the fishing boats moved out. From the 
middle a biscuit could be thrown on either quay 
still there was no wharf, and we all had to go 
ashore in a little, dirty hogshead of a boat over 
the foulest water in the world. On shore the 
population seemed principally beggars or per 
sons about to become brigands. No one had 
anything to do; and as f< r the orange groves, 
they were encltiad in high concrete walls, and 
you might believe in them, but there was no 
such thing as sneing them. And to cap the cli 
max, I had been there but a few days, when we 
had a tremendous norther, called in that coun- 
try "mistral." It seemed the coldest wind I 
ever felt, and wherever there was a little water, 
to borrow an Irish expression, it was ice. I 
concluded that the stories about the Kiviera 
had too much the tint of the rose. I lived there 
for some time, however, and after a while 
found that the climate really was an excep 
tionally fine one. I obtained permits to see the 
gardens of semi-tropic fruits. I enjoyed the 
grand promenade by the sea, with its music in 
the afternoon; the caBino where were papers 
and magazines from all quarters of the globe, 
and point after point of good qualities came 
into view, until at last I liked the place very 
much. So he who reads about Los Angeles in- 
tending to come here, should keep a tight line 
on his imagination, and besides not forget to 
drop a grain of salt or two in his descriptions. 

Los Angeles has suffered like all celebrated 
places from its too ardent friends, but it can 
carry a good deal of praise with equanimity. The 
county has all the peculiarities of the California 
coast valleys, except that being further south 
it is milder, and it is also exceptional in being 
protected from the north winds by a number of 
tall ranges of mountains running east and west. 
The climate in its essentials is to be found 
nowhere beyond California; and of the Califor- 
nia climates it is the most delightful, being free 
alike from the cold northers prevalent in some 
places, and from the raw summer winds com- 
mon in others. Some persons, carried away by 
the many charms of the county, aver that it is 
exempt from all the unpleasant manifestations 
of nature; but this is not exact. 

The Weak Points. 
In the history of Los Angeles county, by 
Thompson and West, there are accounts of 
earthquakes, thunderstorms, Hoods and 



droughts. Of these mistakes in our natural 
arrangements, the earthquake of 1812 is the 
most notable. It shook down the church of 
San Juan Capistrano during the feast of the 
I'urissima. 't hirty-six people were killed, and 
a number injured. Slightshocks have occurred 
since then, but no damage was done. There 
have also been several severe thunderstorms re- 
corded here during the century, one of which, 
in 1867, killed four horses at the Half Way 
house on the road to San Pedr). Droughts and 
Hoods have also occurred several times. Then, 
from year to year, we have curious dry, very dry 
winds, which blow sometimes an hour or two, 
and sometimes three days. They are not cold 
winds, and seldom blow hard enough to do any 
damage. Once or twice in a decade, however, 
they become unruly, and twist off branches and 
fruit, and blow sand and dust about in a 
very unpleasant manner. Sometimes, too, the 
Mojave desert sends its temperature over the 
mountains as a malicious reminder of the fu- 
ture, and it is very hot here for thre? or four 
days. When we have these eruptions of heat 
they are of a dry, etimulatiDg nature, very dif 
ferent from the soggy, debilitating heat usual 
during eastern summers, and in those of Europe 
as well. It is also cold here at times, and 
once in 1S7S, ice is said to have formed in 
bucket one and five-eighths of an inch in thick 
ness. During the summer ocean fogs come i 
occasionally, lying in the valleys at night and 
clearing away in the day. Invalids have to 
look out for them, but the fog is not 
unmixed evil, as it refreshes vegetation 
and makes the nights cool and pleasant, 
These constitute, to the best of my knowledge, 
the climatic weaknesses of the locality. N 
place is without some drawbacks of this kind 
and the 

Good and Unique Qualities of Loe Angeles 

County- 
Overbalance the bad features more than do 
those of any other celebrated climate in the 
world. The Kiviera of France and Italy has 
not our summer nights, so cool and refreshing, 
but it has the bitter Mistral wind from tb 
north; the debilitating Sirocco which sweeps 
away so many invalids in the spring, and a long 
hot summer and unhealthy fall. 

Herein Los Angeles it is always healthy; we 
are at once little affected by the respiratory 
troubles of the north and not at all by tropical 
diseases, and malaria is rare indeed, being con 
fined to the river bottoms. Malaria, however 
is one of those diseases found in no locality 
Even in parts of Maryland, where it is e;sy 
to perceive the blight on the whole population 
it is impossible to arrive at the exact spot where 
the trouble originates; it is always about two 
miles further on. Here the bright countenaccesof 
the people speak for themselves, atiel that is the 
best of all testimony. Now, that I come to 
think of it, I cannot see exactly why people 
should die in such a place as this. If there 
was anv such thing as contenting mankind they 
would not. But I think that oLe ought natur 
ally to live longer here and maintain vigor than 
anywhere else. Hittell has put so concisely our 
climatic advantages that I cannot do better 
than quote him: 

"One of Ihe chief advantages "f California is its admir- 
able c imatc. After a carelul study of all the accessible 
bookB relating to the subject—and their number is large 
— I claim, and believe it to be more conducive to health 
and comfort, ami intellectual and physical activity, than 
that of any other country in the world. Other climates 
may be better, bin if so, their tneterological statistics aie 
not within my reach and they may belong; to countries 
objectionable on account of their isolated istuation, or the 
semi-civihzed condition of their inhabitants. 
The climate of the valleys of California is unlike that of 
every oth»r country, and particularly dissimilar to that of 
the American States fast of the Itocky mountains, re- 
sembling in general dimeter that of Sjain. Its ch'ef 
peculiarities as distinguithed from the Eastern S'a'.es 
are, lint the winters are warmer, the summers— espec- 
tally at night- cooler; the dunces from heat to cold not 
so great nor so frequent; the quantity of rain less, and 
confined principally to the winter and spring months; the 
atmosphere drier; the cloudy days fewer; violent wind 
storms, thunder, lightning, hail, snow, ice and the au 
rora borealis rarer; and the winds more regular." 

The result of Mr. Hittell'a reading has been 
confirmed in my experience. Neither in Amer 
ica, Europe, Africa, Ceylon, theSpice Islands, Aus- 
tralia, the West Indies,nor in the delightful king 
dom of Kalakaua have I found the good to out- 
weigh the bad so markedly as in southern Cali 
forma. 

Becoming a Callfornian. 
One who comes here ti reside, soon becomes 
identified with the country, and before you 
know it, you are an ardent Californian, and so 
recognized, and growing up, as they say, with 
the country. This is not the case in other 
foreign resorts. Their language, customs, diet 
and thoughts are different from ours. One can 
never become quite a Frenchman, nor an Ital- 
ian, nor a Spaniard; and even if a person did 
succeed in thinking of themselves as belonging 
to one of these nations, still the people of that 
nation would always look on the person as an 
outsider, and the distinction would always be 
felt, if not expressed. 

The languages, too, are only the languages of 
a cast. You learn French and go to Nice, and 
at once find that the mass of the people speak a 
patois, or dialect, and for the most part only 
speak French as our Chinamen speak English. 
Italy is worse yet, for in many parts of the conn- 
try Italian is not understood at all. Their so- 
ciety is founded on entirely different principles 
from ours. To be a producer or a laborer there 
is dishonorable, or rather disqualifies one for the 
higher circles. A person may write a book, but 
he cannot be a merchant, nor plow an acre of 
land and move in the best society. Idleness is 
honorable and high-toned; and as man must 
kill time in some way, these Europeans kill 
theirs in gambling, horse racing and intriguing 



with women. It is the very pink of gentility to 
be too intimate with some other man's wife. If ere 
it is quite the other way; and even when a man 
has no real occupation, he usually trumps up some 
story about some business hehasdone,orthinksof 
doing; and as for spreeing and gambling, they 
are not looked on leniently at all. 

As yet, in Los Angeles Co. we fail a little on 
society. There are now doubtless sufficient in- 
telligent and sympathetic people to furnish 
some brain-furbishing gatherings, but we are all 
unorganized and have not got together yet ex- 
cept in a very small way, but this will soon be 
changed, is now being changed, and we will 
have our casinos 'and exchanges of ideas and 
books and society generally as well as Newport 
or Nice. Apart from any commercial or agri- 
cultural success, this country is destined to a 
great future as a residence of well-to-do people 
who will come here to live permanently, or at 
least to escape the rigors of less kindly climates 
during the more trying seasons, whether it be 
the winter of the North or the summer of the 
South. The Kiviera of Italy and France ex 
tenls about 175 miles from Hyeres to Genoa l 
and nearly every foot of available land is taken 
up with a villa, a hotel or a town. There you 
see the winter palace of the Russian and tier- 
man, and of Englishman and American, an 
crowds of tourists bent on health or pleas 
ure. Yet the Kiviera is but a winter 
climate, and with ever-increasing drawback 
It is a continuous village crowded between 
the mountains and a tideless sea into which th 
drainage is conducted, and stagnating there, 
makes the shore often enough an unpleasant 
place to be. If this sheltered nook haa become 
so great a resort, so must our region, which 
is superior to it in all natural advantages. It 
surpasses us only in the additions man has 
male, such as beautifully planted promenades, 
drives and parks, for the invalid and stranger 
to wander in, and bands of music, theaters, 
casinos and reading rooms to amuse them, 
These we can aid, and already the Sierra Madre 
villa, Santa Monica, Fulton Wells, and the 
hotels of Los Angeles have made a good ootn 
mencement, and the work will go on. 

Meteorology. 
From the United States Signal Servioe report 
for the years 1878 and 1879, which is the latest 
report I have are taken tue following figures, 
showing the temperature of Los Angeles city 
at that time: 

LOB ANOKLBS MRAN TBMI'KRATl'RK — 1878. 

October, 62.1 



July, 67; August, 68.2; September, 65.5 
November 57.5; December, 53. 

L08 ANOKLBS MKAN TBMPBRATL'RK — 1879. 

January. 51.1; February, 54.8; March, 57.7; April, i 
May, 61.8 June 65.8; year, 60 2. 

The maximum temperature in that year for 
luly was 88° and for August 89°, but in the 
month of September we heard from the Mojave 
and had three days respectively 103°, 102 r 
and 101° as a maximum temperature. The 
minimum of the year occurred in January, and 
was 36°. Comparing this with the temperatures 
of some other celebrated resorts as taken, not 
by a government officer, bat by physicians or 
others financially interested, we find Los 
Angeles to stand pretty well, as witness the fol 
lowing table: 

Average Temperature 



Mean 


Three 


Three 






Annual 


Winter 


Summer 


July. 


Jan'y 


Temp. 
Cairo 72.1 


Months. 


Months. 


58.5 


85.1 


858 


581 


Ceylon Hi U 70. 1 


69.3 


69.5 


69.8 


69 1 




II 


77 






Rome 60.7 


43.9 


721 


73 3 


47.6 


Nice 69 4 


47.8 


72.2 


73.5 


45.8 


Honolulu 76 










Jacksonville, 










Florida... 69 3 


56. J 


81.8 







Other Marks of Climatic Advantages. 
Figures, however, convey a very imperfect 
idea of a climate. Island climates, for instance, 
which on paper look the best are invariably de 
bilitating, where the temperature is warm 
enough to overcome their dampness in making 
the air comfortable. Here, in the southern 
counties of California, there is an advantageous 
climatic condition, as shown by the vegetation 
and animals not to be found in any other locali- 
ty with which I am acquainted. The apple 
and the orange thrive together; bananas grow 
by pears. Pomegranates, grapes, apricots, 
pears, guavas and strawberries, and in fact all 
semi-tropic and northern fruits and vegetables 
do well, and one about as well as the other. 

ust now is the season for oranges, yet a few 
moments ago I was picking ripe strawberries and 
tomatoes in the open air, on the 31 of January 
Cows do remarkably well here, and milk is 
therefore always cheap and good, and the butter 
made from it is excellent, but the cheese is not 
so good. All animals do well, as seen in Bald- 
win's runners, L J. Rose's trotters, Barretto's 
Jersey cattle and Johnston's Durhams, besides 
the successes of a great many loc&Hy-LOted 
breeders. Poultry does well, also, and game 
and fish are cheap in the markets. So we pro- 
"uce and have of the best here, meat, milk, but- 
ter, eggs, poultry, etc. As a contrast to this 
state of things, we may look at Florida, the 
only other climate in America which competes 
ery with as. They raise cattle there, bnttheyare 
poor. On the hotel bills of fare they always used 
to have, "New York roast beef," "Philadelphia 
mutton with caper sauce," etc. This was done 
' ecause the native meat was so bad that no one 
would eat it unless it was given a Northern 
name, when, of course, it tasted better. The 
butter there always came from the North, and 
invalids had great trouble to obtain the milk 
they needed. The rainfall there ia over 50 inches 
per annum compared to our 15, and there are 
always plenty of green places, still cattle do not 



thrive, and Florida is only in the same position 
in this respect as all the other semi-tropic re- 
sorts; and these, by the way, are sot many. 
California is the only exception to the role. 

Those coming to Los Angeles should' remem- 
ber that its climate varies from year to-year; 
and if aay eome here to reside, let me say to 
them, do not losesight of the faot that the different 
parts of the eounty differ as much in climate- as 
does the south of England from Italy. 

Abbot Kinnkv.- . 

Kinney loa, Jan. 3, 1882. 

Placer County Notes. 

Editors Press: I notice that Placer county 
is not represented very often in the columns of 
the Press. It is not from the fact that it is not 
worthy of more frequent representation, but 
the fact is we fruit producers are so busily en- 
gaged in setting out and cultivating in winter, 
and picking and marketing in summer, that we 
do not get much time to write up the advan- 
tages of our connty for the Press 

We think we have one of the best sections of 
country for all kinds of fruit raised in Califor- 
nia. It is a demonstrated fact that we produce 
some of the finest peaches raised in the State, 
and in fact all kinds of fruit. Oranges are do- 
ing remarkably well here— free from scale, with 
clean, smooth fruit. And what is of material 
interest, oor oranges ripen from 4 to <> weeks 
earlier than Los Angeles. Another very import- 
ant advantage of our county is the fact of the 
C. P. R. R. running through the length of 
same, gives us the facilities of shipping our 
fruit over the mountains, or to the cities below, 
as the market suits us. 

The altitude, from 500 to 1,200 ft. in these 
foothills seems to be the freest from frost, and 
best adapted for most kinds of frnit. The soil 
here is a decomposed granite, consequently a 
warm soil. Our roads are free from dust in 
summer and mud in winter. To illustrate the 
mildness of these foothills, we haype roses in 
bloom in garden, also ripe raspberries, this 
second day of January. The hills now are qaite 
green, indicating that spring will soon' be with 
us. Orchardists here are now busy pruning, 
staking up vines, and setting oat trees, etc.,. 
trusting for a prosperous season for their labor. . 

Penryn, Placer Co. J. F*. "Wi 

Removing Linnets. 



Editors Press:— I notice, in the Ventura 
notes, in last week's Press, an account of the 
mode adopted by C. G. Finney, for the destruc- 
tion of the linnet by the use of poison in meal, 
which I think is a great mistake of Mr. Fin- 
ney's, as the use of poison shonld be avoided 
whenever possible. In ,he destruction of in- 
sects, rodentB, nocturnal animals, etc., it can- 
not well be avoided, but in all cases where as 
jfood or better results can be obtained, it should 
ae dispensed with, as it is at best an unpleas- 
ant and unsafe thing to have about. I confess 
that I never poisoned a thing in my life with- 
out experiencing a feeling of repulsion and hor- 
ror; eve n to that of rats, mice and gophers, the 
most annoying and aggravating of all the house, 
barn and farm pests, there is something horri- 
ble in the very name of poison. 

There is no disputing the fact, that the 
beautiful and sprightly little songster named, 
is the most greedy and destructive bird in the 
State, on email fruits, and it is true that they 
destroy thousands of dollars' worth of 
fruit annually. They are not satisfied with 
what they can eat, but peck and destroy 50 Ibi. 
where they eat 1. They are a'so a poor insect- 
eating bird, and not given to fooling much time 
in hunting bugs and worms when they can have 
plenty of delicious, ripe fruit, oarefully raised 
and ripened for them. 

By the poisoning process, all birds of the or- 
chard share the same fate; the useful as well as 
the destructive; the beautiful, cheerful and 
useful blackbird, the robin, lark, canary, chippy 
and many others, all the best insect-eating birds 
we have and the best friends of the farmer or 
orchardiet, as they all like grain in any form, 
and especially in meal. I might be asked, how, 
then, are we to rid ourselvesof the annoying little 
pests'; I answer, by shooting them, as the 
quickest, least painful and most merciful way 
to destroy them. You may think, will it not 
cost more in ammunition and time than the 
fruit is worth? But it has not proved so with 
me. In the first place, they are not migratory 
in their habits during the breeding season, which 
is the fruit season. Five years ago, my orchard 
of over 50 acres, about 30 of which was cherries, 
perfectly swarmed with the little gourwands.and 
the destruction was Bimply fearful. I resorted 
to the only means available — the ordinary shot- 
gun — but soon found it too expensive in muni- 
tion. I then looked the cities over to find a 
smaller and leas expensive one, which I found 
at the store of Nathaniel Curry & Bro., whose 
advertisement will be found in the Press. It 
as a double-barrel shotgun, of No. 30 caliber, 
long in barrel and perfectly safe for 
boys accustomed to the u-.e of firearms, 
costing but $10, with a couple of 
dollars expended on the locks to make them 
onform to the more modern made locks, which 
ill make it as safe as a gun can be in a boy's 
hand. I use good powder and No. 10 shot. A 
mall child's thimble full is sufficient for a load, 
making but a slight report. With this and $5 



January 14, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



worth of ammunition, I have kept my orchaid 
clear of linnets for three years, or less than $6 a 
year. When I first started, I almost dispaired 
of success, but, knowing that something must 
be done, I hauled off my coat and waded in. 
At the end of the second day, I was gratified to 
fiud mv orchard free from the little gluttons, 
scarcely a linnet to be seen, nor a song to be 
heard, and but few came to the orchard, or to 
their fate, from neighboring orchards during 
the remainder of the fruit season. In no one 
season has it taken over a day and a half, or 
two days, to clear my orchard of them. 

I have found the gun described one of the 
best shooting guns 1 ever put to my shoulder, 
never missing over six shots during the season, 
and any good shot can do as well, as one of my 
boys has taken my place, and rarely misses a 
shot. I have killed as many as 500 birds in 
two days, and I don't think Mr. Finney could 
do better by his poisoned meal. I am safe in 
saving that my gun has saved me from $200 to 
$500 per year; for when 1 first started in, five 
years ago, the waste cherries, at the close of 
the day, from 20 hands' labor, would fill a com- 
mon cart. The past year the waste, in the same 
time and same help, would not fill a cherry box, 
and this past season I took from about 14 or 15 
acres of land about, or near, 54,000 lbs. of per- 
fect fruit. I cast my vote for the gun and shot. 

Haywards, Cal. W. H. Jessdp. 



Flowering Bulbs. 

(The following paper was presented at the last meeting 
of the Horticultural Society by W. G. Klke, of the Stale 
University . ] 

The subject for discussion to day, "Flowering 
Bulbs," is, if taken in its widest sense, a very 
large one, including plants from countries widely 
different in temperature and other at.notpheric 
conditions, from that of icy Siberia to the hot 
parts of Africa. Naturally, plants growing in 
such different climates, must be of a correspond- 
ingly different nature and adaptation, but in 
spite of this they have the general characteris- 
tics of a bulb in common. 

What is really a bulb? It is a very flashy 
bud, usually subterranean, the axis of which 
never elongates. It is a provision for future 
growth, the stored nourishment of which is 
deposited in the leaves or the homologues of 
leaves (scales) instead of in the stem. That such 
is the case, is shown very strikingly in some spe- 
cies of onions, where bulblets develop 
instead of flowers in the umbel, and in many 
lilies, where, in the axils of the lower leaves, 
small bulbs are formed, while the upper ones 
produce flowers. All the various modifications 
of bulbs, as the corm (i. e. crocut). tunicated 
bulbs, hyacinths, or scaly bulbs (lilies, for in- 
stance), have all this in common, as said before, 
that they are storehouses for future growth. 
As men in cold or barren countries must gather 
in thtir provisions for future use, so the silent 
plant prepares itself for the coming season of 
rest, be it the hot, dry winter of the tropics, 
or the cold winters of the northern temperate 
zone. 

In the vegetable kingdom, the great staple 
for future use is starch, the most convenient 
form in which plant food may be stored, and 
this is the material which chiefly is found in all 
bulbs. It may, therefore, be laid down as an 
almost universal rule, that bulbs or bulbous 
plants rtquire a definite season of rest to enable 
the various parts to come to full development 
and withdraw from the dying ancestor the su- 
gary sap which, transformed to starch, will 
feed the young plant on its journey next season. 

Another rule to be laid down, and oi equal 
importance, is to give the developing bulb (the 
bulb growing into a plant) an unchecked season 
of growth; first, to allow formation of roots, 
but unbroken, for if neglect of this may have 
comparatively little influence on the develop- 
ment of the already formed flower, it has 60 
much more on the formation of the bulb for 
next year, which starts long before the flower- 
ing is completed. 

To give more than these two simple though 
all-important rules for all the numerous forms 
of bulbs, hailing from as many different cli- 
mates, would be more than folly, and we shall 
therefore confine ourself to one group of 
bulbs, the scaly bulbs, and of these the 
lilies, l.ot because our limited experience justi- 
ces the treating of this subject, but because we 
believe that they are some of Flora's fairest 
children sadly neglected iu a climate admirably 
adapted to their wants. 

The lily has from ancient times been the sub- 
ject of admiration, and some of its grandest 
forms are at home, not very distant from the 
supposed cradle of humanity. Nearly all the 
finest lilies are natives of temperate Asia, Ja- 
pan being the home of perhaps the most beau- 
tiful of all. 

As a general rule, the lilies thrive only in a 
porous, deep soil, rich in humu9, and they usu- 
ally love plenty of moisture during their period 
of development, though the degree varies con- 
siderably with the different species. They also 
almost universally prefer moderate shade rather 
than the exposure to the hot noonday sun. 

The propagation of the lily varies somewhat 
according to the species. The small bulbs 
formed by the base of the old bulb are the most 
natural reproduction, but most species form 



bulblets on the lower axes of the leaves, which, 
after three or four years' cultivation, become flow- 
ering bulbs. Where increase is especially 
wanted, most of the species, with loose scales, 
are capable of producing bulbs. To have suc- 
cess with this manner of propagation, consid- 
erable attention is necessary. The bulbs must 
have completed their growth thoroughly. The 
scales are then cut off, and allowed to dry in 
the air. Afterward they are planted, in a shaded 
frame, in loose, sandy soil. Here the bulbs will 
soon be formed. Flowering bulbs may in this 
manner be raised in about four years, or per- 
haps less. 

The raising of bulbs from seed is perhaps the 
least adopted method. As a general rule, the 
seeds lie very long in the ground, aud do not 
germinate in less than two or three months, and 
very often remain dormant until the next season. 
Bulbs raised from seeds require about a year 
longer than from scales before they become 
flower-producing, and it is, therefore, a slow 
process, only practiced with rare species, or 
where new varieties are desired. 

Varieties of Lilies. 

Perhaps the best known, and also one of the 
easiest cultivated and prettiest, is the white 
lily, par excellence (L. candidum), a native 
of the Levant. It seems to flourish with very 
little care here in California. Like all other 
lilies, it will, however, repay good treatment, 
as occasional transplanting and enriching of the 
soil. 

L. longiflorum, or the loDg flowered lily, is 
perhaps less well known. It is also snow white, 
and very fragrant. This lily is also of compara- 
tively easy culture, but is averse to standing 
water. It blooms generally in June and July. 
It is a native of Japan. 

The lily most admired for the present, and 
one of the finest of the genus, is, however, the 
golden band lily (Lilium auratum); also a na- 
tive of Japan. What has been said of lilies in 
general, refers to this lily. It loves a deep, rich 
soil, and will repay your care with increased 
size and number of flowers, the fragrance of 
which will fill the air. One of these lilies in 
bloom is truly a beautiful sight, and it is noth- 
ing unusual to count nine flowers, about a foot 
in diameter each. The original golden-banded 
lily is snow white, with a yellow band on 
each petal and sepal, spotted with purple, but 
numerous varieties have sprung up, with dark 
red bands, with yellow spots without purple, 
and also a pure white. 

It is difficult to say to which of the two, 
either auratum or the old land folium, or, as it 
is also called, speciosum, the palm for beauty 
should be given. The first certainly is the 
grandest and most dazzling, but the delicious 
fragrance and elegaDt form of flower, as well as 
of leaf, has made L. Inncifolium a general fa- 
vorite in cultivation, and it is a matter of regret 
that here in California, where this lily should 
find a place in the garden, it is hardly seen out- 
side of conservatories. Many varieties, from 
the white to rose and deep crimson purple, have 
been developed to a beautiful complete double. 
This lily especially delights in a light, rich, 
porous soil, but is not very particular and of 
easy culture, and is especially adapted for pot 
culture. 

Still another lily, from Northeastern Asia, is 
L. Browni. The stem of this species grows 
about two to four ft. high and bears but few 
flowers, but they are beautiful white, with vio- 
let or purple streaks on the outside. This lily 
is perhaps of more difficult culture than a 
great many, and must have a perfectly well 
drained soil. 

L. eximium is a white lily of a transparent 
character, also from Eistern Asia. 

L. fulgens, or the blood-colored lily, is a very 
distiuct species, with flowers of a vivid crimson. 

L. monodelphum, or Scovi'zi mum, is a native 
of Caucasus. It prefers a sandy, light, porous 
soil, and develops its beautiful, brilliant yellow 
flower, slightly reddish to the center, as early 
as May in Europe, and would doubtless be one 
•f the earliest lilies here, everything being 
earlier in proportion. It reaches a hight of 
three to five ft. 

From cold Siberia we have several very pretty 
lilies, among others L pomponkum, resembling 
the old well-known Turk's cap, but of a more 
brilliant searlet, spotted with black, though 
there exist yellow varieties from this. It grows 
to about two ft. and is of easy culture; prefers 
a sandy soil. 

L. te.nw folium is a native of the same country. 
It is rather dwarf in habit, but bears beautiful 
dark scarlet flowers, with recurved petals. This 
species is delicate and req aires a perfectly well- 
drained, light soil. 

The Serenna, or Serana, is the native name of 
the black lily, L. nigrum or Kampschatkaensis, 
perhaps more remarkable than attractive, on 
account of its deep red, almost black, color. It 
will not thrive iu a hot locality, but must be 
cultivated in a shady spot. As regards soil, it 
is less particular. The bulbs form an amcle of 
food with Kamschatkans. 

From the Himalaya mountains we have the 
rose-colored lily, L. Thompson!, one of the m?st 
profuse blooming lilies. The flower is of a pale 
flesh color, changing to violet. It is not un- 
usual to have from 30 to 40 flowers from one 
bulb. It generally has more than one stem, and 
its habit is different from most lilies, reminding 
one more of a f ri ti 1 1 aria. This species requires 
rather sunny, sheltered location, and a warm, 
sandy mold. 

The mountains of Nepa.l are the home of a 
very different lily from this, the largest and 
most stately of all, the L. giganteum, or Giant 
lily. This remarkable species reaches a hight 



of nine ft., grows very straight, with large 
cordateleaves atthe base, continuing up the stem, 
ending with about 10 to 15 six to 7 inch funnel- 
shaped flowers, greenish white on the outside, 
and violet-tinted on the inside. This lily has 
been known in Europe for many years, bat prob- 
ably owing to its large size making it undesir- 
able for pot culture, and its shallow-seated bulbs 
making it tender for a northern climate. It has, 
however, been reported as having flowered in 
middle Germany, in open ground, but doubt- 
less well protected. In California, it would cer- 
tainly find it mild enough, and we hope to see 
this lily some day growing in our gardens. 

Having mentioned a number of the foreign 
lilies, which are all highly desirable, I cannot 
refrain to speak a few words about California's 
choicest lily — L. Washingtoniannm. This beau- 
tiful flower is a native of both the mountains of 
California, where it seems to flourish in the red, 
sandy loam from the wash of the mountains, 
growing chiefly in shade, where it reaches its 
perfection, growing to the hight of 5 ft., with 
as many as 20 flowers on one stalk. The flow- 
ers are white, with purplish tint and small 
spots, and exhaling a delightful fragrance. This 
lily has found much favor in Europe, and it is a 
shame that it is not more known in California. 
It likes plenty of water, but does not seem to be 
particular about soil. Of the other eight differ- 
ent lilies found in California, L, Parryi and 
Humboldtianum both deserve a place in the 
smaller gardens, while they all are pretty in 
their own ways. 



Notes on the Care of Fowls. 

From William Niles' "Pacific Coast Poultry 
and Stock Book" we take the following para- 
graphs, concerning the care and feeding of 
fowls: 

Keep Your Fowls Tame. 
There is one point in poultry management to 
which we wish to call especial attention, as but 
few persons who rear poultry for profit ever at- 
tach much importance to it, notwithstanding it 
has a great influence on the profits. It is to 
keep your birds tame, whether they are kept up 
in suitable inclosures during the entire year, or 
permitted to have an unlimited range, for it 
pays to do so in many ways. If you keep your 
birds tame, so they will come to you quickly at 
the call, and eat out of your hand without any 
Bign of fear or distrust, they will always be 
quiet and content, and will fatten and thrive 
much better. This matter is well understood 
by breeders of the larger kind of stock, such as 
cattle, horses, sheep and swine, while there are 
a sensible few who apply the same principle 
with poultry. Many a tine nest of eggs has 
been destroyed by a wild and frightened hen — a 
hen which had early learned to fear her master 
or owner. If uniform kindness and gentleness 
had been resorted to, the hen would suffer her- 
self to be handled while on the nest, and never 
once think of leaving it in such a hurry as to 
endanger the eggs. If the poultry on the farm 
is kept tame, it is not a difficult matter to catch 
one or more when wanted for table or other 
use. 

Money In Eggs. 
I am frequently asked if poultry pays. My 
answer is: "Certainly it does." My own ex- 
perience proves it to my entire satisfaction. 
Poultry can be made to pay better than any 
other live stock on the Pacific coast, in propor- 
tion to the capital invested. Prices tor eggs 
and fowls are always high, compared with the 
Eastern market. The demand for eggs is un- 
limited, and will always exceed the supply. In 
order to pay well, however, the best laying 
breeds must be secured to start with. Chickens 
must be hatched early, so that the pullets will 
be old enough to commence laying in the early 
winter when eggs are high. The fowls muat 
have constant attention, dry quarters during 
cold rains, and not allowed to suffer from neg- 
lect in feeding. Fresh blood should be mingled 
yearly, by introducing a new cock, to insure 
health, size and stamina. There is more profit 
in producing eggs for the market than in rais- 
ing chickens, unless very early "broilers" be 
raised, which always command a high price dur- 
ing the winter and early spring months. 

Hens Eating Eggs. 
I have seldom been troubled with "egg- 
eaters," and if hens are fed and managed as they 
should be, and supplied with every want, they 
will have no desire or appetite for devouring 
eggs. Hens seldom eat their eggs if allowed 
their liberty in the summer. It is only when 
confined by severe weather, or otherwise, that 
the ha' it is formed, and it is obvious then 
tha f tluy crave something that they need, which 
the egg supplies. Feed and manage so as to 
prevent the habit. An ounce of prevention is 
certainly woith "a pound of cure" in this mat- 
ter. But if the habit cannot be prevented, the 
dark nest is a certain cure. Arrange the nest 
at the end of a covered approach, so it will be 
quite dark, and, as soon as the hen lays, she 
will leave it instantly, and none will venture 
near, except for legitimate purposes. 

Advantage of a Good Range. 
For both 1 lying and breeding fowls, a good 
range is a necessity to tholr comfort, health and 
profitableness. Without this convenience, to a 
greater or less extent — and the more liberal the 
range the better — it is futile to attempt to grow 



fowls to profit, and idle to expect them to pro- 
duce eggs regularly. Good range, pure water, 
dry shelter, animal food, and entire freedom 
from filth, are all needful to promote high health 
and continuous prosperity in the poultry yard; 
but more or less range for laying fowls is the 
first essential to their well doing. To afford 
this desirable accommodation, space is required; 
and where a considerable number of birds are 
kept, the room assigned to each lot should be as 
liberally accorded as possible, in order to pre- 
vent sickness among the stock, for the crowding 
of a large number of fowls into single inclos- 
ures is certain to generate disease. 

Curing Sitters. 
Our plan of curing sitting hens of theirbroody 
propensities is somewhat different from that of 
the old lady who cured her hens of disease by 
wringing their necks. That no doubt effectu- 
ally removes the disease, but will soon reduce 
the size of the flock. The idea of ducking a 
poor broody hen to make her stop her clucking 
and motherly propensities is about as useless as 
putting their heads under their wings, or whirl- 
ing them around until they are almost sense- 
less, and then flinging them over the fence to 
meditate on their past iniquities. There are 
others who yoke up their broody hens, the 
s*Tie as many do the geese they wish to keep 
from going through the fences. The plan may 
be highly ornamental and diverting, yet it is 
rarely productive of the desired result. These 
are mostly the plans resorted to in "ye olden 
times," when dung-hill fowls, whose powers of 
endurance were of the highest order, were the 
rule and pure bred fowls the exception. A far 
more sensible as well as effectual plan is to put 
all the broody hens you do not wish to set into 
a commodious coop, with a young active cock- 
erel and they will soon forget their broody 
ways. 

Meat for Fowls. 

Adult fowls when moulting and young ones 
when feathering out, need meat with their 
daily food. Brahmas and other large breeds 
will do better and make far stronger and health- 
ier fowls if, as soon as they can eat it, a little 
cooked meat, chopped fine, be fed to them 
every day. Those who try it will be surprised 
to see at how early an age and with what eager- 
ness the little chicks will eat the meat. It 
should be cooked and cut up fine, so that they 
will have no difficulty in swallowing it. Fowla 
that have a good grass run, where they can 
gather up insects, do not need meat as much as 
those that are cooped up. It also pays well to 
feed meat to hens that are laying, to keep them 
at it, and to those that are not laying to induce 
them to lay. 

The cheapest meat is Chandlers scraps (or 
cracklings), broken up, soaked in water, and 
fed either with soft food or separately. 

Feather Eating. 

This annoying and unnatural practice 
is another habit formed under confine- 
ment of the fowls, and seems to arise 
from a want of grass and exercise. It is gen- 
erally prevented by good care and giving grain, 
meat, shells, bone and vegetables in variety. 
The habit may be checked by giving finely cut, 
well-cured rowen hay, and also by keeping 
constantly before them a small bundle of corn 
fodder, renewing as often as the tender leaves 
are stripped from the stalks. Another and 
more severe remedy, as a last resort, is to pare 
down the sharp edges of the beak of the of- 
fender so it cannot hold a feather to pluck 
it. We learn that a sort of bit has been in- 
vented to keep slightly open the beak, but 
have not tried its merits. 



Comets. 

Mr. W. Mattieu Williams, the manager of 
the Royal Polytechnic Institute of London, 
recently delivered a very interesting lecture on 
"Comets." These erratic visitors, he observed, 
are very numerous, Arago estimating their 
number at 17,500,000. The lecturer explained 
how these figures are arrived at, and described 
the method of sweeping the heavens with a tel- 
escope in search of comets. He showed on the 
screen the appearance presented on the first 
observation of a comet and the gradual growth 
of its tail. He also exhibited the portraits of 
various historical comets, and described the cir- 
cumstances connected with their appearance. 
He especially referred to the investigations of 
Donati on the comet bearing his name, and the 
manner in which the luminous matter of the 
nucleus is first thrust out toward the sun and 
afterwards repelled from it to form the tail. He 
indulged in some speculations as to the composi- 
tion of comets' tails, and the very difficult prob- 
lem which their sweeping round so rapidly pre- 
sents. He then went on to touch on the prob- 
able effects of a collision between a comet 
and the earth, exemplified by instances of 
some approximate collisions that have oc- 
curred, and concluded with an account of the 
observations of Dr. Huggins and other astrono- 
mers on the recent comet, as to its chemical 
composition, as revealed by spectrum analysis. 
Mr. Williams is organizing an exhibition of sci- 
entific inventions of a popular character. 



It is thought that the survivors of the Jean- 
nette boats, who were all living at the end of 
October, according to the news of them re- 
ceived a fortnight ago at Irkutsk, have been 
transported ere this to a more hospitable cli- 
mate by the people with whom they had to 
take refuge. 



20 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 



Correspondence on Grange principle* »nd work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges are respectfully 

requested for this department. 



Meeting of National Grange— No. 7. 

Report of the Committee on Good of the 
■ Order. 

Your Committee on Good of the Order are 
deeply anxious, as doubtless are all the members 
of this body, that the way-marks set up this 
session Bhall indicate real progress. Has our 
advance during the past year been what it should 
have been? Have we realized, and at this, the 
end of another Grange year, do we realize, the 
ideal of one year ago? Your committee believe 
that very few of us are satisfied; that none of 
us realize our ideal. Why not? What is the 
matter? Our principles are correct, our work is 
commendable. The toiling millions have great 
need of our services, and yet they do not mani- 
fest an interest and scarce a curiosity in our ef- 
forts. Where is the trouble? It seems to your 
committee that if we scrutinizs carefully the 
successes and failures which have attended the 
efforts of Patrons in their organized capacity, 
we may be able to form a pretty correct esti- 
mate of the causes which contributed to these 
results. 

All Patrons of long experience in the Order 
will agree that when it was first launched upon 
the sea of life, co-operation was the great dis- 
tinguishing feature, which more than anything 
else commended it to the favorable considera- 
tion of farmers. All other interests were al- 
ready organized and united, and it was just as 
important that we should stand together in de- 
fense of our own, as others for theirs. Others 
were organized for a purpose, and that purpose 
self -protection, which fanners were the last to 
learn, is the first law of nature. The founders 
of the Order, and its early apostles, who went 
oat through all our land, taught us that by thus 
uniting together we might enhance our material 
interests. This idea obtained in State, county 
and subordinate Granges, and was generally 
acted upon, and to-day, after more than a de- 
cade has passed, we find that where co-opera- 
tion has been a success, the Grange has been a 
success, while where failure has resulted, Pa- 
trons have become discouraged and disheart- 
ened. 

If our premises and conclusions are correct, 
it seems to us that the National Grange can 
best make itself felt for good in the rank and 
file of the Order by furnishing the subordinate 
Granges with instruction and advice which will 
enable them to co-operate successfully in busi- 
ness affairs. In other words, realize to them, 
to some extent at least, the promises of those 
who first preached to them the gospel cf tem- 
poral salvation. Or, to adopt the beautiful 
sentiment of our Worthy Lecturer, "teach 
farmers how to save the fruit of their toil and 
make farm life more profitable." Do this, and 
you have interested them in something real, 
tangible, practical. No danger of their forget- 
ting it. No danger of their hack-sliding. 
Nothing ever did, nothing ever will, succeed 
like success. But, Worthy Master, right here 
comes the trouble, and that is, to induce them 
to make the attempt. 

Co-operation. 

Successful co-operation pre-supposes mutual 
confidence and personal honesty. It starts out 
with the idea that each is to work for the good 
of the whole, not that a few are to do the work, 
assume the responsibility, suffer the losses, and 
divide the profits. It supposes that the settled 
policy of the company is to be lived up to; that 
losses are to be borne as cheerfully as gains en- 
joyed; that the fact that if sometimes others are 
able to offer us better terms, it is no excuse to 
tarn our backs upon our friends. In short, suc- 
cessful co operation supposes that each one who 
is a party to the enterprise is to live up square- 
ly to the letter and the spirit of the agreement; 
that through heat and cold, sunshine and storm, 
prosperity or adversity, high prices or low, 
good times or bad, all are to work together as one 
individual, earnestly, unselfishly, and persever- 
ingly, not grumbling or finding fault, but cheer- 
ing, sustaining and encouraging each other, ex- 
ercising that faith in their work which will be- 
get a never-failing hope in their final triumph; 
while at the same time exercising that charity 
towards each other which shall best prove our 
fidelity to our principles, and in all our efforts 
exemplifying that perseverance which knows no 
such word as fail. Nowhere in all the history 
of our Order has there been an instance of fail- 
ure where the Grange has thus worked together. 
But it is a slow process to divest men of their 
prejudices; to get them out of the old ruts; to 
induce those so long accustomed to allow others 
to do their thinking to thiuk for themselves; to 
beget confidence in those who, through the in- 
fluuice of generations of oppression, extortion, 
and neglect, have come to think no man honest 
and unselfish. These, we say, are slow pro- 
cesses; and right here comes in most clearly the 
necessity and value of the educational feature of 
our Order. Just here we perceive its import- 
ance. No interest, no society, no fraternity or 
other organization outside the farmers them- 
selves, no co operation not wholly of and by 
farmers, will ever remove the disabilities of 
which we complain, or will ever educate or ele. 
vate them. 

Build up the Farming Interest. 

It is the mission of other interests to make 



us worth as much as possible to them. It is 
ours to make ourselves worth as much 
as possible to ourselves. It is our mis- 
sion to till the ground, to subdue it, to de- 
velop and increase its productive resources, 
to enhance i's value and add to its beauty. Of 
this we do not complain. We accept the mis- 
sion, and are willing, if need be, to eat our 
bread in the sweat of our face; but we claim, 
and we must insist upon, a more equal distribu- 
tion of the rewards of our labor in the future 
than in the past. How shall this be accom- 
plished ? Great social changes are not brought 
about at once. We must not only be organ- 
ized, but educated. We must learn to labor 
and wait. We have enlisted for life, and are 
to "toil on," "toil on," till the Great Mas- 
ter says, well done ; when, like the prophet 
of old, we will drop our mantles upon the 
Klishas who shall succeed us, and they shall 
complete the work we have so well be- 
gun. Revolutions never go backward. A 
good beginning is the beginning of the 
end. But wa must educate ourselves for 
the work we are to do. Argument, 
logic, threatening, coaxing, or scolding will 
never give us our rights. But when our cir- 
cumstances are talked over by the fireside, re- 
hearsed around the sitting-room table, by the 
wayside, in the subordinate Grange, read of in 
our newspapers, nrged upon our attention by 
the quarterly issues of our Worthy Lecturer, 
which come to us like the colporteur's tract, 
offering us just what our souls hungered for, or 
heard from the lips of the living speaker, who 
comes to us with earnest zeal in behalf of the 
great Order of which we are a part — all these 
influences will awaken thought, thought will 
result in action, and action will be ( ffectual just 
as soon as it is united. So we see that our 
work, as well as our princip'es, points to co-op- 
eration. 

The Grange Order. 

We ha>e in the Order of Patrons of Hus- 
bandry such an organization and such a union 
of purpose as the agricultural world never saw 
before. This National Grange is its acknowl- 
edged head. Patrons expect us to lead off, to 
sound the keynote and order the charge. 

What we desire is to do something which 
shall call the attention of the farmer to our work 
and our principles. Something which will 
cause him to think. We want to reach him at 
his own fireside, away from adverse circum- 
stances, where we can force home to his con- 
sideration the practical principles of our frater- 
nity. Your committee do not presume to dic- 
tate to other committees, or even advise. Each 
committee of this Grange is for the "Good of 
the Order." All are laboring to secure the 
same results. We would suggest that the 
Committee on Co-operation, and also on Edu- 
cation, report some plan by which their sug- 
gestions may be put in practical operation. 
While we approve the work of the Worthy 
Lecturer, and hope his circulars may be con- 
tinued, we suggest that the Grange instruct 
him to give greater prominence to the matter 
of co-operation, not only in pecuniary affairs, 
but also in education and in building up and 
strengthening the Order. 

Per order of Committee on Good of the Or- 
der:— D. H. Thing, W. H. Cheek, R. W. Bay- 
lor, Mrs. E. M. Nicholson, Mrs. M. E. Flint, 
Committee. 

Concurred in. 



Contra Costa and Alameda Granges. 

Alhambra officers were installed Jan. 7th by 
Bro. J. Y. Webster, including Bro. Dr, .7. 
Strentzel, who has always received the office of 
W. M. by the popular will of Alhambra, irom 
the organization of the Grange to the present 
time. A harvest feast was given by the sisters, 
and a good time enjoyed, as usual. 

On the 14th, Poinfc of Timber and Walnut 
Creek are invited to join Danville Grange for 
joint installation of officers. With Alhambra 
added, they will select a county lecturer for 
appointment by the W. M. of the State Grange. 

Temescal Grange will meet with Eden Grange 
at Hay wards, "at 10 o'clock sharp," for joint 
installation of officers, Jan. 14th. Bro. Joel 
Russell, who visited the late session of the 
National Grange, at Washington, will be ex- 
pected to say something of interest about that 
and his visit to other Eastern places. Eden is 
noted for having pleasant and profitable meet- 
ings. So let all Patrons attend who can. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

Prizes for Beet Growing— Washington 
Corners Reporter: The Standard sugar refinery 
has issued a circular to the beet growers for the 
workB at Alvarado, offering prizes for the best 
beets raised in the season of 1882, as follows: 
For the best 100 acres, $200; for the best 75 
acres, $150; for the best 50 acres, $100; for the 
best 25 acres, $50; for the best 10 acres, $20; 
for the best 5 acres, $10, and a years subscrip- 
tion to the Sugar Beet, a paper published at Phil- 
adelphia, devoted to the beet-root sugar indus- 
try, to each winner of a prize. For the second 
best lots of beets in fields of the above named 
sizes, the Sugar Beet will be given for one year. 
The award of prizes will be made by three 
judges, two of whom will be chosen by t the 
competing farmers and the third by the compa- 



ny. The fields will be examined and the 
awards made before the beets are gathered. 
The purpose of offering these prizes is to induce 
farmers to greater care in selection of land and 
in methods of cultivation of beets. 
COLUSA. 

Editors Prbss:— Since New Years, until to- 
day, we have had in this vicinity regular old- 
fashioned Oregon weather. Rain at night and 
fog in the morning so thick that a person could 
almost cut it with a knife. The rainfall, how- 
ever, has not been heavy, though we are not 
suffering for water by any means. If any dis- 
aster befalls this section it must happen here- 
after, for up to the present time everything is 
just as it should be. There has been a great 
deal of winter sowing done, which is pretty 
good evidence that the people do not fear a 
drouth. We have had very little frost yet, 
never enough to stop plowing. The thickest 
ice I have seen this season was about the thick- 
ness of common window-glass. Although most 
of the trees have shed their leaves, yet some 
still remain as green as summer-tinu. Among 
the trees that are still green are the bar-berry 
bush, the water-willow, and in some instances 
the oak is partially clad. The buds on the cot- 
tonwoods and balm of Gileads indicate an early 
spring. With favorable weather henceforward 
we hope soon to be able to report everything 
green and dcurishing in this section of country. 
— L. D. J., Olimpo, Cal. 

KERN. 

No Rain. — Bakersfield Record Jan 5: The 
stock owners are flattering one another that it 
is to be a drouth. It has been trying to rain for 
several days past; the frost has gone into the 
hills and the days have been warm with an east 
and south breeze. One dangerous peculiarity of 
the season is the absence of winds. Rains follow 
storms of wind in this section so generally that 
their failure amounts to a prediction of drouth. 
But there is plenty of time yet for a blast from 
every quarter. Some of our be9t seasons have 
been comm >oced after the first of January, and 
when the cold weather has come in Novem- 
ber and December, with clear sky throughout 
these months, Janua-y has been mild, with fre- 
quent showers, and February has proved wet. 
The longer days favored the growth every where 
and the season was all that was desired. 

L03 ANGELES. 

Gopher Catching. — Express: A novel mode 
of catching gophers has been discovered by a cer- 
tain lady of this city. The pugnacious qualities 
of this species of rodent are well-known. Wh' n- 
ever two gophers are placed together in a trap, one 
will always kill the other. The lady referred to 
catches a live gopher, and then fastens a strong 
cord to its hind quarters. It is then placed in 
a fresh hole, and the cord is let out far as the 
animal wants to go. He is sure to encounter 
the inhabitant of the tunnel and immediately 
a tight commences. The agitation of the cord 
indicates the proper time to haul in, and the 
captivated gopher generally is brought to the 
surface with his adversary tightly clinched in 
his teeth. 

Winter Irrigation. — Anaheim Gazelle: A 
very thorough system of winter irrigation has 
been inaugurated in Orangethorpe district this 
season. Nearly all the farms there have been 
already flooded and the ground is as moist as if 
six inches of rain had fallen. In Placentia dis- 
trict, also, much irrigation has been done. Had 
this plan been pursued in years gone by, gre> t 
would have been the profit. 

Horticultural Commission. — The new 
Board of Horticultural Commissioners met at 
the Supervisors' room in the city of Los Ange- 
les yesterday, and organized temporarily by 
electing Mr. A. Craw, President, and Mr. J. 
M. Foord, Stcretary. The drawing for terms 
resulted as follows: Mr. A. Craw, one yeai; 
Mr. J. M. Foord, two years; Mr. H. K. Snow, 
three yean. Mr. A. Craw was elected perma 
nent President and Mr. J. M. Foord, perma- 
nent Secretary. The rules compiled by the 
Chief Horticultural Officer were, on motion, 
adopted as the rules of the board for the pres- 
ent. The commissioners then proceeded to dis- 
trict the county, as follows: Mr. H. K. Snow 
to have charge of that portion of the county ly- 
ing east of New River and south of the line of 
the Southern Pacific railroad. Mr. James 
Foord, San Gabriel township and all that por- 
tion of the county lying north of the line of the 
Southern Pacific railroad. Mr. Craw's district 
embraces a portion of the Los Nietos township 
and all the remainder of the county lying west 
of the western boundaries of the other districts. 

The Linnet Nuisance. — Mr. G. Y. D. Brand, 
of Pomona, who has been troubled by linnets 
stripping the fruit buds from his orchard trees, 
writes the Los Angeles Tines, under date of 
Dec. 31, 1881, as to his manner of disposing of 
the little pests, as follows: "This morning I cut 
three or four apples into halves, put on a little 
strychnine and stuck the pieces in the tops of 
fruit trees. This evening I counted 29 little 
birds — all linnets — lying under the trees." 

He also Bays of the remedy recommended by 
Mr. Dougherty, of Pasadena: "Oiher parties 
went out with a lantern two or three nights and 
held the lantern near orange trees, when the 
birds came flying at the light and were easily 
killed. They killed about 375 birds in a few 
evenings." 
MERCED. 

Cotton. — Express: Mr. T. O. Dean, a gen- 
tleman well-known in this county, and a Mer- 
ced river farmer, is engaged in the growing of 
cotton, and has made it a success — even more 
profitable than wheat Mr. Dean planted 150 



acres in cotton this year, which produced 109 
J bales. The cotton was disposed of to the Mer- 
ced woolen mills at 12 cts. per pound, amount- 
ing to the snug sum of $4,185.60. The day is 
not far distant when the cotton crop of Merced 
county will be an important factor in the sum 
of her productions. 
NAPA. 

St. Helena Yinicultural Club.— The old 
Board of Directon. of the Winegrowers' Associa- 
tion, of St. Helena, Chas. Krug, John Lewell- 
ing, John C. Weinberger, John Thomann and 
Wm. Scheffler, have been re elected. They 
then re-elected the old officers, as follows: 
Chas. Krug, President; John Lewelliog, Yice- 
President; John C. Weinberger, Treasurer; 
Chas. A. Gardener was re-appointed Secretary. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Folsom Notes. — Telegraph, Jan. 7: The 
late warm rain has had a most beneficial effect 
upon the young grain that now in many places 
is making the finest showing, while sheep and 
cattle are beginning to find an ample supply of 
food in the grass that is growing most rap- 
idly. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Oranges. — The Press and Horiiculturiit, of 
Riverside, Bays the demand for oranges in that 
city is greater then ever known before at this 
season of the year. It also says that prices hold 
up well. Mr. A. J. Twogood, of that vicinity, 
receiving $4 50 and $5 per box for recent ship- 
ments. 

SANTA CLARA. 

Flour Shipment. — Journal, Jan. 7: It 
should be gratifying to all Santa Clarans, as 
well as to those directly interested, to know 
that in the first shipment of California-made 
new process flour to Europe, that rent by the 
Santa Clara City Flouring Mill Co. bert stood 
the test of the voyage and realized in Liverpool 
the highest price received for any lot in the 
cargo. As is generally known, the vessels that 
are being sent to Liverpool with California new 
process flour are loaded by the Millers' Associa- 
tion of the State, who receive flour at San Fran- 
cisco from various mills and load it promiscu- 
ously as it comeB. This first vessel spoken of 
was five months making the trip, and on reach- 
ing Liverpool the strange fact was discovered 
that a portion of every brand of flou? except 
that of the Santa Clara mill had heated and be- 
come damaged. The flour made here went 
through in a perfectly good cc n iitiou, and sold 
for a price that is very satisfactory ti the com- 
pany. This exemption from heating is ascribed 
to the peculiar treatment the wheat receives be- 
fore being gronnd. Whatever may be the 
cause, the success attending the shipment of 
Santa < ' a-a flour to Europe in good condition 
is established. The mill is now receiving ad- 
ditional improvements in the way of two new 
machines for use in the new process manufact- 
ure, and a new talker, which will still further 
increase its capacity and the quality of the 
flour. Whtn tr.ese are added, the mill will be 
run night and day. 

GiLRoy Cheese. — Advocate: The shipment 
of cheese by rail from Gilroy during the year 
1881 was 703,650 tbs. The sales of the year 
have been very encouraging. The brands of 
the leading dairies have obtained the highest 
prices. They have taken the I. a i of all other 
California brands and frequently ranked at par 
with the best imported brands. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Outlook. — Watsonville Transcript: At pres- 
ent, the indications are very favorable for 
splendid orops of all kinds in the Pajaro valley, 
and upon the surrounding foothills. The gronnd 
is in excellent condition, and the farmers are 
availing themselves of the pleasant weather to 
plow their land and get the seed in the ground. 
The warm weather of last week was favorable 
for grass, which now I ai a start sufficient to in- 
sure good feed for stock, which will soon bring 
the price of meat and butter down to a more 
reasonable figure. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Lodi Looks. — Review: There has been plenty 
of rain in this vicinity for present purposes. 
The farmers are all busy plowing and seeding. 
The young grass is growing fresh and green by 
the road side, and lilac bushes in the flower 
gardens have already put forth signs of early 
blossoms. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

The Octlook. — Tribune, Jan. 7: There 
is considerable apprehension, net to say alarm, 
among business men, farmers and dairymen on 
account of the slight rainfall thus far this season. 
No particular injury has been sustained in this 
county as yet on account of the "dry spell" ex- 
cept by those farmers u ho neglected to take ad- 
vantage of the November rains, and, perhaps, a 
few dairymen. There is, however, no reason to 
apprehend a dry year. The season thus far re- 
sembles, in a marked degree, that of 1877 78, 
when up to December 22d only 2.98 inches of 
rain had fallen. From that date to January 
13th no rain fell, and everybody predicted a 
repetition of the disastrous seasons of '63-4 and 
'767. But on the 13th of January, 1878, a 
heavy storm set in and by the 21 of February 
the rainfall amounted to 14 22 inches. A very 
prosperous season followed, except in tome lo- 
calities along the ooast, where the heavy cropi 
were blighted by rust. Another similarity be- 
tween the present season and that of 1877-78 is 
noticed. During the dry t-pell there was then, 
as has been the case this year, a great deal of 
cold weather, thick ice forming on several oc- 



January 14 1882.] 



£ PACIFIC 



IL PRESS. 



$1 



casions. Then, too, the rains Were heaviest in 
the northern part of the State, the same as this 
year. Thus far we have had about one-third 
more rain this season than fell during a corres- 
ponding period in 1877-78. Taking all these 
things into consideration, and judging from the 
weather indication8,there is as yet really no causa 
for alarm. The season might be better, and it 
might also be a great deal worse. On some of 
the dairy ranches where cows are calving, con- 
siderable inconvenience and perhaps loss will be 
experienced, but the Tribune predicts that with- 
in the next ten days sufficient rain will have 
fallen to more than recompense with good 
effects all the damages that have been sus- 
tained. So far as the farming interests are con- 
cerned everything is progressing favorably. 
Some have not completed their plowing, but a 
great deal of land has been seeded and the grain 
has sprouted, and in every instance is looking 
fine. There is a great deal of moisture in the 
ground, and the damp fogs which have prevailed 
have kept the growing grain in good condition. 
But comparatively little rain will be required 
to insure an average crop on all lands that have 
been seeded. 
SOLANO. 

Solano County Oranges. — Suisun Republi- 
can: At Mr. Chas. Martell's grove in Pleasant 
valley oranges grow luxuriantly, and are exceed- 
ingly delicious to the taste, rivalling those of 
Lis Augeles in perfect form and beauty, which 
is saying a great deal, we know, but, neverthe- 
less, such is the fact. The most sought for here 
are the "Mediterranean sweet" and the "navel;" 
also a variety of others. The trees are three 
years old, and several that were planted last 
spring are now beariog fruit splendidly. Messrs. 
M. K. Miller, E. R Thurber, John Dolan, John 
Huckins, all near neighbors, cannot grow this 
fruit, as their locations are unfavorable. Mr. 
Martell's grove is on the southwest slope. Two 
hundred and fifty trees, of various ages, are in 
bearing. The soil is heavy, correspondingly 
strong, and the loam rich and deep. 

Editors Press: — While in many other locali- 
ties they are suffering for rain, here, in the 
northern part of Solano, we have had an abund- 
ance for all present purposes. Mr. E. R. 
Thurber's rain gauge shows six inches to present 
date. On new land it is wet to the depth of 18 
inches, while on old, it is over two ft. Early- 
sown grain is up and well rooted. Pruning is 
well advanced. The warm days during last 
week have swollen the fruit buds and [started 
the sap to run freely in fresh-pruned grapevines. 
For many years we have been troubled with 
mildew on our grapes; having been advised by a 
friend to try bluestone, we did so. During the 
latter part of this month, and before the young 
shoots have started, we make a strong solution 
of bluestone, take a common watering-pot, 
saturate the vine thoroughly, if there is any old 
bark we remove it, that the vine may be well 
saturated with the wash; then we sulphur well 
during the early part of the season. Vines 
treated in this way have withstood the mildew, 
while those only sulphured, have been entirely 
destroyed. — F. B., Vacaville, Jan. 10th, 1882. 

SONOMA. 

Notes. — Petaluma Argus: Alfred Symonds 
sent us some delicious raspberries for New 
Year's. They were grown in the open air, and 
were absolutely perfect in size, taste, etc. Mr. 
Hoffsetter, an intelligent and energetic vine- 
yardist of Sebastopol, is now putting out 10 
acres of Malvoise grape cuttings, from Santa 
Cruz. A few years ago he procured Malaga 
cuttings from Spain, and they are doing well. 

Plenty of Rain. — We have had an abun- 
dance of rain for this time in the season, and 
the outlook is very satisfactory. Farming op 
erations are well advanced, and about the usual 
quantity of grain sown. It is a little too soon 
to predict results, though we are now satisfied 
that nothing will prevent good average crops in 
Sonoma unless it is too much rain. Our farm- 
ers are never dried out, but are occasionally 
drowned out. Grass is growing rapidly, and 
the whole country around here is looking 
finely. In many places on the highlands the 
feed is quite good. The lowlands that are not 
properly drained, are suffering just now from 
standing water. 

Russian River Notes. — Flag, Jan. 5: Fa- 
vorable reports reach us from the mountains. 
Around the head waters of the Guallala feed is 
very fine and stock is doing well. Sheep have 
never done better; they are in good condition, 
and the loss is smaller this season than ever 
before. Cattle are in fine order and thriving, 
Game of all kinds is plentiful, and hunters have 
rare sport with bears, wildcats, foxes, coot 
and other "varmints." On the ranches of 
Wickersham, Wilcox, Seawell and Hassett, six 
large bears have been killed, and war has been 
declared upon a dozen more. Notwithstanding 
that our usual amount of rain has not fallen this 
season, our farmers were never better satisfied 
with their prospects. We have had no driving 
storms, but rain fell gently, sinking into the 
earth instead of running off and merely raising 
creeks and rivers. Plowing is going on mer- 
rily, grass is growing finely, and stock is in ex 
cellent condition. Never has the outlook been 
more cheering than at present. Mr. Flack, of 
Magnolia farm, is sending apples to San Fran- 
cisco, for which he receives $1.25 per box; for 
pears he realized $2 25 per box. Tw6 years ago 
apples and pears did not pay for shipping. The 
demand for apples exceeds the supply, San 
Francisco supplying Arizona and New Mexico 
with this fruit. Our farmers and ranchmen are 
in high glee over their success the past season. 
Crops and stock turned out well, fair prioea 



prevailed, and everybody is coming to town 
and making their yearly settlements. Money 
is plenty, prospects are good. 

STANISLAUS. 

Fears.— Herald, Jan. 5; The continued 
dry weather seems to create anxiety in farming 
circles, and when that branch of industry is 
disturbed all others sympathize. What is gen- 
erally considered the bulk of the season for rain 
has passed, and but iittle has fallen. We have 
not had more than one-fifth of the rainfall ne- 
cessary for good crops, and the young wheat is 
beginning to feel the need of water. 

SUTTER. 

Popular Wheats. — Yuba City Farmer: 
While in conversation with Geo. W. Carpenter 
and B. F. Walton in the Farmers' Union office 
on Saturday, we heard the history of the well- 
known Proper wheat given. Two brothers 
named James and Robert Anderson lived on a 
ranch about nine miles from this place, in 
Gaither school district in this county, and who, 
after tie dry year of 1864, purchased some barley 
imported from Chili, for seed. When the grain 
matured, a number of heads of wheat were 
found, which they plucked and rubbed out by 
hand. Finding the berry fine and plump, they 
sowed it and raised a considerable amount, 
which w is again sown for seed. In 1866 and 
"67 the Anderson brothers sold their ranch to 
Edward Proper, who continued to raise this 
wheat, and sold considerable quantities for 
seed. It was received with great favor, and 
took the name Proper from him. Mr. Walton 
informed us that among the varieties of wheat 
in this county are Pride of Butte, which is a 
variety received by Gen. John Bidwell from the 
Patent Office, Proper, Chico Clnb, Genessee, 
White Australian and Sonora; the latter being 
considered the best for late sowing and for hay. 

Crop Notes. — It has been estimated that 
three-fourths of all the cultivated land in this 
county will be seeded this year, or about 152,- 
000 acres. There are about 375,000 acres as- 
sessed. John Schlag, residing on the tule, 
three miles west of Hawkey's Corners, says 
that most of the land in his vicinity has been 
summer-fallowed, and the promises are excel- 
lent. Wm. O'Banion, who resides 10 miles 
southwest of this place, informs us that he has 
320 acres of grain in, of which 220 are summer- 
fallow. The prospects are excellent thus far, 
and if the floods do not drown out the grain, 
the harvest this year will be unusually abundant. 



TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press: — Tuolumne county iB enjoy- 
ing a rich, refreshing season of warmth and 
growth. Our days are cloudy, rainy, genial 
and pleasant, alternately. Never before have 
we experienced such beautiful weather at this 
season of the year. The crops can't help grow- 
ing. The feed is sufficient for all roaming 
stock; being warm, no suffering has existed 
among them. James Goodwin, of Mountain 
Pass, informs me that he has an apple tree of 
the Red June variety, with a half crop of half 
ripe apples, bidding fair to bring them to full 
maturity — something never before experienced. 
From reports from the southern counties, the 
rain has failed to respond to the prayers of 
anxious farmers. That is unfortunate, as the 
most productive and extensive grain land of 
the State lies in that section. It is to be hoped 
that it is not too late to produce an average 
crop. We are too apt to lose faith at the first 
appearance of misfortune. The foothills should 
possess some advantages over the rich plains. 
We are cramped for cop-room, and slow be- 
cause of the necessity of cultivating with old- 
fashioned machinery. Gang- plows and headers 
can only be used in some few favored localities. 
It would not answer for earth's "Garden of 
Eden" to be enjoyed by the few to the exclusion 
of the many without having in some way a ser- 
pent to bring us back to a fellowship with our 
kindred. The plains can give us bread and 
some of their gold for our luscious fruits, and 
the "wine-bibber" can have his taste gratified 
from the same source. But in mine, I would 
rather be excused. I do believe that the vines 
should not be trimmed this spring as early a! 
usual owing to the warmth of the weather- 
Early trimming will ensure early starting of the 
buds, which might prove fatal by the late frosts. 
Experience should teach us when to use the 
knife or shears. That pitting machine adver 
tised, should find its way into the market be 
fore another season comes round. For plums, it 
must be a great help to fingers made slippery 
by the adhesiveness of center and circumfer- 
ence, often trying to temper and patience. By 
all means spread around the pitting machine 
The readers of the Rural will be sure to be 
patrons if it performs as recommended. — John 
Taylor, Chinese Camp, Jan. 5, 1882, 

YOLO. 

Blackberries. — Mail, Jan. 5: Mr. John 
Hollingsworth of this city, handed us on Mon 
day a vine fairly loaded with large luscious black- 
berries of the Winter variety. They were 
grown at his home in the eastern portion of 
town and he has large quantities, some of 
which are in bloom, others half ripe and a great 
part of them are just ready for the table. 

The Outlook. — Democrat, Jan. 8: There 
was never perhaps a better outlook for the crops 
in this vicinity than at the present time. There 
ha* been no heavy rainfall, but what has fallen 
has come in a shape to do the greatest good and 
there has been enough for all immediate pur 
poses. The work of seeding is farther advanced 
than usual, and the area sown to grain will be 
exceptionally large, 



The Immigration Association. 

A special meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Immigration Association of Cali- 
fornia was held Tuesday afternoon, at their 
rooms, No. 10 California street. Present, 
Messrs. Blanding, Barker and Kelley, and Presi- 
dent Briggs in the chair. Captain Blanding sub- 
mitted his report on the public lands of the 
State. The report, of which the following is an 
extract, was accepted : 

To the Executive Committee of the Immigration 
Association — Gentlemen : You submit to me 
the question whether the public lands in this 
State which are inclosed and occupied by part- 
ies not claiming them under the laws of the 
United States, are subject to pre-emption or 
homestead only. If it be true, as said, that of 
much of the public land in this State has been 
inclosed in large tracts, and is now held with- 
out authority of law, and if such inclosure and 
occupation exclude the public lands from pre- 
emption and homestead, then the field of useful- 
ness of this association will be much contracted. 
Most of the immigrants on reaching this State 
have but limited means, not more than will en- 
able them to make the improvements required 
by law for the perfecting of their claims by pre- 
emption or homestead. Lmds owned by pri- 
vate parties, except the railroad company, are 
generally beyond their reach. If this associa- 
tion would be of any real service, therefore, to 
the immigrant, it must help him to make his 
home on the public lands. There ii much 
more public land in this State legally vacant 
than is generally supposed. The land office of 
the association has already learned from the 
records of the San Francisco land office alone, 
that in 34 out of 124 examined town- 
ships, there are 225,000 acres of public land 
now vacant and subject to entry, and doubtless 
the other land office in the State, when exam- 
ined, will show the same state of things. If, 
however, the pre-emptor who attempts to make 
the settlement required by law, is to be deemed 
a trespasser on the possession of one who holds 
such land as a cattle range or for any other pur- 
pose, then but little increase of our agricultural 
population can be hoped for. The immigrant 
will not not make his home on land which he 
can secure, if at all, only by expensive law 
suits. Such might unfortunately be" his fate 
under the late decisions of the courts. The 
Supreme Court of the United States, in the case 
of Atbsrton vs. Fowler (6 Otto, 513), and the 
subsequent cases of Hosmer vs. Wallace (7 Otto, 
575) and Trenouth vs. San Francisco (10 Otto 
251), held that no right of pre-emption can be 
established by a settlement and improvements 
on a tract of public land which was in the pos- 
session of one who has inclosed, settled upon 
and improved it. The Supreme Court of Call 
fornia has felt itself bound to follow those de- 
cisions, being the construction of a Federal 
statute by a Federal court. Therefore, in late 
cases, it has announced the same doctrine. It 
may therefore be regarded as established law, 
There should be no difficulty in passing an act 
through Congress to remedy the evil, for it 
seems to exist in other States also. Commis 
sioner Williamson, in the Nickal's case, said 
It is a matter of general complaint among the 
poorer class of settlers, that rich ranchmen or 
cattle owners are in the practice of inclosing 
large tracts of the public domain with fences 
to the exclusion of homestead and pre-emption 
entry." I learn that Mr. State Surveyor Gen 
eral Shanklin has forwarded to our delegation 
in Congress an act intended to remedy the evil, 
and this association should urgently request 
their efforts in securing its passage at the pres 
ent session. 

On motion, Capt. Blanding was then ap- 
pointed a committee to draft resolutions uiging 
upon Congress the passage of a bill securing the 
pre-emptors and homesteaders the right to enter 
and make settlement upon the vacant land of 
the United States. The committee was author 
ized to prepare a proper bill, to be presented to 
Congress, to accomplish that object. 

Pres't Briggs reported that a letter had been 
sent to Gen. Rosecrans in reference to tho money 
collected at this port from ships on which immi 
yi silts had died, and which at present is at the 
U. S. Treasury, with a view of obtaining the 
same for the benefit of the Association 

Mr. Street, the land agent, repoit'd that h 
had examined some 6,000 square miles of lines, 
comprising some 150 townships, situated in part 
of 11 different counties, and found thus far 
287,000 acres of vacant land, accordiug to th 
records of the U. S. Land Office. 

The President then read a congratulatory let 
ter which had been received from Gov. Perkins 
on the objects and organization of the aasocia 
tion. 

The donation of a map containing all the spe 
cial grants in the State was acknowledged from 
Mr. George K. Porter. The Secretary then sub- 
mitted his report, and after the transaction of 



Richard H. Dana, Jr.. died in Rome, Italy, 
Saturday. 

The best feminine help in Sweden receives 
a month. 

Small-pox caused 450 deaths in New York 
city in 1881, against 31 in 1880. 

The East river bridge needs $600,000 more to 
complete the structure, which has already cost 
$13,377,000. 

Ashcroft, Colorado, is to have two smelters. 
The -town trustees have donated a tract of land 
for that purpose. 
A General arrest of saloon-keepers was made 
Willows on Monday for disregarding the Sun- 
day law on the previous day. 

Additional copper discoveries are reported 
from the Santa Catalinas, Arizona. The bodies 
ore are reported to be very large. 
The annual copper product of the United 
States is now given in a suDplement to the cen- 
sus at 50,655,140 lbs, worth $8,842,961. 

The gallows to hang Garcia on next Wednes- 
day is already erected at San Buenaventura, but 
an appeal will be taken to stay the execution. 

The profits of the Bichnond M. Co. (Eureka) 
during the past six months, after paying all ex- 
penses, have been over a quarter of a million of 
dollars. 

The contract awarded to Lynde & Co., on 
e mountain division of the Northern Pacific, 
W. T., calls for 500,000 ties and 10,000,000 ft. 
lumber. 

It is said that 7,000 negroes in South Caro- 
lina have agreed to join the present "exodus" 
to Arkansas, and whole neighborhoods are be- 
ing depopulated. 

The Postoffice Department issued stamps to 
the value of $640,000 last Saturday, the largest 
ever known, being 20,000,000 stamps and 6,- 
000,000 postal cards. 

The total cost of the St. Gothard tunnel, 
which was opened lost Sunday for the regular 
age of trains, is 56,808,620 francs, some- 
thing over $11,000,000. 
The fact that the present year of grace, 1882, 
to have one Sunday more than most years, is 
regarded by many good people as a cheerful 
omen for the advance of the gospel. 

It is reported that the new steamer Walla 
Walla wil. be sent from Portland to Hongkong 
with flour, and return with 1,000 Chinese to 
work on the North Pacific railroad. 



further minor business, the meeting adjourned 



The bonded indebtedness of Yuba county, in 
the amount of $131,000, has been refunded from 
8% to 6% interest, payable in 20 years. The 
whole amount was awarded to N. D. Rideout, 
local banker, at par value. 

Miller, of California, has presented in the 
Senate a memorial from the San Franoisco 
Chamber of Commerce for an appropriation for 
harbor defenses at the entranoe to the Bay of 
San Franoiseo, 



News In Briet 



Colored Glass. — Much has been said about 
the inability of modern glass manufacturers to 
make window glass imbued with the rich and 
beautiful colors peculiar to the windows of old 
cathedrals in England and on the continent. It 
is not generally known, however, that the 
secret of securing those wondrous tints has been 
discovered by one of our glass manufacturers. 
After a long series of experiments conducted in 
conjunction with Mr. Thos. Garfield, of Boston, 
a cousin of the martyr President, he has found 
that the rich effects in those old cathedral win- 
dows are owing to the poorness of the quality 
of the glass. Owing to the imperfect mixing 
of the ingredients by the old glass makers, the 
substance did not unite closely, and in conse- 
quence it became porous, and the minute par- 
ticles of soda in the composition are exposed 
and act in the function of radiators, which give 
brilliancy to the colors of the window. In 
making window glass in colors now, the makers 
prefer to leave the surface rough, in order that 
by exposure to the elements it may go through 
the same beautifying process alluded to above. 

Change Your Seed. — The advantage of 
changing seed is generally recognized by cereal 
growers, as is shown by the importations of for- 
eign-grown seed wheat during past years. An 
opportunity to purchase Australian seed wheat 
and New Zealand seed oats is offered by S. L. 
Jones & Co., auctioneers,in another column. The 
ad vertisementgives full particulars, and should be 
looked after. 



Mulberry Cuttings. — Attention is directed 
to the advertisement of mulberry cuttings by 
Mrs. S. A. Sellers, of Antioch. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

[Established in San Francisco in 1870.] 

This Is the leading farming journal on the western half ot 
the continent, and second to none in America. It is well 
printed and illustrated, weekly. Contains an unusual amount 
of fresh, original farm, household and family circle litera- 
ture. Careful attention is paid to giving full and reliable 
weekly market reports. The following are among its ably 
conducted departments: Editorials on agricultural and 
other timely and important subjects of live interest to 
farmers and their families; agricultural, and other useful 
and ornamental illustrations; correspondence from various 
quarters of our new and rich developing fields of agriculture 
on the Pacific coast, embracing new hints and ideas from 
progressive men and women in all branches of rural industry; 
Horticulture; Floriculture; The Garden; The Home Circle; 
The Grange; Young Folks; Domestic Economy; Gord Health; 
Entomological; Sheep and Wool; The Dairy; The Stock 
Yard; Poultry Yard; The Swine Yard; The Apiary; The 
Vineyard; Queries and Replies; New Inventions (and illus- 
trations of new and improved machinery); Agricultural 
Notes; Items of General New?, etc. Its columns are stu- 
diously rilled with chaste, interesting 1 , fresh and useful read- 
ing, devoid of questionable literature for old or young and 
fancifully alluring clap-trap advertisements. Send for sam- 
ple copies. 

Subscriptions, in advance, $3 a year. Agents wanted, on 
liberal pay Dewry & Co., Publishers. 

No. 262 Market St.,, 8. F., Cal. 



Cylinder Printing Press for Sale. 

A large cylinder Hoe printing press, for country news- 
paper work, can be bought cheap by addressing 

Ptms Box 3861, 8. F. 



THE PACIFIC MURAL PRESS. 



22 




The Husbandman. 

Earth of man the bounteous mother. 
Feeds him still with corn and wine; 

He who best would aid a brother. 
Shares with him these gifts divine. 

Mi.ny a power within her bosom. 
Noiseless, hidden, works beneath; 

Hi nee are seed and leaf and blossom, 
Uolden ear and cluster'd wreath. 

These to swell with strength and beauty 

Is the royal task of man; 
Han's r. kuif, his throne is duty, 

Since his work on earth began. 

bud and harvest, bloom and vintage— 
These, like man, are fruit of earth; 

Stamp'd in clav, a heavenly vintage, 
All from dust receive their birth. 

Barn and mill, and wine-vat's treasures, 

Earthly goods for earthly lives; 
These are Nature's ancient pleasures— 

Th ;ee her child from her derives. 

What the dream, but vain rebelling, 

If from earth we sough' to flee? 
Tis our stored and ample dwelling— 

'Tis from it the.ekies we see. 

Wind and frost, and hour and secson, 

Land and water, sun and shade, 
Work with these, as bids thy reason, 

For|,they work thy toil to aid. 

Soj» tliv seed, and reap in gladness! 
Man himself is all a seed; 

Hope and hardship, joy and sadness- 
Slow the plant to ripeness lead. 

— John Strrliiiy. 



A Woman's Heart. 



[Written for the ltt'RAL Priss by Hope Haywood.] 

He made roe a wife and mother; 

He answered my young heart's call; 
He came, he sought my spirit, 

He made and fastentd love's thrall! 

He holds me fast; shall I Btruggle 

For aught beyond his breast '.' 
Nay; here is my life's sweet haven, — 

Love hath an indwelling rest. 

Back ever my heart must turn; 

Humbly it'sues to its own; 
Love, "be ye reconciled,*' 

Is the clearest voice of the Throne! 
San Diego, Cal. 



The Ojai. 

IWritten for the Rural Phkss by Hor.uk J. Smith.) 

Editors Pres*: — We pulmonary exiles come 
out here at an enormous expense of feeliDg in 
the separation from our social relations. Some 
of us have to give up business, and, financially 
speaking, burn our candle at both ends; that is, 
not only give up making money, but devote 
ourselves to the spending of it. Hence, as 
seen, light is the chief curative; if we are de- 
frauded of sunlight in our rooms, we are a ter- 
ribly swindled set. Now, our good landlord 
here in this lovely Ojai valley, which is the per- 
fection of a sanitarium, especially for consump- 
tives and asthmatics — this Mr. W. S. McKee 
knows how to build a sanitary cottage. He 
gets the first moi uirjg sunlight into each room 
by large windows (reaching to the floor) on the 
east side, and then by windows on the west 
side, the last lingering rays of the setting sun 
salute the ever cheerful room. Of course, in 
this kind of building, the house can be only one 
room wide. 

These rooms are surrounded by a piazzi, and 
on the western side this piazzi is covered so as 
to afford a protected walk when it rains. These 
cottages, of which there are four, surrounding 
a central house, thus combine the privacy of 
family home life with freedom from household 
cares. In fact, this is the true solution of the 
housekeeping servant-girl question, and the 
wonder is that this system is not more widely 
adopted. 

This Ojai valley is about 15 miles back from 
the ocean, its port being San Buenaventura, on 
the Santa Barbara channel. It is probably the 
bed of some old lake about six miles long and 
one and one-half miles wide. It stands 800 ft. 
above the sea and is rimmed in with mountains 
rising 3,000 to 4,000 ft. above it. 

At the church sociable, held Dec. 29th, in the 
parlors of this home, called the Oak Glen cot- 
tages, a spirited piece was read by Mr. Mont- 
gomery, which I send ycu for publication: 

Complaint of Diana 
(Ireat Jupiter, weary of business, reclined. 
Ho weaiy was lie that be ma le up his mind. 
Tint petitioners henceforth, whatever their claim. 
Whether goddess or god at the door should remain 
The fat oifice-seekers had come in a cro«d, 
Aud their clamors for places were violent and loud; 
For since last election the rush was so great, 
No vacant p st office was left in the State. 
Voters by thousands, both near and afar. 
Sought t"e office of guiding blonde Phoebus' car. 
Pr .posals by milll ns to furnish in tons 
The nectar to nourish Jove's daughters and sons; 
All tlie mad bags celestial with letters were crammed 
Ht- giiing contracts to ferry the souls of the damned, 
'< Toss the dark river Styx. So Jove made a vow 
He'd grant no more offices, a d great was tbe row. 
A caucus was held by th I gods to protest. 



From vottrs indignant great Jove knew no rest. 
Bewildered, exhausted, ill-humored and sore. 
He reclined OH his throne with a guard at the door. 
When Mercury knocking, begged humbly to slate 
That a lady was waiting below at the gate. 

"A lady! ' cried Jove, "I t'on't care a pin 

If a thousand were waiting, not one shall come in; 

Tin y Lave tease <1 me to di alh with theil nuarrels anil fights, 

To secure local option and obtain woman's rights 

Admit no more ladi' s. TeU this one from me _ 

To go home to her babies, my lace she 11 not see.' 

Quoth Mercury then.'for'he thought the case bard. 
••.No babies I s- tin- one, to judge Irolil her card, 
Her i aim- is Diana, the maid ol the grove. 
The goddess of hunters, wh i comes K see Jove." 

The god sat erect ami a smile crossed his face. 
And he cried out, "Quick Mercury, hasten thy pace. 
Throw wide our portals. Let thuuder proclaim 
That the fairest of daughters. Diana by name, 
Diana, the chaste. Itoiii her sylvan resort 
Has come to do honor to Jove aud his court." 

Then bright flashed the lightning, the thunders resound 

To summon tue gods aud the goddesses round. 

The hall wjs s..o . tilled uith their brilliant army. 

While slowly and sad y the maid took her way 

To the thr.ne of her father The god blandly smile 1 

To welcome to Heaven his long-absent child. 

"'(ireat father of all," thus the maiden began, 
"Whose presence is awful to goils an 1 to man. 
Few words will suffice ine my griefs to impart, 
To mske courtly spe ches I know not the art. 
For the woods a-e my dwel 'ngs. By Jove's high command. 
I guard the green forests and woods of the laud: 
I urge the bold hunter in chasing i he roe; 
In danger protect him w-ith quiver and bow. 
At grey dawn of morning when nature is still. 
The notes of my horn are htard on the hill. 
When mortals are writhing in anguish and pain. 
They call on Diana, and tall not in vain; 
Tlie low, fever* d couch, with pale death stalking nigb, 
Diana is guarding unseen to the eye 
But now, i khl my fath- r aud gods, hear iny woe. 
Diana must leave hi r abode there below, 
For morta's. unmindful of justice and thee. 
Of her woods and her forests have scarce left a tree. 
F.om Sol's early smile till he sinks in the west, 
The axe ol destruction is swung without rest; 
And giants which nature for centuries nurseil. 
In a moment are doomed by these mortals accursed 
The wide spread'ng oak tree, the pride of the glade. 
Inviting the concero of birds to its shade, 
Su:cessful the tempest's will fury* defies. 
But man wields the weapon of death and it dies. 
Long ribbons of steel they have stretched on my plains 
Whe'c glazed the huge buffalo, no trace now remaiiis, 
But a steed, snorting fire, shrieks over the vale, 
His dark breath of sulphur pollutiug the gale. 
So titrce is the glare of his eyeball at night 
Th- I rave-t of beasis are bewildered with fright 
Mis turbulent blood courses madly on fire. 
His heart a volcano ail flaming with ire. 
A demon of Pinto, conjured up by men. 
To affright nymphs and naiads from vailey and glen; 
In vain do they icatt- r to mountains or vrot. 
The shriek of the fiend is haunting the spot. 
The fad. pallid patieut now murmurs in vain 
For I he soft breath of peace to assuage him in pain; 
(ii.niniotion aud turmoil have joioed to curtail 
Hh ihort si an I f life in that turbulent vale- 
No prey for my hunters on highland or dell, 
My grove* devastated. Oh! where shall I dwell f 
Tin ^'M.-s ure my tefuge, u hers lonely I II nn i u in 
The past happy days that Hhall never return." 

She said, and the higli azure mult of the fkies 

Resounded complaining with sobs and with Bight: 

Andtear-pen"iled eyelids in sorrow o'erflowed, 

At the maiih n's sad fate in her t artbly abude. 

But Jove, all serene, to the goddess replied: 

"For thy future, my daughter, the gods shall provide. 

In ages long distant tliy wrongs we foresaw, 

And man's disregard for thy lights and our law; ( 

We derreed that for tbee a retreat should be found, 

A bright spot of beauty whi re joy shall abound; 

A health-giving Eden by solt w.nds ciressed. 

In sunshine and shadow alternately blessed. 

That mountains to circle the Bpot should be found. 

High, lugged and steep to ttand guardians around: 

W ith forest so dense that the moon's silver lay 

Scarce kissea the moss th o' the leaves in its plav. 

That sweet, smiling valley is thine, O, my child ! 

Gta! Cuard its green forests and mount dm so wild. 

Not alone shalt thou dwell in the lale of our choice. 

i ireat Neptune shall cheer thee at eve with his voice; 

In inn s deep and low to Diaua he'll sing, 

Aud western zephyrs his greeting will bring. 

The hunter shall wake from his dream ia the morn, 

And joy fully answer the notes of thy horn. 

D.sea8e-stricken mortals thy council shall claim. 

And health shall be monarch thro' all thy domain." 

ne said— and the goddess in joy from on high, 
Took her flight to the t alley we call the Ojai. 
McKee s Cottages, NordhofT, Ventura Co., Cal. 



Swekt Home. — When two young people love 
each other and marry, writes James Freeman 
Clarke, they restore the picture of the Apos- 
tolic Church. They are of one heart and soul. 
Neither do they say that anything they possess 
is their own, but they have all things in com- 
mon. Their mutual trust in each other draws 
all that is best in both. Love is the angel who 
rolls the stone away from the grave in which 
we bury our better nature, and it comes forth. 
Love makes all things new; makes all cares 
light, all pain easy. It ia the one enchantment 
of human life which realizes Fortunio's purse, 
and Aladdin's palace and turns the "Arabian 
Nights" into mere prose by comparison. Be- 
fore real society can come, true homes must 
come. As in a sheltered nook in the midst of 
a great sea of ice which rolls down tbe summit 
of Mt. Blanc is found a little green spot full of 
tender flowers; so in the shelter ot home, in 
the warm atmosphere of household love spring 
up the pure affections of parent and child, 
father, mother, son, daughter, of brothers and 
sisters. Whatever makes this insecure and 
divorce frequent makes of marriage not a union 
for life, but an experiment which may be tried 
as often as we choose, and abandoned when we 
like. And this cuts up by the roots all the 
dear affections of home, leaves children or- 
phaned, destroys fatherly and motherly love, 
and is a virtual dissolution of society. I know 
the great difficulties of this question and how 
much is required to solve them. But what- 
ever weakens the permanence of marriage tends 
to dissolve society; for permanent homes are 
to the social state what the little cells are to 
the body — they are the commencement of or- 
ganic life, the centers from which of necessity, 
all organization must proceed. 



The Season.— The most delightful fashion 
magazine we have seen is a new publicatic n 
called "The Season," published by the U. S. 
NewBCo., 55 Chambers St., New York. It treats 
of fashions.also decorative art, fancy work, etc., 
and is profusely illustrated with elegant plates 
and engravings. 



Who Did It? 

IWritten for the Ri ral Press by Mrs. C. I. H Nichols.) 

"A woman did it," heads a newspaper state- 
ment of high official delinquency. "Yes, the 
woman gave to me and I did eat," said father 
Adam; and now, as then, a tempter influ- 
enced the woman. But the influence that 
accomplishes this demoralization of men in 
official positions is not one, but many. And it 
must not be forgotten that the men in public 
life are all taken from the ranks of private 
life — the gifted, the cultivated and the influen- 
tial in eocial and business circles. No single cause 
can be held responsible for the wide-spread de- 
moralization among public men. If "the woman' 
has done it, let us ask why, and how, and cast 
about for a cure, a preventive. If tbe man has 
done it "alone," let woman remember the reason 
given for her creation, that "it is not good that 
the man should be alone," and demand to share 
the responsibilities which he lacks moral 
strength to acquit himself of honorably by him- 
self alone. 

The burden of events as peoples make history 
rests on many shoulders. Our parts as indi- 
viduals in these events may have been only in 
the omiesion to act — the having kept silent, 
perhaps, at a critical moment, uoder the im- 
pression that for us to speak would do no good 
— would not change the result, 

"It will be fooliBh for me to lift a warning 
voice," said a young wife of my acquaintance, 
whose husband refused, at her earnest solicita- 
tion, to give warning of danger from the risen 
stream, which appeared to him trivial. But 
the traveler seeing them silently observing nim 
in the distance, felt assured of a sa'e crossing, 
plunged into the angry stream and with his lit- 
tle boy was drowned! If she had cried out, 
the traveler might have thought, "It is only a 
woman's fears, it there were real danger the man 
would raise a warning voice," and the result 
have been the same to him as if she had held 
her peace. But not to her would it have been 
the same; not to her husband, or the public who 
heard the facts would it have been the same. 
Her own soul and the public would have recog- 
nized both as respontible, and place on him the 
burden of neglected duty. Tbe duty of each, 
as individually responsible, was made apparent; 
and eo tco the loss and grief that came by the 
neglect or suppression of womanly action in 
matters of equal concern to both. 

The above incident was recalled to mind by a 
recent credit to woman's influence in a position 
of great official responsibility — headed like the 
above — "The woman did U." Soon tbe fre- 
quency of responsible trusts satisfactorily 
discharged by women, will make this heading 
as insignificant and unused as the dedications to 
women's weakness and inferiority have already 
become. God will speed the day, if good men 
and women co-operate to that end, when neither 
man nor woman will make each other the scape- 
goats for their sina of omission and commission. 

Potter Valley P. , Dec. 21st, 1881. 

P. S. — Our Porno Post Office ia by some indi- 
rection withdrawn. The suspension will prob- 
ably be temporary. 

Dr. Snowden's Letter to the Young. 

"Why don't you learn a trade f* We asked a 
young man under 21 on Santa Clara street, a 
few days ago the above question. He an- 
swered, "1 have a trade. I sew sacks. I can 
make a good living." We replied that sewing 
sacks is not a trade. It is only temporary, well 
enough in its place, but it would not afford 
permanent employment nor guarantee a com- 
petence in your declining years. You need 
something better. We met a young man in 
Contra Costa connty who seemed to be aimless 
and thiftless. We taid, "Why don't you learn 
a trade ?" "A trade," said he, " don't amount 
to much. I have a trade, but I have not 
worked at it for four years, and I don't know 
that I ever will follow it." And we suppose if 
he can sponge a living, or work enough to eke 
out a mere support from day to day, that he 
will be satisfied. The young man had a fine 
physique, apparantly a mathematical mind, and 
no doubt pt stessed mechanical talent of more 
than ordinary average, yet his life promises to 
be a failure; and why ? He lacks energy. He 
is hiding his talent and neglecting the golden 
opportunity of becoming grand and noble, dig- 
nified and happy, an honor to his parents and a 
blessing to the world. 

To the same question a yonng man replied, 
"I have a trade. I am a violioitt. I play for 
dancing parties. I work hard and am up late 
at night; I earn my money." Yes, he leads an 
active life of idleness and folly. His trade is a 
miserable subterfuge. He works hard at it; 
drinks whiskey, (no doubt); is up late at night 
fiddling with all his might when he should be at 
home in bed. 

What is the value of such a life': And what 
will be the end thereof? If you think yon can 
get aloDg well enough without a trade or pro- 
fession, depending upon a clerkship, or an office 
at the hands of the dear people, or being a sales- 
man, or day laborer, or looking for fortune to 
smile upon you, casting a golden luster upon 
your pathway in your declining years, you will 
find yourself miserably mistaken and disap- 
pointed; and your last days will be tilled with 
regrets and reproaches; with sorrow and repin- 
ing. Make up your mind that by the grace of 
God you will succeed. Form the resolution now, 



[January 14, 1882 



not to-morrow, that you will have a trade, an 
occupation or profession. Tbat you will be indus- 
trious, temperate, benevolent, well informed od 
the common topics of the day, a faithful Chris- 
tian, and true man in all the departments of 
life. 

It is said that the boy is father to the man. 
An idle, lazy boy will make a corresponding 
man. The shiftless boy will make the vaga- 
bond tramp. Idleness and the evils which 
flow from it are the common causes of pauper- 
ism a. id crime. The best business men, the 
noblest philanthropists and the most far-seeing 
statesmen were taught in their boyhood to be 
dutiful, sober and industrious; and, armed at 
every point, they grappled successfully with 
the great problems of life. 

Let us kindly say to the young lady who 
contemplates marriage (and what young lady 
does not ?), beware of the young gentleman 
who has neither a trade nor an occupation. He 
may be educated and refined, and possess many 
social and pleasing qualities, yet in a day his 
wealth may take wings and leave him a bank- 
rupt and a beggar; and what will become of 
you? A young woman of fine personal attrac- 
tion and pleasant address married a young man 
of culture and fortune. They lived on tbe 
interest of their money for a season. Then 
their riches fled away, and as he had nothing 
to fall back upon for support their trials and 
sorrows set in. Tbey removed to a log cabin 
and lived upon water, corn bread and fat bacon. 
He at last obtained work. The labor was 
great, but it prevented them from starving. 
Year after year he toiled, until he overworked 
himself and died, leaving his family in want 
and misery. Be careful, girls, whom you marry. 

It is indeed honorable to learn a trade. In 
early days the young women were taught to 
spin, weave, and do needle work. The young 
men were taught to be carpenters, masons, and 
skillful workmen in gold, silver, brass, iron, and 
precious stones. 

The great Apostle Paul was taught a useful 
mechanical trade, which he turned to a good 
account, as he went forth from city to city to 
preach the gospel of Jesus Christ. And the in- 
carnate God, in whose person was blended a 
perfect divinity, and perfect humanity, accord- 
ing to the custom of the Kibbis, was taught the 
trade of a carpenter. 

In referring to eminent men of our day we 
find that Columbus was a weaver. Howard, 
the philanthropist, was an apprentice to • 
grocer. Franklin was a printer. Burns, a 
plowman in Ayrshire. Burritt was a black- 
smith. Grant was a tanner. Yanderbilt was a 
ferryman. Senator Wilson was a cobbler, and 
the illustrious and lamented President Garfield 
was a wood-chopper and plow-boy. Likewise 
young men, learn a useful trade. <io thou and 
do the same. — San Jose Htrald. 



Formation of Character. 

Editors Press: — Some time since I promised 
a few thoughts "On Character," and closed by 
saying it behooves atl persons to look well to 
their manner of living as all character is of 
growth, and young people imitate older ones. 
Since then I have, with the greatest pleasure, 
seen many productions of thoughtful minds on 
like subjects, viz: 1. "Warning to Yonng 
Men." It is most readily seen that as any one 
bent of the mind becomes the ruling one, the 
individual is growing in that direction. His 
power to resist that perversion daily grows 
weaker, until the individual, so speaking, be- 
comes low and groveling in proportion to the 
perversion. Hence the necessity of restraint, 
a willingness to hold all faculties of the mind in 
due proportion. 

Myrtle, in speaking of these things, induces 
me once more to speak on my favorite theme, 
"Character" — being a result of growth, there ia 
a n< cessity that surroundings be in accordance 
with tbe desired growth. Sober, thoughtful 
persons can easily see why, in our country, so 
large a proportion of the young menare unfitted 
to be good citizens. Would it not be ridding 
the community of a great evil could we but 
unite as citizens, having the good of all in view, 
and by power of moral persuasion unitedly con- 
demn in communities, through all the power of 
the press, through the power of all churches, 
uniting the mora! power of the ladies of all 
the land against the great evil of the sale, (and 
not the sale only but the manufacture) of all 
intoxicating liquors as a beverage. Great good 
would be a result if every lady refused to coun- 
tenance the attentions of any gentleman who 
liked and used ardent spirits in any quantity. 
Be assured, ladies, if you have not power when 
free over a young gentlemau to convince him 
of his error, you will be very apt to have ltss 
as his wife. 

It is natural that each boy and girl, until old 
enough to have learned better by contact with 
other people, thinks his father and mother the 
best of people, hence how great the evil of 
using intoxicating drinks at meals, cultivating, 
with the parents' sanction, a taste which grows 
stronger and stronger as the individual grows 
in years, until the boy is a victim of intemper- 
ance. Example is of major importance in all 
things. Jamks A. Smith. 

North Bloomfleld, Cal. 

An advertisement reads: "Wanted — A young 
man to be partly ont door and partlv behind 
the counter;" and the Cleveland Lender asks: 
' What will be the result when the door si am*?'' 



January 14 iBSa.] 



THE PACIFIC 



Q@0D f^E^LJ^. 



An Important Question— How do You 
Sleep? 

One of the most important things to know 
about any man upon whom you are going to 
place any dependence, is how he sleeps. Sleep- 
lessness may sometimes be involuntary. There 
may have been some shock to the man's nerves 
which has made him insomnolent; but sleep- 
lessness is more frequently voluntary. Men 
choose to push their studies or their work into 
those hours when they should sleep. It does 
not matter for what caase any man may do this, 
the mere fact of not sleeping spoils his case. 
He may spend his nights in the theater, in the 
study, or in the "protracted meeting." It will 
make no difference; the result to the body will 
be the same. The sleep was not had, and for 
that the man must pay. 

One man may do with a little less sleep than 
another; but, as a general rule, if you want a 
clerk, a lieutenant, a lawyer, a physician, a 
legislator, a judge, a president or a pastor, do 
not trust your interests to any man that does 
not take eight good solid hours of sleep out of 
every 24. Whatever may be his reason for it, 
f he does not give himself that, he will snap 
some time just when you want him to be strong. 

The intellectual and moral connections of 
sleeping have, I think, not been sufficiently ap- 
preciated. Men and boys have been praised for 
"burning the midnight oil." Now this "mid- 
night oil" is a delusion and a snare. The stu- 
dent who is fast asleep at 11 o'clock every 
night, and wide awake every morning at 7 
o'clock, is going to surpass another student of 
the same intellectual ability who goes to bed 
after 12 and rises before 5. In sleep, the plate 
on which the picture is to be taken is receiving 
its chemicai preparation; and it is plain that 
that which is the best prepared will take the 
best picture. 

Men who are the fastest asleep when they are 
asleep, are the widest awake when they are 
awake. 

Great workers must be great restera. 

Every man who has clerks in his employ 
ought to know what their sleeping habits are. 
The young man who is up till 2, 3 and 4 o'clock 
in the morning, and must put in his appearance 
at the bank or store by 9 or 10 o'clock, and 
work all day, cannot repeat this process many 
days without a certain shakiness coming into 
his system, which he will endeavor to steady 
by some delusive stimulus. It is in this way 
that many a young man begins his course to 
ruin. He need not necessarily have been in 
bad company. He has lost hi3 sleep; and los- 
ing sleep is losing strength and grace. — Rev. Dr. 
Deems. 



People Who Whine. 

There is a class of persons in this world, by 
no means small, whose prominent peculiarity is 
whining. They whine because they are poor, 
or if rich because they have no health to enjoy 
their riches; they whine because they have no 
luck, and other's prosperity exceeds theirs; they 
whine because some friends have died and they 
are living; they whine because they have aches 
and pains, and they have aches and pains be- 
cause they whine; they whine, no one can tell 
why. Now, a word to these whining persons: 
First, stop whining — it is of no use complaining, 
fretting, fault-finding and whining. Why, you 
are the most deluded set of creatures that ever 
lived! Do you know that it is a well-settled 
principle of physiology and common sense that 
these habits are more exhausting to nervous vi- 
tality than almost any other violation of physi- 
ological law? And do you know that life is 
pretty much as you make il! You can make it 
bright and sunshiny, or you can make it dark 
and shadowy. This life is meant only to disci- 
pline us — to fit us for a higher and purer state 
of being. Then stop whining and fretting, and 
go on your way rejoicing. 



Nutritive Valuation of Animal Food, 

In the December number" of the America// 
Agriculturalist we find an excellent article on 
this subject, by Prof. W. 0. Atwater of the 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., 
from which we glean the relative nutriment of 
the different kinds of animal food in the fol- 
lowing list. Estimating medium beef at 100, 
all the others will bear a percentage in relation 
to that: 

Lean beef, 91; medium beef, 100; fat beef, 
112; veal, 92; medium mutton, 87; fat pork, 
116; smoked beef, 140; smoked ham, 157; hen 
meat,94; cow's milk, 24; skimmed milk, 19; 
cow's cream, 50; butter, 124; skimmed milk 
cheese, 159; whole-milk cheese, 151; very fat 
cheese, 103; hen's eggs, 72. Fresh fish as fol- 
lows: Halibut, SS; flounder, 02; cod, 08; had- 
dock, 75; alewives, 87; saltwater eels, 96; shad, 
98; striped bass, 80; black bass, 87; mackerel, 
91; blue fish, 85; salmon, 108; salmon trout, 9C; 
white tish, 105; black fish, 94; red snapper, 91; 
smelt, 74; Spanish mackerel, 106; whiteperch, 89; 
herring, 100; turbot, 84. Prepared tish as follows: 
Boned cod, 107; salt cod, 102; dried cod, 341; 
smoked halibut, 102; smoked herring, 163; 
canned salmon, 107; salt mackerel, 111. 

These figures will not only illustrate the rela- 
tive values of lean and fat meats, hut also of 
dry and green meats; also, the difference be- 
tween fresh and prepared fishes, and, that the 
latter far transcend the former in nutritive 
value. In this respect there is nothing cheaper 
in the lift than butter and cheese, when we 
take into consideration the fact that they have 
"no bones." My "Jolly Herring" occupies no 
mean position in this list of meat foods, and is 
only excelled by "Master Cod." Thisfully il- 
lustrates why, when a hungry man improvises 
a meal at the least trouble and expense, he sori. 
of instinctively patronizes "herring, crackers 
and cheese." Salt mackerel is 11 "batter" 
than medium beef, and only one less than fat 
beef, and yet to many the very name of the 
fish is a by- word and a reproach. In the pres- 
ent advanced prices of nearly everything that 
passes between people's teeth, it may be well to 
consult this list and only purchase that kind of 
"fuel" that will make the warmest "fire," and 
continue it longest. 



Corned Beef. 

Editors Press: — In answer to R., I will give 
my method of corning beef, which we have used 
for some years, and it always gives satisfaction. 
Take about eight or ten lbs. of beef (I like the 
brisket) put in a deep pan — -something that can 
be tightly covered — and rub with two or three 
handfuls of coarse salt. Twelve hours later dis- 
solve a piece of saltpeter, size of a small walnut, 
in half a cup of hot water; when cold, pour over 
the meat. Turn it night and morning, and baste 
with the pickle which will have formed, for 
about four days, or longer, if liked salt. After 
boiling, it is better if left in the liquor till nearly 
cold.— J. L. P., St. Helena, CaL 



New York Plum- Pudding. 

Eds. Press: — Please inform me throu.h your paper 
how to make the New York Plum-Pudding, such as is 
made in restaurant:;— Mrs. D. E. K. , Benecia, Cal. 



Plum or Black Cake. — For this Christmas 
luxury take one pound of butter and onepoundof 
pul verizsd sugar; beat them together to a cream, 
stir in one dczsn eggs beaten to a froth; beat 
well together, and add one pound of sifted Hour; 
continue the beating for 10 minutes; then add 
and stir in three pounds of stoned raisins, three 
pounds of Zinte currants, washed, cleaned and 
dried, a pound and a half of citron sliced and 
cut into small pieces, three grated nutmegs, 
quarter of a ounce of powdered mace, half an 
ounce of powdered cinnamon, half a teaspoonfnl 
of ground cloves; mix all well together; bake in 
a well buttered pan in a slow oven for four 
hours and a half. 



Chaff. 

Ambitious man: " 13 there any fixed rule 
for writing poetry?" There is ! Don't! 

The why and wherefore: "Love is blind ;" 
and that's why they managed to keep right on 
with the gas turned down. 

There is a good -deal of human nature in a 
canary bird. He always begins to chatter as 
soon as the piano commences to play. 

"She s. oops to conquer." Can this refer to 
the fond mother who bends over her wayward 
boy with a number five slipper 

There is a whistling buoy anchored off Block 
Island. Oh, that all the whistling boys could 
be anchored in deep water far away 1 

The only thing a lady dislikes about a postal 
• card is that it is hardly large enough to allow 
her to show wlat she 011 do in the matter of 
postscripts. 

"I wish I were you for about two hours," 
she said to her husband with great tenderness. 
"And why, my dear?" he asks. "Because," 
she said, toying affectionately with his watch 
'chain — "because then I would buy my wife a 
mew bonnet." 

A miller in Peru, Ind. , fell asleep in Mb 
Trill and bent forward until his hair got caught 
dn some machinery and was yanked out; and, 
of eourse it awoke him, and his first bewildered 
exclamation was: ' Darn it, wife, what's the 
matter now *" 

A hungry lawyer, who was dining at a hotel, 
shoveled the food into his mouth with his knife 
till he accidentally cut his mouth, which was 
observed by a wag seated opposite, who bawled 
out: "I say, Mister, don't cut that hole in 
in j our countenance any larger, or we shall all 
staive." 



Cheerful Women. 

When men choose a wife they should select a 
•cheerful, happy-tempered woman, no matter 
whether she is handsome or not. They make a 
great mistake when they marry for beauty and 
style, or for talents and accomplishments, if 
there is not a cheerful heart to go with them, a 
bright, sunny soul. 

The sweetest, most lovable wives are those 
■who possess the magic power of being bright 
and cheerful under almost any circumstances, 
provide their husbands treat them with the 
courtesy and due forbearance which is their 
Tight. Rich or poor, high or low, it makes lit- 
tle difference provided the bright little fountain 
•of cheerfulness bubbles up like a continual 
spring in their hearts and scatters its drops 
everywhere. Was ever the stream of trouble 
and trial so dark and deep that the sunshine of 
a cheerful face falling acoss its turbidness would 
fail to awaken an answering gleam ? No, in- 
deed! So cultivate a joyous, cheerful, happy 
disposition, friends, and see for yourselves how 
much good you can do in this life by its aid. 

No matter how cross and crabbed one may 
feel, no matter if the brain is filled with med- 
itations upon the great afflictions of life, or that 
the stomach is drenched with pills and mixtures 
and tonics; just let one of these cheery women 
come across you, and, my word for it, she will 
rouse you from your fit of the "blues." The 
long wrinkles about your mouth will shorten, 
the black gloom of your brow will disappear, 
and almost before you know it you are laughing 
heartily at some littlaanecdote she is relating, 
and your desponding fit vanishes. 

Ah! what a blessing are these cheerful wo- 
men. How often do their little hands assuage 
the grief of the mourner, and their bright, sunny 
smiles bring sunlight to the gloomy heart! No 
one can estimate the good they do until the 
judgment- day will reveal the secrets of many 
aching hearts and show us how much we owe 
to these cheerfu 1 , hopeful, helpful, happy souls. 
Their own lives may have been filled with grief, 
but the darkened cloud revealed to them its sil- 
very lining. They may have felt the stings of 
stern penury, but with the little they possessed 
they have wasted not one jot. 

What a Farmer's Wife Can Do. — Mrs. 
Williams Hatcher writes to the Woodland 
Democrat from Mission R inch, Yolo county, 
showing what a woman can do on a farm : ' 'Now, 
my readers, I will give you the figures of my 
past year's labor. The 1st of last January I 
took an invoice of my fouls. I now have a 
better stock. My fowls consist of Brown Leg- 
horns, Plymouth Rocks, Langhshans. Bronze 
turkeys and Toulouse geese. I have sold eggs 
amounting to $93.24; fowls, §181.56; cheese, 
8143.07; butter, §233.69; total for my year's 
labor from my fowls and cows, §051.56. So, 
you see, my dear readers, how a good wife may 
be a helpmeet to her husband. Let us all try 
to do something to fill up our mission here on 
earth, as God has given us to be helpmeets of 
man. Let me advise all who are doing a little 
business of this kind to get a book and keep 
your sales, and at the end of the year report 
to the paper. 



Toothache. — There should be a remedy for 
toothache in every house where there are child- 
ren. The following is reported by medical au- 
thority as reliable: Take of carbolic acid 
(saturated solution), chloral hydrate (saturated 
solution), paregoric, fluid extract of aconite — of 
each one ounce; oil of peppermint, half an 
ounce; saturate a piece of cotton and pack 
tightly in the cavity, 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Numerical Enigma. 

1 am composed of thirty-two letters. 
My 7, 1, S, 8, 12, 16, is a measure. 
My 6. 31, 7, 8, 25, 22, 3, is a nation. 
My 32. 23, 19, 4. 24, was a king-. 
My 26, 30, 14, 22, are small animal?. 
My 13, 21, 18, 31, 27, is in advance. 
My 22, a, 23, 16, 32, is to remain. 
My 2, 11, 30, 10, 25, 31, 7, is the employment of 
maDy girls and women. 

My 9, 17, 15, 30, 31, is a large body of wattr. 
My 29. 20, 23, is an interjection. 
My whole is a very true proverb. 

A. B. C. 

Curtailments. 

1. Curtail a shrub and leave warmth. 

2. Curtail to draw tightly and leave a sticky substance. 

3. Curtail an animal and leave a mark of distinction. 

4. Curtail an author of 0,ueen Elizabeth's time and 
leave a bundle of goods 

5. Curtail a bird and leave a brave man. 

Jkrrv. 

Diamond Puzz'.e. 

1. Found in perpetual poverty. 

2. Before. 

3. To talk idly. 

4. Supplications. 

5. An important article of food. 

6. A mineral. 

7. A consonant. 

Jossmus. 

Concealed Trees and Fruit. 

1. Do, ma, please let me go. 

2. Oh, Grace, dare you go over that bridge. 

3. Do not let them lock the door. 

4. You must go for Angeline to night. 

5. Give me the map, please, I want it. 
u Auction sale, Monday, January 25th. 

E. M. V 

Islands. 

1. Modern, ardor, and a conjunction. 

2. A quaker and an adverbial ending. 

3. Modern, wrath, and a soil. 

4. Part of aft h, and a masculine name. 

5. A heavy weight, a consonant and a vowel. 

Jamks. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Nt'MKiiiCAL Enigma — Lake Champlain. 

Hiddbn Provbbb — A good conscience is as a stone wall. 

Quotation Acrostic- Campbell; 

Osgood ; 

Wordsworth; 

Phillips; 

Emerson; 

Randolph. 

Dkcai'.tations.— 1. Strout, trout. 2. Scow, cow. 3. 
Kale, ale. 

Kebi s — Beloit, Wisconsin (Below it Wis.) 



The Printing Press Again. 

[Written for our Y'oung Folks by Typo.] 
Once upon a time there lived in the little 
town of S a boy whose energy even ex- 
ceeded his means. His father was a well-to-do 
blacksmith, who wished that George — for his 
name was George Vink — would go to school un- 
til he had obtained a common school education, 
and then learn the blacksmith trade. George 
was willing to go to school, but determined to 
be a printer if an opportunity offered itself. 

As there was no printing office in his town, 
George studied the harder, and when he read an 
advertisement in an Eastern paper, in which it 
was stated that for §4 he could get a small 
printing press, some type and ink, he concluded 
that here was his chance, and went to work and 
earned the necessary §4, and in due time ob- 
tained the printing material, and he soon 
learned to set the type and run the press, on 
that necessarily small scale. He was soon 
printing cards, etc., to his own satisfaction, and 
encouraged by his success, he purchased limited 
quantities of type, aud finally concluded he 
would try to start a printing office, and so a small 
room adjoining his father's blacksmith shop 
was set apart for his printing office. It was 
small, to be sure, yet it contained a new §80 
job press, several fonts of type, a keg of ink, 
and paper, cards, etc. 

All the small handbills, posters, cards, etc., 
which were formerly sent to a town twenty 
miles distant, were now given to him. He im- 
proved in his business rapidly, and to make a 
long story short, he is now the owner of as 
fine a country office as is to be found in the 
State. He is also editor of an eight-page, five- 
column weekly newspaper, and the husband of 
a fine and intelligent lady, whose parents, some 
years before, upon reading a copy of his paper 

sent them by friends in S , were induced 

by the glowing accounts of the mild climate 
and other advantages to leave the Eastern 
States for California. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 

[Our young friends will see that this is a 
great improvement upon the other printing-press 
story, because the incidents are probable — even 
to the editor marrying a "fine and intelligent 
lady." We know that part is probable because 
we did it ourself. — Eds. Press.] 

"Colonel," said a man who wanted to make 
out a genealogical tree, "Colonel, how can I 
become thoroughly acquainted with my family 
history ?" "Simply by running for Congress," 
answered the colonel. 



A little boy remarked: "I like grandpa be- 
cause he is such a gentlemanly man; he always 
tells me to help myself to sugar." 



Salt in Diphtheria. — In a paper read at the 
Medical Society of Victoria, Australia, Dr. Day 
stated that, having for many years regarded 
diphtheria, in its early stage, as a purely local 
affection, characterizsd by a marked tendency 
to take on putrefactive decomposition, he has 
trusted most to the free and constant applica- 
tion of antiseptics, and, when their employment 
has been adopted from the first, and been com- 
bined with judicious alimentation, he has seldom 
seen blood poisoning ensue. In consequence of 
the great power which salt possesses in prevent- 
ing the putrefactive decomposition of meat and 
other organic matter, Dr. Day has often pre- 
scribed for diphtheritic patients living far away 
from medical aid, the frequent use of a gargle 
composed of a tablespoonful or more of salt dis- 
solved in a tumbler of water, giving children 
who cannot gargle a teaspoonful or two to drink 
occasionally. Adults to use the gargle as a 
prophylactic or preventive, three or four times 
a day. ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Engraving by Electricity. — M. Plante 
has succeeded in engraving on glass by means 
of electricity. The process is as follows : The 
glass is laid in a horizontal position, and cov- 
ered with a concentrated solution of nitrate of 
potash, the liquid being retained by a shallow 
vessel in which the glass is placed. A plat- 
inum wire is dipped in a horizontal position in 



GlNGEB Podding. — Take the weight of four 
eggs in sifted sugar, butter and fine Hour; beat 
the butter to a cream, stir to it the sugar, add 
half a teaspoonful of ground ginger (more if a 
strong flavor is wanted) ; beat the eggs, white and 
yolks together, for at least a quarter of an hour; 
ad<l these to the other ingredients, together with 
the flour, very gradually, beating the mixtures 
well with a fork or wooden spoon all the time. 
When thoroughly mixed, grease well a fluted 
tin mould; put in the mixture and bake three- 
quarters of an hour. This pudding ea'.s well 
cold, but for a second serving it may be cut into 
slicee, and each slice to be again cut with a 
fluted t u biscuit cutter; then fried lightly in 
butter, served up in a pile, with sifted sugar 
over, and eaten with sauce. 



Clam Soup. — Have 25 clams opened, saving 
as much of their liquor as is possible. Put the 
liquor over the fire, with water sufficient to 
make it palatable. Let it boil, and skim well. 
Chop the clams quite fine and add to the boil- 
ing liquor, with a blade of mace, if liked, and 
a large tablespoonful of butter rubbed in two 
of flour. At. the last, add a quart of boiling 
milk, and stir all well. 8aat a fresh egg up 
very light and put in the bottom of the tureen, 
over which pour the soup. Send to the table 
with toasted bread cut in dice. 



24 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



[January 14, 1882 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. w - B - EWER. 

Office, 252 Market St., N. E. Cor. Front St., S. F. 

t&Take the Elerator, -Vo. 12 Front St.&l 

anneal Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months. 11.25. When paid fully one year m advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No nrw names will be 
tiken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advbrtisuio Ratbs. 1 week. 1 month. Smos. 12mos 
P«r line ... -26 .80 Jz.JU 9 o.w 

IBS&.!S*« « as as 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisemumts, notices appearing 
on extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month 

Address editorial and business letters to the Arm. In- 
dividuals are liable to be absent. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening: 



Entered at San Francinco P. O. as second-class matter 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency, 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. t. DBWSV. 



W. B. BWBR. 



S. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 14, 1882 



Double Sheet— 20 Pages. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS — Eucharis Ama* mica; 

Pinkeye; Oats at the North; Blower's Raisins; The 

Wheat Outlook, 17. The Week; Pacific Coast and the 

Signal Service; San Mateo Horiioiltu'al Society; A 

Year's Work in a Los Angelej Cheese Factory, 24. 

State Horticultural Society Meeting; Mr. II ivemeyer s 

Dairy Barn, 125. 
ILLUSTRATIONS- Bloom and Foliage of the 

Eucharis Amazonica, 17. Interior Viow of Mountain 

Side Dairv B.rn, 25. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Parasites on Orange 

Soles; Vines with Long Canes; Canning Meat; Plifts- 

ant Valley; Kattdids' Eggs, 24. 
CORRESPONDENCH'.-Jottlngi on Los Angeles; 

Plicer Countv Not.-s, 18 Removing Linnets, 18 19. 
HORTICULTURE.— Olive Growing; The Other 

Side, 27. 

FLORICULTURE.— Flowering Bulbs, 19. 
POULTRY YARD.— Notes on the Care of Fowls,19 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY — Meeting of Na- 
tional Orange— No. 7., Contra Costa and Alameda 
Granges, 20- 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES, from the various 

Counties of California, 20-21. 
HOME CIRCLE - The Husbandman; A Woman's 

Htart (poetry); The OJai; Sweet Home; Who Did it? 

Dr. Snowden's Letter to the Young; Formation of 

Character, 211. Chaff; Cheerful Women, 23. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -Our Puzzle Box; 

The Piloting Press Again, 23. 
GOOD HEALTH. — An Important Question— How 

do You Sleep ': People Who Whine, 23. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Nutritive Valuation of 

Animal Food; Corned Bet f; New York Plum Pudding; 

Plum or Black Cike; Ginger Pudding; Clam Soup, 23 
MISCELLANEOUS. —The Convention of Fruit 

Growers, Fruit Dealers and Nurser>m»n, 26- 

Business Announcements. 

American Barb Wire Fencing. W. W. Montague & Co. 
Keystone Portable Steam Driller.Challenge Well Auger Co. 
Auction Sale of Seed Wheat and Oats, S. L. Jones & Co. 
Testimonials, Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure. 
Kendall's Spavin Cure, Dr. B. J. Kendall & Co. 
Orape Cuttings For Sale, Eisen Vineyard, fretno, Cal. 
Stencils, Stamps, Etc., Edwin Mohrig, 3. F. 
Italian Sheep Wash, Chas. Duisenberg & Co., S. F. 
Fruit Seeds, Etc. , Thomas Meehan, Germantown, Penn. 
Peach Trees For Sale, W. W. Brier, Centcrville, Cal. 
Patchen Stallion tor Sale, S. B. Emerson, Mountain View. 



The Week. 

The weather has been the prevailing topic 
this week ; nor is talking abont the weather such 
a conventional matter here as it is at the F.ast, 
where such themes are chiefly used as pastimes 
or to cover embaraasment. Here weather-talk 
includes all the considerations of comfort, solic- 
itude, anxiety or dread, according to the rap- 
idity or tardiness with which the figures of the 
rainfall go forward. Weather talk is also at 
the basis of trade, manufacturing, or financial 
problems. Weather adjectives are not idle 
words, and seldom a Californian uses them 
without a tensation of comfort when they are 
cheery, or a genuine feeling of regret when they 
are otherwise. 

M Just now the situation is one of moderate 
suspense. The northern end of the State is 
quite jubilant over the character of the winter 
thus far, as it has allowed the getting in of 
crops in fine condition, and water is ample to 
keep them along. The great San Joaquin val- 
ley lingers in doubt — the larger area being as 
yet but surface damped. The great counties 
south are still unmoistened. There is this hope- 
ful indication to our mind — the continuance of 
winds and low temperatures, perhaps one the 
product of the other, but both portending ac- 
tivity on the part of the elements which may 
bring abundant rain. In the dry winter of 1877, 
there were chains of glorious days, bright, quiet 
and warm— quite different from the restless, 
changeable periods which now rob the sun of 
his warmth, and make stoves and fireplaces in- 
dispensable. 



The Pacific Coast and the Signal Service. 

It begins to look as though some parts of the 
Pacific Coast would have something of a score 
to settle with the weather clerk, unless he or- 
ders rain for them quite soon. The hope out- 
held to us that we might have a weather bureau 
of our own, begins to show signs of realization. 
At all events the Chief of the Signal Service is 
investigating the proposition, and if Congress 
furnishes the money, the Pacific Coast branch 
of the service may be duly established. 

Lieut. C. H. Kilbourne returned Monday 
from a trip north, where he went to select sites 
for the establishment of the contemplated sta- 
tions. He reports as the result of his observa- 
tions, that the general path of storms upon the 
Pacific coast is from the west eastward, with a 
southeasterly trend. The storm center strikes 
about Victoria, and the southern outer circle of 
the storm usually strikes Cape Flattery, the 
most northwestern point on our territory, first. 
The full force of the storms is felt in British 
Columbia, where the winds work great ravage. 
Therefore, a station upon Cape Flattery would 
give the first indications of approaching storms. 
For this reason, Flattery is chosen as one of the 
proposed posts. Another station will be estab- 
lished at the mouth of the Columbia or on Til- 
lamook Pock. 

Another point that the lieutenant is specially 
instructed to investigate is at Cape Mendocino. 
The benefit arising from taking observations at 
those points can hardly be estimated, as the 
whole system of calculations must be based 
mainly upon them. There are now but two 
coast stations — that in this city and the San 
Diego station. It is thought, that in addition 
to these stations, another will be established at 
Cape Disappointment. In the event of an ap- 
propriation being passed for these stations this 
winter, it is believed a.i independent coast 
weather service will be established here next 
winter. 

In another column may be found an address 
to the Chief Signal Officer adopted at the last 
meeting of the State Horticultural Society. 

The need of weather warnings has been urged 
by our raisin and fruit driers for several years; 
and now that our fruit interest is increasing be- 
yond what was contemplated when the atten- 
tion of the Signal Service was first asked, it is 
proper that the useful measure be even more vig- 
orously insisted upon. 

It is quite time that our good friends at the 
East began to understand that we have a pe- 
culiar set of conditions on this coast, and rules 
and regulations and prophecies which answer 
well in their longitude will not apply here. 
This applies to farm work and crop growth as 
well as to clouds and winds. We contribute a 
good share to the maintenance of the Gov- 
ernment and we must be allowed a little special 
dish of favor when the great boons for general 
distribution do not meet our needs. 

San Mateo County Horticultural Society. 

The fourth annual meeting of the Horticult- 
ural Society of San Mateo county was held at 
San Mateo, on January 3d, President Goertz 
presiding. The records of the Society show 
it to be in a good flourishing condition and good 
results are yet expected from it. 

Good papers on different subjects were read 
before the Society during the past year, but 
from some cause or other were not published. 
For the next meeting three papers are prom- 
ised, one from Mr. G. Burns, on the cultivation 
of the melon and cucumber, another from Mr. 
McLaren on general fruit culture, and one from 
Mr. G. Burr on the cultivation of the rose. It 
was announced that the Society intended es- 
tablishing an annual flower and fruit exhibi- 
tion; but though necessitated to postpone it for 
the time being for lack -of support, still hopes 
ere long to make a success of it. Mr. Lauchlin 
McLean was elected President; Dr. D. L. 
Morse, Vice-President; Mr. James Burns, 
Treasurer, and Mr. Thomas Wood, Secretary; 
for the ensuing year. 



The Proposed Tulare Reservation. — The 
agitation against the proposed "big- tree reser- 
vation" in Tulare county is going forward, and 
the Visalia Delta is bringing forward all the 
proof possible of the use of the region as a min- 
ing and lumber disirict, and showing that as a 
means for the preservation of big trees it is a 
great failure. The Supervisors of Tulare county 
have telegraphed to Senator Miller asking that 
the project be delayed until they can forward a 
full statement. 



The State Bag Factory. — The jute factory 
is rapidly approaching completion, and it is 
hoped the machinery will be running within 
two months, when work for between 400 and 
500 hands will be furnished. The raw material 
entering one end of the long new building con- 
structed for the purpose will be discharged in a 
shower of bags at the other end. When the 
jute works are in operation, the female con- 
victs, of whom there are but a dozen, will be 
furnished with suitable employment. 

Tuehe are 552 men employed at the Mare 
Island Navy Yard, the pay-roll for whom ag- 
gregates .*55,000 a month. 



A Years' Work in a Los Angeles Cheese 
Factory. 

Une of the cheese factories on the rich, moist 
land in the southern part of Los Angeles Co. 
has made a report of its years' work in a local 
paper, and the result is exceedingly satisfactory 
so far as a low average of milk to the pound of 
cheese and the high net price received for the pro- 
duct are concerned. It is far better than Eastern 
establishments can show in several respects. 
The report is of the Anchor Factory, at Comp- 
ton, Los Angeles, owned by J. J. Harshman, and 
is the record of the year 1881 : 

Whole Whole Net cash 
No. fbs. No. lbs. to 
milk, cheese. patrons. 

January 63,848 6,914 I 844 08 

February 74,565 9,141 1,122 48 

March 158.429 19,248 2.222 22 

April 229,855 26,836 2 564 

May 261.004 28,484 2,475 64 

June 246,068 25,844 2,288 40 

July 206,846 21,288 2,154 28 

August 198,288 21,478 2,282 72 

September 108,180 19,364 2,089 04 

October 118,671 18 621 1,765 58 

November 87,806 11,614 1,405 64 

December 78.000 10,237 1,279 40 

Totals 1,870,452 214,563 *22,463 45 

Average yield, 8.71 fbs. 
Ntt price per tb cheese, 10 47 cents. 
Net price per 100 lbs. milk, $1.25. 

We should like to have similar reports for the 
last year from all factories. It is advisable to 
give also the average number of cows tributary 
to the factory during the year. 

Pacific Coast Weather for the Week. 

[Furnished for publication in the Press by Nelson Gkkom, 

Hergt. Signal Service Corps, V. 8. A.) 

The following is a summary of the rainfall 
for each day of the week ending Wednesday, 
Jan. 11th. at noon, for the stations named: 



Date. 


4 
1 
I 


.land, j 


M 

E 
9 

a 
o 


*: 

a 

5 


am'to 


c 

al 

s i 




m 

If 


z 

1 




5 


1 


3 

X 


? 

OS 


1 


b. 




< 


= 

2 


Thursdav, 5th. 


1.03 


.76 


.30 


.35 


.13 


.05 


.00 


.00 


00 


Friday, 6th .. . 


•.80 


.49 


.48 


.29 


.0i 


.06 


.00 


.00 


00 


Saturday, 7th. 


.00 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


04 


Sunday, 8th . . 


.16 


.04 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


00 


Monday, Bib... 


.(7 


.05 


.06 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


00 


Tuesdav, 10th. 


.70 


.80 


.22 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


11(1 


Wed'sday, lllh 


.10 


.00 


.24 


.00 


.00 


.00 


,M 




00 


Total for Week 


•2.80 


2.17 


1.30 


O.fil 


0.13 


0.11 


.00 




01 



•Report for 8 lioors missing from Olympia du ring the 

week. 

Dash (— ) signifies too small to measure. 

Small Trees bv Mail. — In his advertisement 
in another column, Thomas Meehan, of Ger- 
mantown, Pa., oilers to send small apple stocks 
by mail. It is, perhaps, not generally known 
that by long experience gained in the packing 
of plants properly, it is possible to send any 
quantity in 4 tb. packages by mail, with as 
much certainty as by old methods of trans- 
portation. In the London Garden recently 
there was an item expressing great surprise that 
plants from the nurseries of the Eastern States 
had reached Belgium as fresh as if just taken 
from the ground. But they are doing this thing 
every day, though the public at large, both in 
Europe and America, does not know that it can 
be done. 



Grangers' Bank Meeting. — At the annual 
meeting of the Grangers' bank, held on Tues- 
day, John Lewelling was elected President, and 
A. D. Logan, Vice- President. The following is 
the present Board of Directors: John Lewelling, 
J. H. Gardiner, T. E. Tynan, Seneca Ewer, I. 
C. Steele, J. C. Merryfield, H. M. Larue, C. J. 
Creasy, Uriah Wood, A. D. Logan, Thomas 
McConnell. A dividend of 8% was declared 
payable immediately. 1 he balance of the net 
earnings were ordered carried to the reserve 
fund. 



Sacramento Horticultural Meeting. — 
In this .issue will be found the conclusion of the 
proceedings of the Fruit Growers' conven- 
tion held last month. The full report will be 
issued this week in pamphlet form by Dewey 
& Co., and those desiring copies for their own 
use, or for circulation among their neighbors, 
can secure any number they may desire, at 10c 
each, by addressing this office. 

On Monday night, for the third time within 
a week, the Los Alamos stage was attacked by 
robbers. This time there were three in the 
gang. They stopped the stage near the scene of 
their former exploits, and captured Wells, Fargo 
and Co. a box, and took a fine gold watch from 
the driver, which had been presented to him by 
the stage company. 

A suit in which the administrator of the es- 
tate of J. W. Sigourney, deceased, is plaintiff, 
and the Eureka Lake and Yuba Canal Co., de- 
fendant, involving $80,000, has been in litiga- 
tion in the courts of Nevada county for 15 years, 
and is jast decided in favor of the plaintiff. 
Aq appeal will probably be taken to the Su- 
preme Court. 

Henry A. Jones, aged 50, brother of Senator 
J. P. Jones, died on Monday morning, at Gold 
Hill, Nevada, of gastritis. He was sick only 
three days. 



Parasites on Orange Scales. 

We have alluded before to the interesting ob- 
servations of Alexander Craw, on the good 
work done by chalcid flies and other parasites 
of the scale insect, in checking the increase of 
the evil. It is reported that the Florida orange 
growers are contemplating similar benefits from 
natural enemies of the scale. Mr. H. G. Hub- 
bard, of that State, has lately reported to Prof. 
C. V. Riley, U. S. Entomologist, the results of 
his observations on the last of November last. 
He writes: "The present appears to be a period 
of greatest increase of the chalcid parasites, 
and many trees are seen upon which the scales 
are attacked by the Chalcid re to such an extent 
that the branches present the same appearance 
seen in the majority of infested trees during 
the last week of October and first of Novem- 
ber. That is, the scales, particularly on the 
leaves and twigs of new growth, are nearly all 
one-third of full size, and have, in the case of 
long scale, the bright color of young scales of a 
late brood. This is due to the arrested growth 
from attacks of parasites which have not yet 
issued from the scales. The above refers to 
long scale more particularly, as in the case of 
chaff scale the chalcid parasites do not invaria- 
bly confine their attacks to immature scales, 
but appear to infest even those which are 
adult and full of eggs; in these cases they feed 
either upon the eggs, or the coccid itself, or on 
both." 

Vines wltb Loner Canes. 
Editors Prbsb:— Will you kindly oblige me by giving 
insertion to the following simple questions for your nu- 
merous viticultural readers, in the hope that some of 
them will furnish replies either to yourself or to me 
at their earliest convenience? 

1. Have you or any of your neighbors one or more 
vines trained over an arbnr or trellis work, which, for 
shade purposes chiefly, you have allowed to grow free, 
with only just the necessary pruning, the same being 
among or near vines afflicted with phylloxera? 

2. Do you know of a vine so trained having been either 
killed, or even injured by phylloxera? 

Replies to those questions will be thankfully received, 
and favorable, as I suppose they will be, they will be used 
as the basis whereon to indicate a new, simple, economic, 
and profitable method of general viticulture for this 
Slate, which has been in another country successfully op- 
erated for more than 10 years already. I found the de- 
scription of it in a recent Portuguese treatise on practical 
viticulture.— Jons I. Bleasdalk, 618 Merchant St , 9. F. 

Dr. Bleasdale has read to us the matter from 
the Portuguese report referring to results by a 
system of long pruning, which gives a larger 
yield from the ground, and very healthy vines. 
If any of our readers can give experience on the 
points named above we may be able to give 
them something of interest concerning the 
Portuguese method alluded to. 

Canning Meat. 
Editors Prbss:— Will you please call for further com- 
munications on canning meat and game 1 saw an article 
by Mr. Rumford in one of your later number;, but I am 
anxious to know more about the matter. It has been my 
desire for a long time to be independent of salt meats and 
bacon, and if I can successfully can fresh beef and game, 
the problem will be solved. I am sure plenty of your 
readers understand the business, and I hope they will 
help the rest of us. Is there any good work on this sub- 
ject, where I cin be sure of geiting good information?— 
Country Wirs, Pala, San Diego Co. 

We shall be pleased to have the discussion go 
on until all experience is drawn out. We know 
no practical treatise on the subject. 

Pleasant Valley. 
Editors Prs«8:— A number of your subscribers being 
interested in the communication of W. J. Pleasant in 
"Queries and Replies," of your issue of Dec 24th, would 
be pleased to have you give his address in full. There are 
so many Pleasant Valltys in this State that it Is hard to 
place any particular one*.— C. W. McKblvst, Piano, Tulare 
Co., Cal. 

In this part of the State there is but one 
Pleasant Valley, although there are many 
pleasant valleys. This famous fruit region is 
in Solano county. It is called Pleasant Valley 
or Pleasant's Valley. Mr. W. J. Pleasant's 
postoifice address is Vacaville, Cal. 

Katydids' Eggs. 
Editors Press:— I have been In the fruit business for 
three years; while pruning the tress I found some twigs 
with some kind of eggs deposited on the twigs. I do not 
know what tbey are. 1 would like to find out through 
your valuable paper.— O. Q. Bush, Modesto, Cal. 

They are the eggs of the "Katydid," often 
called a "grasshopper." The insect is described 
and a picture given in the Rural of March 5th, 
1881. 



Belford has introduced in Congress bills 
calling on the Sjcretary of the Treasury for in- 
formation as to the number of ounces of silver 
bullion purchased by the Treasury Department 
each month beginning with March, 1878, down 
to the present time. Also, to establish Bureaus 
of Mines and Mining, and Manufactures and 
Statistics. 

Judoe Davis, President pro tern, of the Sen- 
ate has presented to that body the resolutions 
of the General Association of the Congregational 
Church of California, urging recognition of the 
rights of the Mission Indians of southern Cali- 
fornia, and they were referred to the Committee 
on Indian Affairs. 



The Utah legislature met on Monday. Out 
of 36 members, 27 are polygamists, and all are 
Mormons. The Governor's message recom- 
mended the separation of church and state, the 
abolishment of polygamy, and the right of dower 
for wives. 



Januaiy 14, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PBESS. 



State Horticultural Society Meeting. 

The last meeting was held in the hall of the 
Academy of Sciences, Dec. 30, Pres't Hilgard in 
the chair. W. L. Overhiser, of Stockton, and 
C'has. Neper, of San Francisco, were elected reg- 
ular members. Several names were proposed 
for election at the next meeting. 

The committee appointed to report upon the 
extension of the work of the Signal Service, 
presented the following: 

General W. B. Hazin, Cnlej Sljnal Officer, Washington. 
D. C; — General — We, the undersigned committee, ap- 
pointed by the State Horticultural Socie-.y of Cal fornia to 
reply to your communicai,ioa of recent date, beg leave to 
atate as follows: 

We are pleased to perceive in youcletttrthe earnest inten- 
tion to promote the interests of all p-irts of the Union and 
■of all classes of industry through the weather department of 
the Signal Service. We n.rte, however, that thus far our 
coast has received the least attention and derives the least 
benefit from this branch of your service. It is tt ae that our 
climatic conditions are very dinfereat from those ot any por- 
tion of the United Stat* 3. and for this reason we think that 
a separate system of weather forecasts for this coa3t must be 
established before any specai benefit can be derived from tie 
work of your department. We noticed with satisfaction the 
announcement some time ago. through the repoi cs of the 
Associated Press, of your intention, witn a ; d from Congress, 
of establishing a special branch of the Signal Service on this 
coast, with headquarters at San Francisco, for forecasting 
the weather for the Pacific States and Ter.-itories. 

In our judgment you need a greater number of stat'ons, 
especially in the northern part of this State and in Oregon 
And in Washington Territory. We usually get our first pre- 
monitions of a storm from those quarters. We regret to say 
that the forecasts of the weather for this coa.:t du-i»<* the 
rainy season have thus far baen marked by the ; rur"-el.ab'lity. 
We are of the ooinion that, with more stations to the no-ttt 
of us, the reliability of the forecast would be much enhanced. 

What we need especially is warnin? of the approach of 
rains in the autumn. This country is lai-gely a fruit-produc- 
ing region, and the industry is yet only in its infancy. Dur- 
ing the autumn months the curing of raisins and dry- g of 
fruit is accomplished, aud warning of tae comiug of a rain- 
storm 24, or even 12 hours beforehand, would resu't in a sav- 
ing of many thousands of dollard to our raisin pioducers 
»lone. This year the product of raisins was at least 100.000 
boxes of 20 fin. each, and in five years a product o f half a 
rs 'llion boxes may be expected, and in ten years, a nv'Mon 
boxes. The early fall rains BtriousJy injure the quality of 
the product; a'ld if continued several days, frequently dam- 
Age and may destroy the entire product. Because'of the 
method of diying on tight travs or p'atibims holding about 

tt>3. each, and capable of beiug handled e.isily and quae*-.'.*, 
A notice of a few hours of a coining rain would enable the 
producers to have th^ir trays piled one upon anofcnt- and 
covered, and thus piotecteu from the water. When the storm 
is over, the trays can be again spread in the sunshine and the 
curing proceed. 

With more stations on this coast and a central office at San 
Francisco authorized to give pub.ic mtice of apnroach.ng 
storms, it would be possible to seod observers at every sta- 
tion warning, to be foiwaided by them to thor.e in tbe ; - 
neighborhoods most interested. The e.; perse of this special 
notification would be cheewully assumed by the par- les in- 
terested, for one rainstorm on thei*- partially d*-ied .a's^ns 
would ruin that drying, as well as '\ijure the grapes s.i 1 re 
maining on the vinej. 

We would also mention to you the service which cojid be 
rendered the large fruit snippmg interest of the State by in- 
dications of the weather in tne country west of the Missis- 
sippi river to the Rocky mountains. If you cou'd make a 
apecial prediction of 48 to 72, or mo.-e hours for the countiy 
between Salt Lake City and Omaha, it would be of incal- 
culable value to those shipping fresh C'alifo' aia fruit i to tne 
Eastern markets. We learn .rom consultation with toe lead- 
ing frvit-shipping merchants of Sacramento that they are 
now getting a paitial wea.ner report fro n the Pla'.te valley 
once a day, but, if you can give them instead the indication's 
of the weather for that valley even 24 hour3 ahead it wov'd 
be of much more benefit to them thp.n toe renoi . : now re- 
ceived. If a forecast for a longer period than 24 hours can 
be had. it would be proportionately appreciated, not only by 
the shippers, but also by the fe.owers or" the eutite State vno 
are producing for 'Castern shipm nt. Our fruit could tnen 
be put down at O.naha in better condition; it could be sold 
at a less rate, and finally yield more to the producer. 

We send copies of tuis s. atemtnt to Hon. H. F. Page 
Chairman of the Committen on Commerce of tne House of 
Representatives, and to our other Senators, Representatives 
in Congress, with tne reque3t thfct tney endeavor to procure 
an appropriation for the extension of the work of the Signal 
Service on this coast. 

Matthew Cooke, 
C. H. Dwinells, 
R. B Blowers, 

E. W. HlLUARD, 

The repoit was accepted and adopted by the 
eociety. 

The following reio'utious were moved by Mr. 
D^inelle, and adopted: 

Resolved, Tnat the Senators and Representatives of Cali- 
fornia, in the United States Congress, be requested to use 
their individual and united efforts in support of such meas- 
ures as may be necessa.y to secure greater efficiency in the 
U. S. Signal Ser/ic3on the Pacific coast. 

Resolved, That, as Chairman of the Cojturitt3e on Com- 
merce, the Hon H. F. Page is re3pect u)!y a-iked to g.ve bis 
attention to tne important bearing of this subject, not enly 
upon safety in navigation, but also uplq the securing of 
crops, ajd other product-, which give commerce its existence. 

A letter was read from Hon. C. P. Berry, M. 
C, accepting the appointment as representa- 
tive of the society at the meetings to hr. held in 
Washington this month, under the auspices of 
the Commissioner of Agriculture. A vote of 
thanks was extended to Mr. Berry for his will- 
ingness to aid the society in this respect. Some 
discussion followed concerning the application 
of the work of the Agricultural Department 
to the needs of this coast, and the belief ex- 
pressed by several, that the department 
ehould be represented here by an assistant 
commissioner, who cou'd advise the depart- 
ment at Washington of the progress of the 
various agricultural arts, the peculiar condi- 
tions which affect growth and production here; 
the collection of statistics and data of other 
kinds, and advise concerning the choice of seeds 
and plants for distribution on the Pacific coast. 
It was thought by all that the work of the De- 
partment could be made much more valuable to 
this coast if it were undertaken with a better 
knowledge of the condition of affairs, which 
could only be secured through a local represen- 
tative. The secretary was instructed to inform 
Mr. Berry of the beliefs of the society concern- 
ing this matter. 

The discussaion on orchard planting was 
opened with remarks by Mr. Webster, Mr. 
Hatch, and Mr. Jessup. 

Mr. Isaac Collins, of Haywards, sent a letter 
on the subject which was not received in time 
for use at the meeting, but which we introduce 
at this place: 

Orchards, to give satisfaction and remunera- 
tive returns, should occupy the best of land. 
First-class grain land is usually suitable. Or- 
chard land requires depth; alluvial soil is reck- 
oned fittest. Proper drainage is necessary. 
Where means and inclination to carry out a 



Coju. 



system of drainage are not convenient, to ridge 
the land in proper breadths by plowing to a 
center and planting on the crown of the ridge, 
is of benefit. This applies to lands that lie low 
and are wet in winter. No trees thrive well on 
stagnated, waterlogged lands. Much land has 
natural drainage, when possessed of a pervious 
subsoil. All sorts of land, in their prepara- 
tion for orchards, should be thoroughly plowed 
and subsoiled. If that is not convenient, double 
plowing should be resorted to, which would give 
a depth of 14 inches. In good land that has 
been properly stirred up. large, deep pits for 
trees are not desirable. Young trees should be 
planted no deeper than they were in the nur- 
sery, and should be planted when the land is in 
working order, soil friable and easily commin- 
uted. The proper distance of planting orchards 
is a point upon which cultivators have a wide 
divergence of views. A good mode, I think, is, 
for a pear or apple orchard, to plant 35 ft. apart; 
and between each tree thus planted, put peach, 
apricot or plum trees. Such trees fruit early, 
and in 15 years they could be removed, to give 
room for the permanent ones. 



temporary bushes, and a cessation of cropping 
ot all kinds take place, thus allowing a full 
use of the orchard for the trees alone. 

There is a point which I wish to get the ex- 
pression of the society regarding, viz.: It is 
asserted by some that the alternate planting of 
certain varieties of fruit trees which blossom 
simultaneously, such as Winter Nellis and Easter 
Beurre pears, hard and soft-shell almonds, etc. 
The Easter Beurre, associated with W. Nellis, 
has a potent influence npon amount of produc- 
tion and size of the latter; is asserted, with 
what truth, I am ignorant. It is an established 
fact that with varieties associated, seedlings ob- 
tained therefrom produce new varieties, but 
the other effects said to be produced are new 
to me. I would like to have the observation of 
members upon the subject. 

Mechanics' Institute Fair. 

The Secretary announced that he had been 
visited by a committee of the Board of Man- 
agers of the Mechanics' Institute, appointed to 
confer with the Horticultural Society to ascer- 
tain whether the society would take charge of 




INTERIOR VIEW OF MOUNTAIN SIDE DAIRY BARN. 



The proper pruning of young moved trees is 
of significance. On moving a young tree it 
loses in length at least two-thirds of its roots, 
and to balance the tree and obtain a vigorous 
growth, the year's shoots of two-year trees 
should be cut back to a few buds; one- year 
trees to two or two and one-half ft. on stem, 
and if properly pruned, in succeeding seasons 
they do not so much come in the way of the 
working process in plowing as longer stemmed 
trees. Low-stemmed trees admit a greater 
number on like quantities of land, than long- 
stemmed ones, and are not so liable to damage 
by heavy winds. Also, the gathering of crops 
is easier accomplished. 

The kinds of fruits desirable to plant are of 
four characters — shipping, canning, drying, and 
domestic general market fruits. The various 
kinds of fruits suitable for such uses have been 
fully ventilated in the transactions of this soci- 
ety during the past period of its existence. It 
therefore would be superfluous even to touch on 
that. 

The success of an orchard depends (granting 
that a suitable selection of site has been ob- 
tained, proper preparation of the soil been per- 
formed, a judicious selection of trees made, the 
proper planting done, and pruning) on a sys- 
tematic and thorough cultivation throughout 
the season. As the trees attain age, liming and 
manuring should be resorted to, as the wants of 
trees may require; and, when the trees are four 
years old, the land should be cleared of all 



I the horticultural departments at the fair of the 
Institute next August. Upon motion, the fol- 
lowing committee vas appointed to confer with 
the committee of the Institute, and report the 
result to the next meeting of the society: E. 
W. Hilgard, J. V. Webster, W. H. Jessup, W. 
G. Klee, E. J. Wickson. 

Prizes for New Roses. 

A communication was received from W. A. 
T. Stratton, offering prizes for the origination 
of new roses, as follows: 

Wishing to advance the interest of rose culture on the 
Pacific coast, and especially „o induce the production of 
new varieties from seed, I beg to offer the following pre- 
miums: 

For a perfect yellow moss rose $500.00 

" " " hybrid perpetual rose 500 00 

" " " hybrid tea rose 500.00 

" 12 perfect and distinct hybrid tea roses 500.00 

" a perfect deep yellow tea rose 250.00 

" 12 distinct and perfect tea roses 250.C0 

" 12 distinct and perfect hybrid perpetual roses.. 250.00 

" a moss rose of fine quality 100.00 

" a hybrid perpetual rose of fine quality 50.00 

" a tea rose of fine quality 50.00 

" a fine rose of any type not above mentioned.. 50.00 
These premiums are open for competition fo- five years 
from date, and all plants offered must be healthy and vig- 
orous, each showing the distinct formation of bud and 
flower. Must be grown from seed produced on the Pa- 
cific coast in open-air culture. The roses, when exhibited, 
must show the true character of growth, by either being 
exhibited in pots or a large enough section of the plant 
to judge of its growth and health, and subject to the ex- 
amination of a committee appointed by some Horticult- 
ural Sooiety, accompanied by such a statement of facts as 
may be prescribed, for their origin, etc., and after the 
award and payment of premiums, the entire plant or 



plants to be my exclusive property. Instructions as to 
the growth of roses from seed will cheerfully be given io 
all who feel an interest in the growth of new roses. And 
all roses grown of sufficient merit to be introduced to 
the floral world will have the name of the grower affixed 
to it, an honorable mark of distinction, that any lover of 
roses on our coast should endeavor to merit. — W. A. T. 
Stratton, Petaluma, Cal. 

The above communication was read and 
placed on file. 

Upon motion of the President, Prof. Hilgard 
was invited to address the next meeting npon 
the "Use and abuse of the Eucalyptus." 



Mr. Havemeyer's Dairy Earn. 

The engraving gives the reader a glimpse of 
the interior of Mr. Havemeyer's dairy barn, 
the exterior of which we exhibited in the en- 
gravings in our issue of Dec. 31. These views 
are all reproduced from the Journal of the 
American Agricultural Association, published 
by the Secretary, J. H. Reallat, No. 127 Water 
street, New York city. The first impression 
which the practical dairyman will have from 
viewing the picture, is the immense area in the 
center, which is unemployed, and which, in or- 
dinary efforts for economy, would be utilized in 
the storage of hay. But it must be remembered 
that this barn is, in fact, a sort of a cow parlor, 
arranged by a gentleman who is not obliged to 
think of economy, and who, by his use of en- 
silage, is not obliged to store as much coarse 
fodder as he would by the old system of feed- 
ing. As it is, the mows on each side above the 
cow stalls have a capacity of 300 tons of hay. 
We give the showing of Mr. Havemeyer's ar- 
rangements, not as adapted to the needs of 
dairymen generally, but to show what can be 
done toward cow comfort when one is not 
troubled about the cost of procuring it. 

In connection with this interior view we re- 
peat some few items of dimensions which we 
used in the general description of the building 
two weeks ago. Entering the main floor of the 
barn one is struck with its immensity of size, 
its cleanliness, absence of all odors, and its ex- 
act adaptation to the purposes it is designed to 
subserve. It is 42 ft. wide in the clear, and has 
two ranges of stalls, one on either side, num- 
bering in all 98, while the distance between the 
stalls in the center is 13 ft. These stalls are 5 
ft. long and 3 ft. 6 inches wide, with a gutter 1 
ft. 6 inches wide and 4 inches in depth, running 
in the rear 5 ft, from the head of the stall, for 
the droppings of the cattle. Behind the stalls 
is a passage-way 8 ft. wide, extending along the 
sides of the barn. At the end of the row of 
stalls on the right are 10 box stalls, 12 ft. long, 
8 ft. wide, and 4 ft. 4 inches high, lined with 
tongued and grooved boards, in which at all 
times are kept some of the most valuable ani- 
mals, and others when they are calving. On 
the left are the feed-boxes and feed-mill, and 
room for more box-stalls, with an entrance to 
the veranda which runs along the engine room, 
ice house and dairy. In the center of the floor, 
extending the whole length of the barn and 
connecting with the silos, entering the right of 
the barn at the west end, is a railroad track. 
The hight of the barn, from the floor to the 
hay-mows, is 10 ft. ; the latter are 13 ft. high, 
and extend the length of the barn, to the roof, 
having a capacity for 300 tons of hay. 

Connected naturally with the view of the 
cows, will be be an account of Mr. Have- 
meyer's system of caring for them. The Jour- 
nal says that in the care of his cattle, the same 
thoughtful attention and judgment are exhib- 
ited on Mr. Havemeyer's farm which are no- 
ticeable in every other department. The feed- 
ing place in front of the cows is upon the floor, 
without any other arrangement, in order that 
the cattle can obtain their feed clean, and that 
no particles shall get into coiners to sour and 
injure it. Here there is noticeable an entire 
absence of feed-boxes and all fixtures. The 
cattle are watered by means of a trough, which 
can be raised and lowered at will, and is sup- 
plied from the tanks above. When it is desired 
to water them the troughs are lowered, and 
when not in use they are ra'sed to the top of 
the stall. This is quite the best system which 
I have ever examined for this purpose. Every 
cow is cleaned daily with a curry-comb and 
brush, the same as a horse. They are treated 
with absolute kindness and gentleness. A daily 
record is kept of the milk yield of every cow. 
The calf is taken from the cow when three days 
old, the cow being tied up in her place in the 
stall. The milk, perfectly sweet, is heated up 
to 90" and fed at this heat, which is the same 
as the original temperature when taken 
from the cow. The calf is given milk, at 
first four quarts every day, in three feed- 
ings, morning, noon and night, increasing 
the quantity as the calf grows. It is kept 
in a stall until ten days old, and then turned 
out in the morning to obtain the benefit of the 
sun. At a month old it is turned into the past- 
ure. Until four months old it is fed with milk, 
at the end of that period being given some 
ground oats. Each calf is kept separate, to pre* 
vent it from sucking the others, until it is three 
or four months old. After the cow has calved, 
she is fed with meal, ground oats and corn, four 
quarts per day, with all the hay or grass she 
will eat. The milk is used after the third day, 
if the cow is in perfect health. Cows are al- 
lowed to go into the yard every day, winter or 
summer, two or three hours for exercise. They 
are kept in separate stalls in the winter. Each 
animal gets half a bushel of feed. 

It is now thought probable that Iroquois and 
Foxhall will try conclusions in the spring over 
the Newmarket course, Eng. 



26 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 



The Convention of Fruit Growers, Fruit 
Dealers and Nurserymen. 

Official Report of Proceedings and Trans- 
actions. 

(Continued from Page 8— Kiral Puses, Jan. 7, 1882.) 
Report of Committee on Ways and Means. 

Your Committee on Ways and Means beg to 
report as follows: We find it necessary to raise 
§100 to reimburse the Chief Horticultural Offi- 
cer for moneys he has expended in calling this 
conrention, to wit: 

Large poetere and printing postal cards $ 18.00 

Postal cards 20.00 

Postal stamps 16.00 

Clerical help in i&Mting postals, posters, etc 26.00 

Arrangiug Assembly Chanber and incidental ex- 
penses 20 00 



$100.00 

We would also recommend a fair compensa- 
tion to our two efficient secretaries and to the 
two pages for their services. 

To provide for all of which we would recom- 
mend an assessment of $1.50 on each member 
of this convention, to be collected immediately; 
and furthermore, should there be any surplus, 
then such surplus to be donated to the Agassiz 
Society to use in the purchase of books and in- 
struments for use in said society. 

Tour committee, realizing the great value of 
the book recently issued by our Chief Horticult- 
ural Officer, and fully appreciating its value as a 
disseminator of useful knowledge, we respectfully 
recommend to your honorable body that Matthew 
Cooke, Esq., be requested to prepare and issue 
a larger and more complete work, covering 
such ground as be deems best, and to have such 
work illustrated with 10 full pages of colored 
plates, and that this convention make such sub- 
scription for books as will warraut Mr. Cooke 
in preparing such a work. 

Your committee has ascertained that 2,000 
copies of a book of from 300 to 350 pages, with 
10 pages of colored plates can be printed, bound 
and lithographed for $5,500. 

We suggest that a subscription list of 1,500 
at $5 each will make $7,500, leaving $2,000 to 
enable Mr. Cooke to collate throughout this 
State such information as he may require, and 
make such further investigation and experi- 
ments as he may find necessary. In view of 
these facts and knowing the value and need of 
such a work, we recommend that a subscription 
list be opened immediately and that the mem- 
bers of this Convention be requested to sub- 
scribe for as many copies as they can. Your 
committee believe that such a course will do 
more to lead fruit growers to labor for the erad- 
ication of the insect pests than any other course 
that can be pursued. M. T. Brewer, 
A. T. Hatch, 
Geo. C. McMullin, 
Wm. H. Jesscp, 
N. K. Peck. 
The report was adopted. 

Report of Committee on Dried Fruits. 

Your committee on dried fruits beg leave to 
report as follows: One of our committee having 
made a canvass of three months in the Eastern 
States, visiting the principal cities, makes the 
following statement: That what he saw there 
convinced him that the dried-fruit interest of 
this State is destined to be one of much more 
importance than has been generally accorded to 
it; while our canned fruits have attracted much 
more attention than have our dried products, 
the latter is gaining favor since the introduction 
of evaporated fruits. 

Our sun-dried or evaporated apples will find 
ready market on this coast, on account of the 
limited amount which will be produced because 
of the ravages of the codlin moth and other 
peBts; while, on the other hand, pears, if prop- 
erly prepared by evaporation, being pared and 
cut into eighths, will command a good price. 
Any variety of pear suitable for drying will 
meet the rtquirements. 

Peachep, in consequence of the demand for 
canning purposes, command too high a price to 
make drying profitable, except in localities too 
far removed trom canning establishments. They 
should be placed on the market either peeled, 
or otherwise, in an attractive form, so as to in- 
sure the most remunerative price. 

Apricots, nectarines and pitted plums, on ac- 
count of their not being produced in the East- 
ern States, will always command good prices. 

The prune d'Agen can be made profitable, 
but growers must meet the competition of Eu- 
ropean products; more particularly those of 
France. They should be most carefully cured 
and packed. We have still much to learn in as- 
sorting and curing. 

We believe that the fig is destined to become 
an important product among our dried fruits. 

Our observation leads us to believe that most 
of our dried fruits, to become profitable for ship- 
ping to the East, should be prepared by artifi- 
cial evaporation. People purchasing evaporat- 
ing machines should be careful that they be not 
deceived by misrepresentations of interested 
parties regarding the drying capacity of their 
machines, as much loss is sometimes made 
thereby. 

With regard to tho proper packages for dried 
fruits, the following are recommended by the 
State Horticultural Society: 

For peaches, inside measure. 

9 in.x9lxl6in. holding 40 »*. 
6in.x»4xloin. •« 20 lbs. 
2}in.xi»ixl5in. " 10 log. 
The same size for apricots, pitted plums and 



prunes will hold respectively, 50 Ibi., 25 lbs., 

12J lbs. 
Apples. 

9in.x9>xl5in. to hold 30 lbs. 

Small packages of light material to pack in 
crates of five lt>s., 4ix5x9i inches. 

W. B. West, Chairman. 
S. T. Chapin, 
A. T. Hatch, 
J. M. Hixson, 
M. T. Brewer. 

The report was accepted. 

Report of Committee on Fruit Packing. 

To the Fruit Growers' Convention — Gentle- 
men: Your committee represents a fruit inter- 
est second to none in the State, using fully one- 
half of the green fruit produced as a whole, and 
three-quarters of certain varieties, such as apri- 
cots, Bartlett pears, peaches, plums, and 
quinces. As representing such an interest we 
desire to bring before your body these facts: 

1st — To compare favorably with foreign 
production of the same character, we require a 
superior quality of size, ripeness and flavor. 

2d — The territory we are now endeavoring to 
supply in competition with Eastern producers, 
is one tbat through the drouth of the past sea- 
son and other favorable circumstances, has been 
opened in a larger measure than ever before, 
and can oily be retained by concessions in 
prices of material and rates of freight that 
would bear a favorable comparison with those 
at the East, and call for a mutual understand- 
ing and agreement as to prices between the 
fruit grower and the canner tbat will fairly re- 
munerate the grower and allow the canner the 
opportunity to canvass tbat market with a fair 
hope of successful competition in seasons less 
favorable than the last, bearing in mind that 
the superior manner in which the California 
canner is accustomed to prepare his goods, as 
compared with the Eastern manufacturer, will 
insure a preference at reasonable prices. 

3d — In order to increase the foreign de- 
mand of Europe, the East Indies, Australia and 
China, it must be borne in mind that the greater 
proportion of their inhabitants are people of 
moderate means, who are accustomed to closer 
economy than the average Californian, and 
that a small difference in pi ice here when in- 
creased by the natural additions of freight, 
long credits, insurance, etc., is increased 
many times before the goods reach the con- 
sumer, and if not kept down to a minimum, 
reduces the consumption largely. 

As an example of this we would cite the ap- 
ricot crop of Portugal for 1S80, which although 
only an average one, was put upon the English 
market at such prices as to almost totally ex- 
clude the California apricot. 

As a further evidence of the beneficial effects 
of moderate prices, we call your attention to 
the enormous consumption of canned salmon 
by the working classes of England, when placed 
at a price within their means, it being noted 
that every reduction in price has been followed 
by a corresponding increase in consumption, till 
at this time the enormous catch of 525,000 
cases (2,100,000 dozens of cans) on the Colum- 
bia river is exported to, and sold in England, at 
a price to the eater of 20 cts. per can, against a 
consumption in 1870 of 50,000 cases, at 40 cts. 
per can. 

4th — In order to produce the fair average re- 
muneration to the grower, as many intervening 
profits as possible, such as freight packages, 
small and worthless fruits, etc., must be abro- 
gated. And there must also be a certainty as 
to quantity and quality of the crop as a whole, 
and individual shipments in particular, regard- 
ing which points the canner is usually in the 
dark up to the moment of use. 

5th — Your committee earnestly advocate the 
adoption of the free package, whenever practi- 
cable to the grower, and feel sure the canners 
will advocate it, to the^ extent of bearing a fair 
proportion of the cost— say one-half. 

6th — The unanimous recommendation of the 
earners of San Francisco and vicinity that Sac- 
ramento river peaches be shipped in close boxes, 
rather than baskets, has our approval, from the 
fact that fully 5% of the best part of each bas- 
ket is ruined, by stealing and mashing during 
shipment and distribution. 

In this particular, we would call attention to 
the fact that there is no uniform weight of 
peaches in baskets, it varying from '20 lbs. to 
25 lbs., that cannot but result in constant mis- 
understandings between shipper and consumer. 

7th — We recommend for canners' use the fol- 
lowing standard varieties. 

Apples — Fall and Newtown Pippins. 

Appricots — Koyal. 

Cherries — Large, white and meaty varieties. 

Plums— Yellow e^g, Creen-gage, Coe's Gold- 
en Drop, Columbia, Washington, Jefferson, 
Ickworth. 

Peaches— Yellow Crawford, White Heath, 
Yellow Cling. 
Pears— Bartlett. 

8th — While we are not familiar with the 
causes and remedies of the various fruit-pests, 
we perhaps are in a position better than the ma- 
jority of consumers to appreciate their baneful 
effects, and shall at all times aid in their ex- 
termination in any manner your society! may 
decide best. 

9th — We recommend a closer and more inti- 
mate relation between the canner and producer 
in order that canned fruit may become like 
many articles familiar to us, a necessity rather 
than a luxury, and to this end we invite at all 



times a free, frank and open discussion of the 
points suggested in this report. 

A. D. Cutler, 
J. H. Morris, 
Committee on Fruit Packers. 

Sacramento, Doc 7, 1881. 

Experience in Iasect Killing. 

In answer to a request for all to hand in ac- 
counts of their experience in insect destruction, 
the following were received : 

I have made a specialty of handling orange 
trees and grapevines, and I find that stirring 
the ground around the trees and cultivating 
vines continually, winter and summer, keeps 
the ground loose, and gives the insects no 
chance to lie dormant near the root of the grape- 
vine or tree. A little chloride of lime sprinkled 
near the root, or anything that will kill the 
bug, stirred up by cultivating it in, will make 
an uneasy bed for the insects to Bleep in, and I 
think it will annihilate them before the sap 
goes up in the spring. — A. T. Wilder, Super- 
intendent Orange Valley, Jl icklin, Cal. 

Cures for BorerB — Smear the parts affected 
with mineral tar (asphaltum); then wrap with 
old sacks. A sure cure is effected. To prevent 
the beast from injuring young trees, wrap them 
with strips of sacks two inches wide, overlap- 
ing the ends to fasten them. 

To Destroy Scale — While the tree is dormant, 
wash with concentrated lye — 1 lb. to li to 1 
gal. of water, a little more or less. Add 10 or 
12 lbs. of a solution of iron (where no iron is in 
the soil) to 40 gals, of the above wash. Put 
this on with a force pnmp, and the apparatus 
invented by Dr. Chapin, of San Jose. Most of 
the scales will be killed; also the moss. Scrape 
the dead bark off before using this wash. In 
two weeks, more or less, use a wash of Paris 
green, one ounce to a gallon of water, put on 
with the above apparatus. In case it rains, or 
is followed by damp weather, the washing will 
have to be repeated. The above washes should 
uot be used when the tree has foliage or fruit 
on it. If the owner is too indolent to wa?h in 
time, he must use coal oil, which will cost 
him much more. Lye will kill the foliage 
Paris green will poison the fruit. Only use 
them when the tree is dormant — Horace Will 
son, Gilroy, Cal. 

Borers — Three or four years ago, my orchard 
was badly infested with the borers. I tried the 
depositing of lime, ashes and pyrethrum around 
the roots of the trees, all to no or little effect. 
I then took a sharp drawing knife, taking off 
all the affected bark and wood, making a clean 
cut into the live, healthy bark; then used the 
gouge and mallet to dig out those that had gone 
to the hard wood. I then took a thin grafting 
wax, melted to the consistency of paint, and 
applied by a paint brush, after which I wrapped 
the trunk from the ground to the lower limbs 
with strips of old sacks, tying them on with a 
piece of bale rope. Tnis I found eminently sue 
cessful, as when the wrappings were removed 
(after one or two years), there was not a borer 
that had escaped the knife and gouge found 
alive, and there must have been many. I ac- 
count for this on the theory that the wrapping 
of the tree excluded the necessary degree of 
heat to hatch the eggs of the insect and nourish 
and develop the larva.-, and another desirable ef- 
fect was the added vigor given to the tree, as it 
did not only heal the wound, but it grew so 
rapidly that it actually burst the old bark. 

The currant borer is a more difficult customer 
to deal with, as the egg is deposited at the axil 
of the leaf, on small limbs, and difficult to find 
until he has done his devilish work. The only 
means I have discovered for fighting him is by 
close pruning of the old wood. By this process 
I have greatly reduced their numbers in my or- 
chard. 

The wooly aphis — This is another ugly custo- 
mer and difficult to manage, even on the stalk 
or top of the tree, as they are of a greasy na- 
ture and almost all kinds of liquids or washes 
slide off of tbem like water from a duck's back, 
and, even though a tree is whitewashed with 
strong live lime, they will throw it off and go 
on building their nests and breeding right in' 
the strong lime. The only effective remedies I 
have found are coal oil or carbolic acid, applied 
with a brush, which should be done very care- 
fully and sparingly. The acid should be re- 
duced, one part of acid to 40 of water. 

The codlin moth — The king of all orchard 
peats in California. The best mode I have 
found to fight them eff ia by scraping the trees 
clean, and well into the ground and toward the 
top, of all rough bark and moss, and washing 
the trees with the codlin moth wash, and weil 
pulverizing the ground, even to dust.around the 
roots of the trees, and removing all rubbish 
from beneath the trees. What I think is a good 
trap, is to take unthreshed straw cut in 
a common h*y cutter, two to three inches long, 
and deposit it around the trees and burn the 
straw at stated periods during the hatching 
season. This being a nice, warm and safe hid- 
ing place, they will readily and quickly take to 
it. If this practice is adopted, I think there 
would be no need of bands around the trees, 
as the trees being smooth and clean there would 
be no hiding places found, and, in any event, I 
don't believe that one larva in a thousand finds 
a hiding place on the tree. The reason I rec- 
ommend the unthreshed straw is, that it is open 
and unbroken. Wm. H. J essup. 

Haywards. 

Report of Committee on Railroad Freights. 

To the State Board of Horticultural Commis- 
sioners: — A committee of five was appointed (by 
the Horticultural convention .which was in ses- 
sion in Sacramento Dec. Cth and 7th last), to 



wit: E. T. Earl, W. R. Strong, J. M. Hixson, 
M. T. Brewer and A. T. Hatoh, for the pur- 
pose of conferring with the railroad companies 
on the Bubject of reduction of rates of freights 
on fruits. Said committee to report to your 
honorable body. 

Therefore, said committee beg to report as 
follows: 

On the 22d day of December, 1881, the com- 
mittee (with the exceptions of Mr. E. T. Earl 
and J. M. Hixson, who were at the time in 
the southern part of the State), called upon 
Gen'l Supt. A. N. Towne and Gen'l Freight 
Agent J. C. Stubbs, at Mr. Towne's office in 
San Francisco, where an hour and a half was 
spent in a discussion of the subject in its various 
phases. While the officers of the railroad 
seemed to be willing to accede to any reasona- 
ble request, your committee failed to show how 
the railroad company would be benefitted by 
making concessions (at least to their satisfac- 
tion). A guarantee of an increase of the amount 
of freight to any considerable extent, might be 
met by them with a reduction equal to 70%. 
of the net profits arising from such increase iu 
quantity, providing said increase resulted from 
or on account of said reduction in rate. Fur- 
thermore your committee saith not. Respect- 
fully submitted. A. T. Hatch, 

Chairman. 

Receipts and Expenses of the Convention 

Cash received from convention by M. T. Brewer $127 75 
Cash by M. T. Brewer and M. Cooke 19 10 

Total sue 85 

Cash Ck. 

By printing 1,500 pjslers 8 18 00 

" " 2,000 postal cards 4 00- 

" " J letter circular 2 0f> 

" 2,000 postal cards 20 00 

" 1,200 one cent wrappers 13 45- 

11 postage stamps S 30 

" labor mailing, posting, etc 12 Oft 

" " hired for settinir up, attending to, and 

tending doors exhibit 26 5ft 

" cash paid expressage 2 lft 

" " janitor assembly chamber 39 50 

" " two pages at convention 00 

Total S146 85 

In Memoriam. 

WusRF.AS, John B. Saul, of Oak Shade, Yolo county, 
has been removed by death; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in him a typical horticulturist has been 
lost, whom California will greatly miss. Born in Ire- 
land, early removing to America, studying and practicing 
horticulture under the instruction of Downing and his 
associates upon the Hudson, he soon became known as 
exceptionally well versed in the literature, and skilled in. 
the practice of his honorable calling. In California he 
distinguished himself and won deserved buccgss. His ex- 
ample in close attention to every detail of his calling, 
and perseverance in striving for the h'ghest excellence, 
in the face of great difficulties, is worthy of praise and 
imitation by others. His loss will be sincerely felt by all' 
who knew him. Robert Williamson, Mrs. John Bid well, 
R. B. Blowers, C. II. Dwindle, A. T. Hatch. Adopted. 
Adjournment. 

After the transaction of some routine busi- 
ness, the Convention adjourned to meet in San 
Jose, on the second Tuesday in November, 1882. 

Earthquakes. — Dr.K. Von Fritscb, of Halle, 
says that the cause of earthquakes docs not exist 
further down from the surface of the earth than. 
10 or 14mi'es. After citing a number of instances 
to show how far the shock of a steam ham- 
mer or that produced by an explosive may be 
felt, he appears convinced that rather feeble 
forces produce earthquakes, which make them- 
selves very sensibly apparent at great distances 
from tbe active center. He says tbat earth- 
quakes might be and must be produced by the 
increase and decrease of volume of rocks under 
tbe influence of physical and chemical forces, 
and by concussion by the opening of crevices in 
rocks, and by the subsidence of masses of rock, 
due to these agencies. Many shifts are sub- 
jected to extension stress, and when cievices 
occur the schists must enter into oscillations 
like those produced in tuning plates. 

The Milky Way. — Many astronomers, from 
Herschel downward, have spent much time in 
speculating upon the structure and func- 
tions of tbe great stellar streams known as the 
Galaxy or Milky Way. This part of the heav- 
ens has recently been made an object of careful 
study by M. Houzeau, of Brussels Observatory. 
He has indicated its composition by means 
of curves of equal luminous intensity. 
Lookiug casually at the Milky Way, one might 
be disposed to think it luminously nearly tbe 
same throughout. But M. Houzeau finds it in a 
series of luminous plates or masses, to the num- 
ber of 33, each diminishing in brightness out- 
ward irom the center. These are arranged al- 
most exactly along a great circle of the celestial 
sphere. The solar system is nearly in the plane 
of this equator, and probably near its center. 

For Microscopists. — To produce animal- 
cules for microscopic examination and study 
the Scientific American suggests the following 
process: Mix wheat Hour into thin paste with a 
little yeast and cabbage water, and let it stand 
in a warm place until it becomes quite putrid. 
Mix this with water (or a little common vine- 
gar) and examine. The time required to pre- 
pare such a paste under favorable conditions 
need not exceed three days. 

To Clean Marble. — Mix one-quarter of a 
pound of soft soap with the same of pounded 
whiting, one ounce of soda and a piece of 
stone blue the size of a walnut; boil these to- 
gether for 15 minutes, and then, while hot, rub 
it over the marble with a piece of flannel, and 
leave it on for 24 hours; then wash it off with 
clean water, and polish the marble with a piece 
of coarse flannel, or, what is better, a piece of 
an old hat. 



January 14, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



Olive Growing. 

After an interval of several months, which 
were busily employed in experiments, Elwood 
Cooper has prepared another chapter of his 
treatise on olive growing, which we reproduce 
from the Santa Barbara Press. It relates to 
remedies for the prevention, as well as for the 
extermination, of the coccus, or what is known 
as the black scale. 

Pruning is the most essential thing, and the 
remedy of the greatest vital importance. If 
trees are properly pruned, so as to admit of free 
circulation of air and the sunlight, more than 
half the battle is made. In fact, trees in such 
condition, where the ground is well tilled and 
kept free from rubbish, are not so liable to the 
attack, and if attacked each scale insect can 
readily be seen, and should be removed without 
delay. 

Orchardists who adopt this plan will have 
very little trouble, evtn in badly infected dis- 
tricts. A casual examination of several differ- 
ent parts of each orchard should be made as 
often as once a month. This can be done on 
horseback, or in a light wagon; and in the event 
of the appearance of scale insects, then a care- 
ful examination in that part, and a remedy ap- 
plied to exterminate them. The insects will be 
found to inhabit that portion of the tree where 
the foliage is most dense, where the sunlight is 
shut out, and free circulation prevented. There 
is not so much in the remedy as in its applica- 
tion. While certain remedies may ba effectual 
in the hands of some, in the hands of others 
they will not be sufficient. "Eternal vigilance 
is the price of success." Constant watching and 
constant fighting is the only sure plan to pre- 
vent the spread of insect pests in localities 
where trees are affected. 

There are doubtless very many remedies that 
if properly applied would accomplish the work ; 
and the expense would notbe so great as to ab- 
sorb the profits to be derived from the products 
of well kept orchards. On young olive trees 
not badly affected, whale-oil soap can be ap- 
plied with a stiff brush very successfully, and 
at cheap cost, but on large trees this plan is im 
practicable. 

I find in French books where the subject is 
treated at great length, numerous advised rem 
edies which I translate as follows: "Scraping 
off; powdered sulphur; petroleum; boiling 
water; lime water; hyposulphite of lime; wash 
with alkaline; smoking with coal tar." Also, 
"proper drainage, the tillage, removing rubbish, 
the lopping off of every useless twig are neces- 
sary precautions; the application is difficult and 
the success uncertain where there are millions 
of insects. The pruning is of the greatest im- 
portance, and the orchardist who neglects this 
important part will find that the pests will re- 
sist all efforts at extermination." 

In my correspondence several years ago with 
Prof. J. E. Planehon, President of the Horti- 
cultural Society of Montpelier, France, the fol- 
lowing was recommended: 

"Syringe the trees with a solution of sulphate 
of soda, and powder them immediately after 
with powdered lime — a caustic soda is then pro- 
duced which destroys the insects." Bisulphide 
of carbon has been used with deadly effect on 
the most dangerous enemy to citrus fruits that 
was ever known. The cost is moderate and the 
application not difficult, so that it should at- 
tract the attention of fruit growers as an insect 
destroyer. 

The remedies that I have experimented with 
are whale oil soap, a decoction of tobacco, 
phenyle, and pyroligneous acid. 

1st. Whale oil soap, as I have already stated, 
can be used effectually on small olive trees at 
very cheap cost. 

2d. A decoction of tobacco is simple, inex- 
pensive, and if properly applied, an effectual 
remedy for every class of insect pests that I 
have come in contact with. Forty pounds of 
good, strong leaf tobacco, thoroughly boiled in 
water, will make about 80 gallons. This can 
be thrown upon the trees with a garden syr- 
inge, but it is necessary that the decoction 
should be kept, while using it, at the uniform 
temperature of 130°. Hotter than this will de- 
stroy the embryo fruit; less hot, less effectual. I 
would recommend four applications each year, 
until the orchards were entirely free from in- 
sects. Then, if the neighborhood was free, 
and proper precautions taken with pruning 
alone, could be kept free for generations to 
come. Every orchardist must grow his own to- 
bacco, which he can do in a small way if he 
tends to it properly, at a cost of two cents the 
pound, (one acre will produce 4,000 lbs). We 
have, therefore, allowing two gallons of the de- 
coction to a tree for each application, the fol- 
lowing cost: One tt>. of tobacco, two cents. 
Two men can boil the tobacco and syringe 100 
trees daily — $1.25 for each man, and board, 
would be $2.50, or two and a half cents the 
tree, which, with.the cost of tobacco — two cents 
— equals per tree, four and a half cents; four 
times each year, eighteen cents. On olive trees 
producing 50 gallons of berries — valued at 4 
cents the pound — the whole cost of thorough 
cleaning would be less than 2 % of each yearly 
crop. On orange, lemon and lime trees about 
the same. 



31. Phenyle. With this remedy my personal 
knowledge is limited, but from the experiments 
made by ethers, I am satisfied it has very val- 
uable properties, and don't hesitate to recom- 
mend it. It costs $1.50 per gallon, can be di- 
luted with 50 parts of water to one part of 
phenyle, making the cost of the dilution for a 
tree wash only 3 cents each gallon. 

4th. Pyroligneous acid is probably more ef- 
fectual than any other known remedy, but the 
present cost of 75 cents the gallon makes it 
too expensive for common use in syringing 
trees. It is my opinion that it can be manu- 
factured for 10 cents the gallon, perhaps less, 
then diluted one-half with water would make 
the admixture cost five cents the gallon. The 
labor in applying either in swabbing or syring- 
ing trees is much less than with tobacco, as it 
does not require to be heated. The most im- 
portant properties that any remedy can possess, 
provided that it has about the same insect- 
destroying power, are that it should not be disa- 
greeable to handle, no unsafety in keeping it in 
any place, and that it should not require to be 
heated to be effectual. If it is dangerous in 
itself, the orchardist will always be in dread; 
if it rquires heating to a certain number of de- 
grees, the many little necessary preparations 
will afford ample excuses for delays, or if it is 
exceedingly disagreeable to handle, the putting- 
off plan will always be resorted to, until dire 
necessity compels its use. This remedy is not 
disagreeable to handle, and can always be kept at 
hand and ready for use. It therefore recommends 
itself for universal application. 

To sum up, it is my conviction, based upon 
the results of my experiments, that there is no 
excuse for not keeping olive trees free from 
scale insects. In fact, it is great economy to do 
so. It is a source from which to derive an in- 
come on the one hand, and total worthlessness 
on the other. Those who neglect this important 
duty, either from indifference or the want of 
knowledge, will expend their money only to 
see it melt away before them, and will have for 
their reward unsuccess, discouragement and 
despair. Ellwood Cooper. 

Dec. 8, 1881. 



There are more expenses and more risks to run 



than in any other branch of agriculture, 
know that prior to 1880 there was scarcely a 
living in it. At the present time horticulture 
in all of its branches, is threatened with total 
destruction. It has only been a few years since 
the codlin moth first made its appearance in 
the State. It has made more ravages in the 
same length of time than in any part of the 
world. From this on, it is going to be a con- 
stant warfare to obtain a fair crop. 

It is an ill wind that blows no one any good. 
The fruit excitement has made the harvest for 
the nurserymen. Every old stick of a tree has 
been budded and sold for a high price. Land 
that would not bring $40 per acre two years 
ago, now sells for $100 per acre. Land that 
was considered worthless for orchards is now 
sold at high figures, and thousands of trees are 
being planted on land that never will pro- 
duce profitable crops. We may be wrong in 
some of our views. We hope we are — but then 
this is "the other side". H. P. 

Winters, Jan. 7, 1882. 



Alameda, Cal., Nov. 2i, 1881. 
Messrs. H. II Warner ,k Co.: 

Gkntlrmkn: I have been afflicted with rheumatism in 
my shoulder, and severe pains in my kidneys. 1 com- 
menced taking your Kidney and Liver Cure, and after 
taking two bottles the pains all left, me, and I have had 
no returns of pains since. 



Oakland, Cal., Nov 21, 1881. 
Messrs. II II. Warner >fc Co.: 

Gentlemen: I have suffered with pains in my back and 
kidneys for the past two years, the effects of a severe 
strain and cold contracted at the same time Knowing of 
friends, in the East, that had been cured by using your 
Kidney and Liver Cure, was induced to try it, and it has 
proved in inv case decidedly beneficial. 



TRUTH ATTESTED. 

Some Important Statements of Well-known 
People Wholly Verified. 

In order that the public may fully realize the genuine- 
ness of the statements a* well as tne power and va'ue of 
the article of whi:h we speak, we publish herewith the 
fac similie signatures of patties whose sincerity is beyond 
question. The truth of these testimonials is absolute, nor 
can the facts they announce be ignored. 



The Other Side. 



Custom Housb, 
San Francisco, Cal . Oct. 2*, 1881. 
Messrs. H. H. Warner if: Co. ; 

Gentlemen: I have been f uffering for ten years with 
congestive attacks of the kidneys, which manifested 
themselves by intense pains and weakness in the back 
and loins. The pains were very severe, coming on iti 
paroxysms. At times they amounted almost to convul- 
sions. I consulted some of the best physicians of this 
city, two of whom make kidney diseases a specialty, and 
they told me that I could never be cure J. Learni 
through a friend the good effects attending the use of 
your Kidney and Liver Cure in kidney diseases, I com 
menced taking it about six months ago, since which time 
I have hai" no symptoms of my former trouble. 



Editors Press: — There is always two sides 
to everything. The great boom that fruit has 
taken the last two seasons has caused many to 
lose sight of the dark side of fruit cultivation, 
especially the growing of peaches, apricots, 
and grapes. To say that many have become 
excited and gone wild over the planting of fruit 
trees and vines is enough to bring the displeas- 
ure of many upon us. Many are only looking 
upon the bright side, counting the net proceeds 
of their orchards and vineyards in the future by 
the thousands. The excitement that now ex- 
ists owing to the prices that were paid for 
peaches aud apricots in 1880 81 will work a 
great injury to the fruit interest on this coast. 
It will be the means of scattering throughout 
the entire State all the fruit pestb known to 
this coast; not only this, but many new pests 
will be imported. 

The man who thinks he can get rich by 
growing peaches and apricots for two cents per 
pound and deliver them in San Francisco is 
doomed to disappointment; there is nothing 
but a living at those figures, even after the 
orchards have come to bearing. From 1877 to 
1879 the average price for our apricots to the 
canners was 1\ cts. per lb. , or 62 cts. per box. 
Then the return box was in use; it was re- 
turned free of charge. Our trees then were 
healthy, clear of all kinds of insects. Now, if 
we use the return box, we have to pay for re- 
turning them, and all packages have to be dis- 
infected before using them. Our trees are 
more or less injured by insects; there is danger 
of losing the entire crop unless great pains are 
taken and much expense added. 

If men can pay from $100 to $200 per acre 
for unimproved land, plant trees or vines, wait 
five or six years for a crop, and then make it 
pay raising peaches and apricots at two cents 
per R>., they can beat the old horticulturist, for 
we could never do it. "But oh," I hear some 
one say, "Peaches and apricots are going to 
be four and five cents per It)." Well, we only 
hope so, for unless they do, there is no salvation 
for the poor man, he is ruined. The canners 
tell us they cannot pay even as high as four 
cents for apricots and peaches at the present 
demand. Well, we fruit producers think they 
can, and on that hangs the prosperity or down- 
fall of horticulture. Unless the canners can 
pay at least three cents for peaches and apri 
cots, no man can make it pay where they have 
to ship by rail 100 miles at the present disad 
vantages. Let fruit drop back to its old stand 
ard, and there will be more sick men in the fall 
of 1882-83, than there are remedies for. Why, 
dear editor, it will be worse than the Asiatic 
cholera, if peaches and apricots are going to be 
four and five cents per It). Then we say, plant 
all the trees you are able to and take good care 
of, but do not run too many desperate chances, 
even at that. If the fruit is going to drop back 
to two and three cents, then beware of break- 
ers. Not one out of a thousand that is now 
rushing wildly into the fruit speculation will be 
able in the fall of 1883 to sing the doxology 
My land is clear and I am free. 

I have had some experience in the cultivation 
of fruit, having made it a specialty for the last 
25 years, and I know by experience that there 
has been too high an estimate put upon it. 



Oakland. Cal., Nov. 21, 1881. 
Messrs. II. B. Warner <fc Co. : 

Gentlkmen: I have been suffering for the past four 
years with disease of the kidneys. I had pains in my 
back and loins. I was in doubt about commencing to 
take your Safe Kidney and Liver Cure, as I had taken so 
much medicine without obtaining any relief, but finally 
concluded it would do me no harm to try it. I can cheer- 
fully testify that nothing has given me so much relief. J 
believe it to be a therough cure for kidney troubles. 




31st & Market St. 



San Francisco, Cal., Ncv. 25, 1881. 
Messrs. H. II. Warner i- Co. : 

Gentlemen: This last summer I suffered with pains in 
my back and loins, which proceeded from an unhealthy 
condition of my kidneys. My business, that of railroad 
ing, is one that often induces and always aggravates any 
affection of the kidneys, as all railroad men know. I suf- 
fered so much that I was obliged to lay off for pome time. 
Hearing of your Safe Kidney and Liver Cure, commenced 
taking it, and after takiog three or four bottles found 
my health rapidly returning. I never felt better in my 
life than I now do. I am fully satisfied of the virtues of 
your Kidney and Liver Cure, and cheerfully recommend 
it to all persons suffering with kidney affections. 




Santa Barbara, Cal, March 10, 1S81 
Messrs. H. H. Warner & Co. : 

Gentlemen: I have been troubled with livercomnlain 
for the last two years, and have used all the different 
medicines advertised for said disease, as well as the medi- 
cines prescribed by physicians, but nothing ever reached 
my case. I have used two bottles of your Kidney and 
Liver Cure, and am now perfectly well. I can cheerfully 
testify that it has done all you advertise and claim for it 



Auburn, Cal., April 21, 1881 
Mesdrm II. H. Warner Hi Co.: 

Gentlemen: I have been sick with kidney disease for 
sixteen years, and have been treated by physicians, both 
allopathic and homoeopathic, and never was relieved as 
have been by Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure. 



°7f- 



Twentieth and New Broadway. 



San Francisco, Cal. , Oct. 20, 1S81. 

essrs. H. II. Warner it- Co : 

Gentlemen: Ibavebeen suff^r'n? with kidney com- 
plaint for fie past seven years. My symptoms were 
pains in the hack, also a burning sensation in two places 
directly over the Kidneys. This was more severe when I 
had taken cold, as the COld always settled in my kidneys. 

was treated by a physician w ho pronounced my case 
congestion of the kidneys, but tailed to cure me. (have 
tried several remedies, but failed to obtain relief until a 
friend, wh"Se father had been cured by your Safe Kidney 
and Livjr Cu'e, advised me to try it. I have been taking 
our Safe Kidney and Liver Cure for the past three 
months, and have been greatly benefited. 

I remain, very truly yours, 




504 fticktonSt. 



San Jose, Cal., Nov. 8, 1881. 
Messrs. H. II. Warner ifc Co.: 

Gentlemen: Was afflicted (with yellow jaundice very 
badly. Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure was recom- 
mended to me. Took two bottles; a complete cure was 
effected. After having taken second bottle, never felt 
better in my life. Appetite perfected, and was enabled to 
rest aud sleep well. 

Very truly yours, 




LosGATOS.Cal., Nov. 10, 1881. 
Messrs. H. II. Warner is Co : 

Gentlemen: I have much pleasure in saying, thataf'er 
using two bottles of Warner's Safe Kidmy and Liver 
Cure, I have been freed from pain in the back, from 
which I have suffered for several years. 




Thousands of equally strong indorsements -many of 
them in cases where hope was abandoned — have been 
voluntarily given, showing the remarkable power of 
Warner's Safe Kidney and Liver Cure, in all diseases of 
the kidneys, liver, or urinary organs. If anyone who 
reads this has any physical trouble, remember th» great 
danger of delay. 



BROWN LEGHORN HENS 

FOR SALE. 

Parties desiring to obtain stock from this wonderful 
breed can do so by addressing the undersigned. I have 
about 

Sixty Fine Hens 

That I am willing to sell cither as a whole or in small lots 

— at — 

TWO DOLLARS EACH. 

They have finished moultiDg and are in excellent 
condition. Address 

WILLIAM H. JORDAN, 

Oakland, Ca). 




KNOW THYSELF 



(iOLl) MEDAL AWAKJ)KU 

the Author. A new and great Medi- 
cal Work, warranted the heat and 
cheapest, indispensable to every 
man, entitled the "Science of Life or 
Self-Preservation;" bound in fineBt 
French muslin, erahoBsed, full Kilt, 
300 pp. Coutaina beautiful Bteel en- 
graving*; 125 prescriptions. Price, 
only 31. 25, sent by mail; illustrated 
sample, 6 cents, send now. Addrt rs 
Pealmdy Medical Institute or Dr.W 
H. PARKER, No. 4 Bulfluch Btreet 

Boston. 



Santa Rosa, Dec. 4, 1880. 

Mesin. II. II. Warner <£* Co.: 

Gentlemen: I have used your Safe Kidney and Liver 
Care, and find it all you claim for it in kidney troubles. 

Proaident Santa Rosa Bank. 



THE NEW IMPROVED VANELESS 

ALTH0USE WINDMILL AGENCY. 



S. H. Kiler, of San Rafael, has the Agency for all 
Counties North of the Bay. Having them in stock orders 
for any size can be filled at once. 



Giles H. Ukav. 



Jambs Haven. 



GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California Sr.. SAN FRANCISCO. 



28 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 




SEMI ANNUAL STATEMENT 

OF THE 

Grangers' Bank of California 

JANUARY, 1882. 

Amount of Capital Actually Paid in U. S. 
Gold Coin, Surplus Paid Up and Re- 



serve Fund 



$534,101.99 



We are receiving monthly carloads of fine CARRIAGES, 
BUGGIES and WA..ON 8, of all the latest styles,direct from 
our manufactory, Amesbury, Mats., which weare selling, at 
prices and quality couBidei ed. that defy competition. Send 
for illustrated chart and price list, or rail and examine our 
extensive stock. jtSTNO AGENTS EMPLOYED. 

R. F. BRIGGS <k CO., 

Branch House, '220 and 222 Mission St , S. P. 



CALIFORNIA 

Wine Cooperage Co. 




FULDA BROS.. Proprietors. 

30 to 40 Spear St.. S. P. 
ALL KINDS OF CASKS, TANKS, ETC. 
aWShip, Mining and Water Tanks a Specialty.^! 

~cott¥1iose.~ 



RED-CE0SS1 Si p n f y le ; 



PARAGON { D p?y le |- 



| Triple 



Eureka 
FIRE AND GARDEN hOSE. 



RUBBER LINED, prepared Mildew-proof, and superio 
to the best rubber hose lor durability and strength. Can 
be put away for years and the ttreugth not impaired. 

Makes the best deck hose for steamers, or ruining; pur- 
poses yet made. 

Also, rubber lined and unlined linen hose 

W. T. Y. SCHKNCK, 



iarSamples Bent free. 



Agent for Pacific Coast, 
30 California St., S. F. 



PIANOS 



"For beauty of tone, touch and action, I have never 
seen their equal. —Clara Louise Kellogg. 

" THE KNABE" is absolutely the 
Best Piano made. 

A. L. BANCROFT & CO., 

721 Market Street. San Francisco., 

Sole Agents for the Pacific Coaat 



BOONE & MILLER, 
Attorneys & Counsellors-at-Law, 

Rooms 7, 8 and 9 
No. 320 California Street. 8. P., 

(Over Well?, Fargo & Co.'s Bank.) 

Special Attention Paid to Patent 
Law. 

N. B — Mr. J. L. Boone, of the above firm, has been con- 
nected with the patent business for over 15 y. are. and de- 
votes himself almost exclusively to patent litigation aud 
kindred branches. 




60 



IFOR ANY ONE OF THE 
luoire Collections oi"1{om<»,i 
Nhrubsj, (.riinlioiito 1'l.uils, WW 
Fruit Tr.Tn. Orupc Vines, Sinnll 
II run*, Niid*, &c. For example: 12 
choice Uobi'H. Hi j 12Tuberos< x, mIi 12 
IOaruation«. Jjll: 12 Geraniums, *1; 20 
i. ©1:8 Apples. Hlz G Peach. Sir fcj (Jrapcs 
r ,- l«aepl»Tnes. 10 Sweet Che-rnuK Si! 

Hardy (Jatali a. 81; 25 pa. kels choice Mower 



2a Raepljern.w. SI; io Sweet Che-rnuK Bit 
..... Hardy Catal] a. SI; 25 packet* choice Mower 
SJSSl? 1, H'li'dr-Hbi of other* CHEAP, and many 

MEW AND RARE! KST^ect^^ DIME 

Plants. AH mailed 7>a,fnoe raid, and snfe arrival fjuaf 
if about 100 pnsi'9 l^ISLEE. 



" * « g «l ACatnloHU. ... 
2Sth Y-ar. IS (FremAouj,,. 40O AcrcT 
Th. STORES 4 HARRISON CO., PalnesvlU., Lake Co. .Ohla 



State of California, City and County of San Francisco. 
John Lewelling and A. Montpellier being duly sworn 
severally depose and say that they are respectively the 
Vice-President and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of Cali 
for nia above mentioned, and that the foregoing statement 
ii true. 

(Signed) JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President. 
(Signed) A MONTPELLIER, Cashier. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 4th day of Jan 

uary, 1882. 

(Signed) GEO. T. KNOX, Notary Public. 



ASSETS : 
Loans on Wheat, Real Estate and other secu- 
rities $1,681 

Due from Banks and Bankers 21 

Real Eftate— (Bank's interest in Grangers' 

building) 77, 

Oilier Real Estate 27, 

Office furniture, fixtures and safe 3 

Interest accrued 23, 

Cash ou hand 83 




Total 81,917,577.00 

And the said assets are situated in the following coun 
ties, to-wit: Alameda, Butte. Contra Costa, Colusa, 
Freino, Merced, Monterey, Inyo, Kern, Placer, Stanis- 
laus. Suiter, Solano, Sonoma, San Francisco, Tehama, 
Tulare and Yolo. 

LIABILITIES: 

OapitaJ Sli irk paid in gold coin $ 500,000.00 

S<ir| lus paid up, and reserve fund 34.101.99 

Due D-iositors— Banks and Bankers 1,282,890.31 

Mills payable— Mornt'e assumed on real estate 40,000 00 
Undivided net profit (1881) 00,578.90 



Tota' $1,917,677.00 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco. 
John Lewelling and A. Montpellier being each duly sworn, 
severally depose and say that they are respectively the 
Vice-President and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of Cali- 
fornia above mentioned, and the foregoing statement is 
true. 

(Signed) JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President. 

(Signed) A MONTPELLIER, Cashier 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 4th day of 
January, 1882. 
(Signed) GEO. T. KNOX, Notary. 



VIZELICH'S 

Insect Destroyer 

AN IMPORTANT INTENTION. 



IF.oin a Stockton Paper). 
Nicholas Vlzelich had his Insect Destroyer on exhibition 
to day in Courthouse square befOM a crowd of admiring farm- 
ers. The I>estroyer is a box-shaped structure, five feet wide, 
and mounted on wheels. The machine is s pplied with two 
force pumps, one forward and the other aft, wiih a small 
smoke-stack in the middle. The liipiid with which the scale 
hugs and the phylloxera are vanquished is a composition 
specially prepared by Mr. Vizelich. and is stored within the 
box. In a compartment underneath the liquid is a furnace 
for heating it so as to melt the frost off the trees and thereby 
get at the hugs and insects. An additional supply of the 
liquid may M carri-d in a barrel mounted on wheels With 
the pump the water may he sent through a garden hose to a 
night of upwards of 50ft. Mr. Vizelich gave partial illustra- 
tions of the working of his invention tO-OM in the square, and 
threw a stream to the top of the cidars holding the hi^se in 
one hand and working the pump with the other. The new 
invention worked excellently, and the farmers who watched 
it op, rate said that it would not be rnanyjinonths before every 
orchard and farm in the country would nave one of VizeliCh s 
Insect Destroyers. They can be manufactured of any size, 
from those designed to l>e worked by one man to a machine 
large enough to be worked to advantage by a dozen men. 
The warm liquid runs 'into the crevices in the bark of the 
trees and dislodges and kills the vermin. 



"T1ZBUCVB DESTROY t It M will be made in 
three sizes— ony of 65, one of 123 and one of 500 'gallons for 

field use. 

For full information address the inventor, 

N VIZELICH, 

Stockton, California. 



J. T. STOIil/S 

OPEN TOP 

IMPROVED HORSE COLLAR 




Patented Jan. 18th, 1831. 



It saves your horse's neck. 
It is the best Collar in use. 
It son be adjusted to any Bhape 
or any animal's neck. 

•arSend for sample. *d 

JOHN T. ST0LL, 

Harness and Saddle 
Manufacturer, 

NO. 010 K ST., SACRAMENTO. 



^jJl^inaU* rx« Ua|| JJJllci^aad to ""j i www w t moo t 

WantlM 1500 varletie. of V„,,kl,l, .id Kto 7 

&<^"i2rV W ™ 

M. FEB.&Y & CO., Detroit. Mio* 




Calvert'a Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH. 

$2 per Gallon 

After dipping the Sheep, is use 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON 
S. P., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast 



A complete 
manual and 
ref e re nc 

book on all 



Fouliry and Stock Book 

, .» subject, 
connected with successful Poultry and Stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast. A New Edition, over 100 pages pro- 
fusely illustrated with handsome life-like illustrations of 
the different varieties o» poultry and live stock. Price 
by mail, 50 cents. Address WILLIAM NILES, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 




WINDMILLS! HORSEPOWERS! 

TANKS AND ALL KIN08 OF PUMPING MACHIN 
EKY BUILT TO ORDER. 
No. 51 Beale Street. S. F. 
Send for Circulars. 

F. W. KROGH & CO. 

(Successors to W 1. Tcstin. ) 



California Washer. 



This machine is an improvement on the celebrated 
'Humboldt." For Families or Hotels it will pay for 
itself iu less than six months. Lace curtains and other 
delicate fabrics can be washed without injury. Price $15 
Manufactory, 431 Fourth St., S. F. Local or travelin 
Agents wanted. O. M. PUKSELL, Patentee. 



YOSEMITE HOUSE. 

MAIN ST., STOCKTON, CAL. FIRST-CLASS HOU SE 

JAMES CAVIN, Proprietor. 

This House is the Leading Hotel of the City, containing 
al' the modern improvements. General Ticket Office for 
the Big Trees, Yosemite Valley, bodie, and General Stage 
Offh e for all the Southern Mountain Towns. The Yo- 
semite Coach will convey guests from the boats and ull 

aios, free of charge 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union. 

632 California St., corner Webb. 

For the half year ending with December 31, 1881, a divi- 
dend has been declared at the rate of five (6) per cent, per 
annum on Term Deposits, and four and one-sixth (4 1-6) 
per cent, per annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of Federal 
Tax, payable on and after Wednesday. January 11, 1882. 

LOVELL V> ill i K, Cashier. 




SEEDS PLANTS. 



Beautiful illustrated Catalogue Free. 

The best Hit of new, rare and bsautifu. 
flowere ever tent out. New Ulftdlolui, Tube- 
roMt, Aotrtiyllli, Rotea.Carnatioiia, 100 van?, 
i of Lillt-a, choice Fluwer aod Vegetable 
' - - of Houm Plant*. Ac. Ail ► .«*■: 

> eicept rare kinds are fold Id Hi vb Cewt Fapckii. 
' Everything warranted true to nam*. Sec 
Cautoirue; price* are low. The following tent 
t-v nil postpaid. lOGIadlolua, 10 mrtananird 
60c. IS PratT Tubaros*., 95c 10 Lillet, W torts 
named, #1J0. All line aorta and Urea balbt. 
Remit currency or poatatv stamp*. Mr iroodt 
■re an eaiablitbed reputation and so to all parts of lb* world. 

J. LEWIS ( HILLS, QlfiElNS, N. Y. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half-year ending December 31st, 1881, the 
Board of Directors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND 
LOAN SOCIETY has declared a dividend on Term De- 
posits at the rate of Five (5) per cent, per annum, and on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rate of four and one-sixth (4 1-fJ) 
per cent, per annum, free from Federal Taxes, and paya- 
ble on and after the 9th day of January, 1882. By order, 
GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 



Thoroughbred Jersey Bull 

FOR SALE. 

Four years old. Perfectly gentle. Pedigree can be had 
on application. W. AITKEN, 



VOCAL ECHOES. 

(tl 00). A new collection of three-part songs for female 
voices. By W. O. Plenums. New and fine music; 142 
octavo pages. Piano accompaniment. Valuable book for 
Seminaries and Female Colleges. Music by Smart, Hat- 
ton, Cberubini, Glover and others. 



PARKER'S CHURCH COMPOSITIONS. 

($2.00) By J. C. D. Farkir. Of the best quality. For 
Quartet or Chorus Choirs. 

THE NEW OPERAS tS^SSX^ 

contain nearly all the popular airs of the day. Send $1 
and receive by return mail vocal scores of "Patience," 
"Pirates," "Sorcerer," "Musketeers," or"Infanta'8 Dolls." 
Send 50 cts. for "Olivette," "Mascot," or "Pinafore." Or 
send 60 cts. for Instrumental arrangement of "Mascot," 
"Olivette," "Billee Taylor," "Patience" or "Pirates." 

THE HOLIDAY MUSIC BOOKS 

Of DIT80N A CO. are standard and valuable throughout 
the year. Even' lover of really good music should pos- 
sess a copy of BEAUTIES OF SACRED SONG (12), or 
Norway Music Album (f2.60). 

Send 12.00, and receive for a whole year the weekly 
Musical Record, with 350 pages of music, besides all the 
news. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

O. H. Ditaon & Co.. 843 Broadway. N. Y. 




THE MOST 8UCCE8HFUI. REMEDY ever discoTwerl. 
aa it is certain In its effects and does not blister. KEAJ) 
PROOF BELOW. Also excellent for human flesh. 
From a Prominent Physician. 

Wahiunotontille, Ohio. June 17th, 1880 
Dr. B J. Kendall <t Co . — Gents: Reading your adTerttse- 
ment in Turf, Field and Farm, of your Kendall'* BpaTin 
Cure, and baring a rsluable andsiieedyborae which had bet-u 
lame from spavin for * igbteen months, I sent to you for a 
bottle by express, which in six weeks removed all lameness 
and enlargement and a large splint lrom another horse, and 
both horses are to-day as sound as colts. The one bottle was 
worth to me one hundred dollars. Respectfully yours, 

H. A. Bkrtolett, m D. 
Send for illustrated circular giving positive proof. Price,$l. 
All druggists have ft or can get It for you. Dr. B. J. Kk>- 
i' m.i. & Co., Proprietors, Enosburgh Falls, Vt. 

SOLD 1SY ALL DKl'CHUSTb. 



1,000,000 GRAPE CUTTINGS 

(ROOTED VINES). 
Of 150 varieties of Grape Vines, for sale at 

Eiscn Vineyard., 

FRESNO, CAL. 



«L COOKE R. i. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 
■V Communications Promptly Attended to. tft 
COOKE St SONS, Successors to Oooki ft Grsoort 



Nash Bros.'s Pulverizing Harrow 
and Clod Crusher. 

The Best Implement for Pulverizing, Harrowing, Cul- 
tivating; using steel curved teeth, and can be regulated 

to any depth. 

GARDINER'S HAY ELEVATOR AND CARRIER. 
This is Automatic and Stlf-regulating, raisirg hay or 
straw to any hight, and carries to any desired point. It 
will pay for itself in one season. L. D. BURGESS, 
Agent, Rio Vista, Cal. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse 

San Francisco, Cat 
66,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rate 
CHAS H. SINCLAIR, Supt 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office — 818 California Street, Room S. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend St a, S F. 

First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the O. P. 
R. R. and H. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



E. MAIN, 315 Folsom Street, 

Makes to order Gents' Fine French Calf Boots from t6 to 
$10; Gaiters from $3 to $6; Alexis from $3.50 to $5- Mens' 
Heavy Kip Boots, $6; Oxford Ties, French Calf, $4: Cali- 
fornia Leather, $3.50; Men's Working Shoes from $3.50 to 
$3; Children's Shoes made to order. Persons In the coun- 
try ordering to the amount of $12, I pay the express 
charges. I sell nothing but my own manuiacture. 



Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates Etc. 

B . L. RANSOMS, 402 Montgomery St., 8. F. 



Healdsburg, Cal. ARTIFICIAL STONE 



8end for Circular 



January 14, i88a.j 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



Varieties of Vines Cultivated in Port- 
ugal. 

(Written for the Rural Press by Rev. Joun I. Bi.basdale.] 

41. ESGANA CAO. 

See Sercial. 

42. Espadeiro Branco (Minho). 
Yields much and good wine. 

43. Fernao Pires. 
F. Pires de Beco. 
F. Pirao. 

Cultivated in Cartaxo; yields well; aromatic, 
early, ripens in August, and does well in all 
sorts of land. This is the best; the other two 
are inferior. Leaves five-lobed, sinuated, with 
wool on the undtrtideof the leaf; footstalks 
reddish. Bunches about five inches long. Ber- 
ries thickly set round, yellowish white, skin 
deiicite and somewhat fleshy, juicy, sweet, with 
some smell. Land neither over dry nor wet. 

44. Ferral Branco. 

Well known everywhere; suitable for trel- 
lises and espalliers. Leaves tive-lobed, deeply 
cut, smooth on the upper side, almost smooth 
on the under side; footstalks almost white or 
slightly mixed with the color of the branch; 
tendrils long generally. Bunch large, often 
over 18 inches, almost conical. Berries elliptic 
shape, color of olive oil, or slightly greenish; 
skin thin, leathery and somewhat fleshy, plenty 
of juice, taste peculiar and slightly sweet. A 
table grape; wine none of the best. Land rather 
dry. 

45. Folgosao (Douro). 

A good wine grape on strong land. 

46. Formosa (Villa Maior). 
Diagalves (Seabra ). 

A well-known kind, especially in the vicinity 
of Lisbon and all through the country bordering 
on the river Tagus, and much esteemed both for 
the table and for export. It is moderately pro- 
ductive, late, ripening in September; prefers 
strong land. Leaves five-lobed, serrated; foot- 
stalks reddish. Bunch small. Berries round, 
close Bet, amber color; skin fine and rather 
flebhy ; juicy, sweet, and having a smell of its 
own. Table, and good wine. Common land. 

47. Gallega. 

Met with in the old vineyards. Yields mod- 
erately; forms a very large stock and requires 
strong land. 

Alarte says that Gallega vines are good for 
sandy lands, because there they yield both 
abundant grapes and good wine, whilst on rich 
lands they run into wood and bear little. 

48. Gocveio. 

Is the name by which the Verdelho is known 
on the Douro; and as this latter name is more 
generally known, I reserve it till I reach that 
word. 

49. Janeanes. 
Sem Nome. 

Alarte mentions this kind, which, according 
to him, is called Sem Nome in other parts; a 
kind good for high land, because it is very early. 
Its grapes are very handsome, excellent for the 
table, and its wine sweet and white. It is not 
quite reliable as a bearer. It is unfit for low, 
damp land. 

50. Joao Naibo (Cartaxo). 

Moderately productive, late, end of Septem- 
ber, preferring strong land. 

51. Labrusco. 

Mentioned by Agular among those cultivated 
at Cartaxo. Sufficiently productive, late, end 
of September, aromatic, slightly uncertain ; 
needs strong land. 

N. B — It certainly is not the American La- 
brusca ( Vilis tilvestris). 
62. Leira. 

Cultivated at Cartaxo. A very poor bearer; 
very early, middle of August; suits any kind of 
land. 

53. Loureira. 

A kind known on the Minho, eaid to impart 
to wine a flavor of laurel. 

54. Luzedia. 

Also on the Minho. A good Branco Lameiro 
yielder, and requires to go high. 

55. Macedo. 

There is on Traz-os-Montcs a white kind hav- 
ing this name. 

66. Malvasias. 

The Malvasias constitute a most important 
group, and all of the first quality, which, in 
the vineyards of Portugal, are represented by 
a number of varieties. 

D. Sisnon de Roxas, in his Ampelography, 
places the Malvasias in tribe VI (Albillos Dap- 
Biles). In variety 37, Malvasia Dulcissima, 
whose characters are: "Rods erect; leaves yel- 
lowish green; grapes middle-sized, very round, 
white, very succulent and sweet." 

Seabra describes in the following manner the 
third variety : Malvasia (general name) — Leaves 
tive-lobed, serrated, with some wool on the 
lower side; footstalk of lighter color than the 
rod. Bunch eight or nine inches long. Berries 
the size of an ordinary olive; not close together 
(raro) — (aloiradot); skin a little fleshy; juicy, 
sweet and smelling, and yields good wine; and 
better still if mixed with one-half Muscatel. 
He says this kind differs little from those which 
in* Beira and Estremadura are called Donna 
Branca, Alvaro de Toire, or Boal Cachudo. 
... Count OJart, in his Arr pelography Universal, 
mentions a great number of varieties of Mal- 



vasias, not only of the white, but also of the 
colored; but many of them do not correspond 
exactly with the general characteristics just 
mentioned, notwithstanding that they all have 
a sort of family likeness, just as happens with 
the Muscatels. 

57- Malvasia Grossa. 

Has already been described under the name 
of Codega. 

The variety most common in our vineyards is 
the Malvasia Fina,or Malvasia da Passa (raisin), 
which comes in early, is delicate, failing in 
some localities, very subject to oidium, but 
yields very fine wine. 

Gyrao says that Malvasia Penaguiota gives 
much good wine and needs strong land. It is 
met with in almost every district of the king- 
dom, even in the Minho, where, however, it is 
grown only for the table. 

58. Mantheudo. 

Gyrao includes this in his list of the vines of 
Algarve, saying it produces good grapes for the 
table, throws out good rods, and needs strong 
land and long pruning. 

59. Marquezurha. 
Grown in the Minho. 

60. Maroto. 

Ooly suitable for sandy land, and even then 
it is not of much good. 

61. Melhoria. 

White variety in the Minho. Yields much 
good wine; needs good land and to go high. 
There is also a black variety. 

62. Molinha. 

Grown in Cartaxo. A poor bearer; late and 
very subject to oidium. 

63. Molin. 

Mentioned by Aguiar among the sorts grown 
at Sautarem, as being a good bearer; early — 
July to September; good strong lands. 

64. Muscatels. 

Many are the varieties of Muscatels; yet with 
us the most common, which are met with all 
over Portugal, are the Mosatel branco pequeno 
(the small white) from which the most spiritous 
and aromatic wine is usually made, and the 
Moscattl de Jesus, with great long straggling 
bunches, and oval berries; not to mention the 
colored kinds, the red and black. Count Odart, 
in his Ampelography, enumerates and describes 
nearly all, if not quite all the known varieties, 
many of which are to be met with in our best 
planted quint as and orchards; but as the pres- 
ent purpose is to mention only the kinds culti- 
vated on the great scale in our leading viticul- 
tural districts, I will not go into so minute a 
description, partly at least for want of sufficient 
elementary materials for the descriptions. 
The Muscatels form the XV tribe of D. 
Roxas de Clemente; Moscatelles (Apianse); and 
in the first variety, No. 101, we find Movcatel 
branco (Moscatel menudo bianco — Generosa). 
The description of it given by Herrera is per- 
fect: Vitis vinifera, the most excellent of all, 
berries yellowish, green, beautiful, medium 
sized, juicy, round, here straggling, there close 
together, very sweet, with a muscat flavor. 
Vitas alpina, of Pliny. Seabra describes the 
most common sorts as follows: 1st. Moscatel 
branco (general name). Leaves, 5 lobed, serrated, 
smooth, with footstalk color of the rod or white. 
Berriclies, a palm long — berries close set, round, 
white, drawing towards olive oil color; skin 
rather thick, juicy, smell and taste peculiar and 
sweet. Good for the table, for raisins, and it 
yields excellent wine. Its land should be me- 
dium between wet and dry. 

N. B. — It is early and very subject to oidium. 
2d. Mascatel-de- Jesus, (general name). Leaves 
5 lobed, serrated, almost smooth, with foot- 
stalk red. Bunches, two palms long, (about 18 
inches). Berries, large, oval, scattering, amber- 
colored, Bkin tlebhy, not very juicy, tasty, sweet, 
without smell. The same uses as the forego- 
ing. Land medium between wet and dry. 

N. B. — In their proper place we shall treat 
of the red and black varieties. 

65. Mourisco Branco. 

Met with in the vineyards of the Douro of 
Trazos-Montes, of Beira, of Algarve, and other 
parts. Seabra describes this kind under the 
name of Mourisca, thus: 

"Mourisca (name common in Beira and Es- 
tremadura) — Rods chestnut color. Leaves tive- 
lobed, with the middle lobe very large; woolly 
on the under side, and footstalks same color as 
the rods. Bunches a palm long and thick. 
Berries close set, large, of the size of a hazel- 
nut, amber-colored; skin very thick and fleshy; 
little juice, sweet, with sufficient roughness. 
It cracks in the mouth and ought to serve only 
for hanging up and keeping for winter use." 

N. B. — This last observation of Seabra's is 
not Btrictly just; for, according to my experi- 
ence, the Morrisco Branco gives 65% of must, 
of density 1,100; and of glucometrio degree, 
12° at the end of August. It is a beautiful 
kind, bearing bunches of more than five pounds 
each. The wine it gives is generous. The best 
method of pruning is to spurs, or from short to 
middling long. 

I may add what Alarte has to say about this 
kind: The Mouriscas are good for substantial 
lands; in poor land it is no good. It is a very 
uncertain bearer; some years it bears none at 
all; but when at its best, it bears a lot, and the 
wine is exceedingly full-bodied and strong. Of 
this kind, some are white, others red ; useful 
only for hanging up, not for wine. 

[To be Continued.] 



Illinois railroads have all adopted the new 
t cheiuie drawn by the State Commissioners, 



The Wheat Growers' Meeting. 

On Monday the Wheat Growers' Association 
of California met at Grangers' Hall, corner of 
Davis and California streets. President H. M. 
LaRue took the Chair and stated the ob- 
ject of the meeting to be the taking of steps 
tor the perpetuation of the Association. 

The various members on the committees ap- 
pointed at the last meeting to distribute circu- 
lars containing the objects of the Association 
and to drum up members from among the wheat 
growers, reported that they had met with but 
slight encouragement, the farming communities 
being careless in consequence of trie high prices 
ruling and the higher expected. 

A motion by Mr. Paulsell, of Stockton, that 
the committees in the various counties through- 
out the State be instructed to refund all 
moneys received from subscribers and that the 
Association disband, led to a general debate. 

Captain Nelson's views were that without a 
membership of 500, the Association would not 
be a success, and that as only 31 had sub- 
scribed, it was useless to try further. He 
thought the farmers could handle their own 
wheat through the corporate Grange. 

Dr. Booth, of Stanislaus, said that there was 
a necessity for some kind of an organization in 
the State for the protection of wheat growers. 
There were onerous burdens and bad laws to be 
got rid of, and nothing short of a well-organized 
association could accomplish anything. He 
thought that it was time the farmers should be 
up and doing something for themselves. He 
wanted one more trial for the associati in. 

Mr. Ostrander, of Merced, objected to the 
abandonment of the project. He knew of quite 
a number who were ready to join as soon as 
tbey saw the association was likely to prove a 
permanent institution. 

Mr. Paulsell said he was strongly in favor of 
perfecting the organization, and simply made the 
motion to abandon it to test the sense of the 
meeting. He thought that not one in the room 
could tell within 400,000 bushels of the amount 
of wheat in .the State, or within 10,000,000 of 
the number of sacks. With a perfected organi- 
zation, statistics would be gathered, and each 
member could be as well informed as the buy- 
ing speculator as to the prices and prospects. 

On motion of Mr. Ostrander, the motion to 
abandon was indefinitely postponed. 

The present Canvassing Committees were 
continued until the next meeting of the associa- 
tion. 

Dr. L. M. Booth was added to the Stanislaus 
County Committee. 

The Secretary was instructed to notify by 
letter, at least 10 days before the next meeting, 
all the original subscribers, of the time of the 
meeting, and that their attendance is neces- 
sary. 

The President appointed the following Can- 
vassing Committees iathe wheat-growing coun- 
ties, where none exist: 

Tulare — Joseph Goodall of Hanford, Mr. Ma- 
ples of Tulare, E. Jacob of Visalia, R. Daugh- 
erty and Harvey Gray. 

Fresno — J. D. Ruvtn, J. D. Collins, Frank 
Duce, Thos. Hughes, Dalton. 

Kern Biker, Geo. V. Smith, Wm. 

Nelson. 

Monterey Flint, J. D. Carr. 

Napa — Alex. Scott, George Cornwall, A. J. 
Rainey, J. W. Reams. 

Solano — John Denning, J. W. Dudley, C. C. 
Agee, J. B. Yount, Henry McCune. 

Yolo— C. F. Reed, D. M. Hershey, N. Miner, 
J. H. Harlem, Geo. H. Swingle, G. W. Scott. 

Sutter— S. P. Wilson, Geo. Ohleyr, Wm. 
Walton, A. L. Chandler, B R. Spilman. 

The Secretary was authorized to have 1,000 
prospectus circulars printed for the use of the 
Canvassing Committees. 

The association, after instructing the Secre- 
tary to inform the Committees on Membership 
throughout the State of their re-appointment, 
voted to adjourn to the second Monday in 
April. 

Vine Planting. 

Mr. G. G. Briggs, of Davisville, gives the 
Record-Union his advice about planting grape 
vines as follows: I prefer cuttings to plant in 
vineyard to rooted vines. I make my cuttings 
of currant old wood, about three ft. long. If 
the soil is rich and moist, the vines may be 
planted, say 10x10; if less moist, they should 
be planted farther apart, say 10x12 or 10x16. I 
lay out my land with a plow, running furrows, 
say 10 ft. apart, and crossing these at right angles 
at the distance apart it is intended to plant 
the vines the other way. In laying out the 
land, skip every 21st row or furrow, so as to 
make just 400 vines in each block, and have 
roads around each block. At the intersection 
of the furrows, dig holes 20 inches deep and 20 
inches long, and the width of a shovel. 'Che holes 
should be dug all on the same side of the fur- 
rows, or in a corresponding angle of the inter- 
secting furrows. The butt of the cutting 
is placed from the intersection, bringing 
the top at the exact intersection, with two 
buds above the surface. The end of the 
hole at the intersecting part must be per- 
pendicular, so as to give the top of the vine a 
perpendicular position from the elbow of the 
vine at the bottom of the hole. To make this 
elbow when the vine is placed, slip the foot on 
the cutting and cover with soil and tramp down. 
I have found this mode of planting the most 
successful. It gives a larger amount of roots 
than perpendicular planting, and the roots are 



low enough below the surface to bs out of the 
reach of ordinary drought, and the same time 
none are so deep as to be cold and slow of ac- 
tion in circulation. In covering, be careful to 
place the soil close about the perpendicular part 
of the cane, and up full with the general sur- 
face, but back from this part the hole may be 
left in the form of a sink to catch and hold 
moisture during the first rainy season. I would 
have my land ready to plant as soon as the soil 
is in condition, and cutting3 can properly be 
taken from the vines. Early planting is the 
best. Thorough cultivation must be the in- 
variable rule, and the soil must be kept free 
from weeds. 



The Increasing Use of Glass. 

There seems to be an impression of late that 
glass must soon come into a much more geueral 
use than it now obtains. It has been suggested 
as a suitable material for water mains, for street 
lamp-posts, and for many other purposes for 
which cast iron is now used. Mr. Siemens pro- 
poses to prepare a toughened glass for these 
purposes. He claims that he can prepare a glass 
which will be much stronger than iron castings, 
imperishable and incorodible. The cost per 
pound, allowing more profit to the maker than 
can be obtained from iron, is twice as much the 
cost of the latter, but the specific gravity is so 
much less that the consumer will be able to 
obtain glass articles about 33% cheaper than 
similar goods in cast iron. 

Some of the Pittsburg glass makers are pro- 
posing to use it in the form of blocks, like 
granite or marble, for structural purposes. One 
writer says: "Perhaps not one builder or con- 
tractor in 10, if told that the common grades of 
glass have a crushing strength nearly four times 
as great as that credited by experienced engi- 
neers to the strongest quality of granite, would 
accept the statement as true. Yet it is a fact, 
and being so, the queiy as to why glass has not 
received more attention from architects as a 
structural material naturally suggests itself. A 
reporter had a talk with several prominent 
glass manufacturers on the subject, and in an- 
swer to an interrogatory ab to whether blocks of 
glass could be made in suitable lengths and sizes 
and so annealed as to be utilized in the con- 
struction of a building in place of stone, they 
said that it could be done. Slid one of these 
gentlemen: 

" 'This question has been considered by my- 
self a number of times, and, although I do not 
want to advocate the absolute abolition of brick 
and stone, yet in the erection of art galleries, me- 
morial buildings, etc., a structure composed of 
blocks of glass in prismatic colors would be 
alike a unique, beautiful and lasting structure. 
With the numerous inventions which have come 
into use of late years in connection with the 
production of glass, the cost has been gradually 
going down while tiie quality of the fabric is 
steadily becoming better. One objection which 
would be raised to the durability of a glass 
house, might be that the blocks would not take 
a bind or adhere together with common mortar. 
This objection can readily be set aside by the 
use of a good cement, and when completed the 
structure would stand for ages, barring extraor- 
dinary accidents, or, mayhap, cataclysm. As 
to the cost of a glass house, it can be kept down 
to but a small percentage above the price of cut 
granite, as there are many points where saving 
gains can be made. Thus, for instance, in 
building with stone, you have to pay the stone 
masons, and when it comes to elaborate exam- 
ples of carving, in Corinthian pillars, collars 
and capital?, etc., why, the work is rather cost- 
ly, as compared with glass, when the latter can 
be molded in any shape or form, and the work 
accomplished in much less time. I am con- 
vinced that the time will come when we will 
see such a building erected. 

Bullet Making. — The manufacture of bul- 
lets is not so simple as it used to be. At Wool- 
wich, the melted metal is poured into a receiver, 
and as soon as it solidifies, but before it is oold, 
it is forced by hydraulic pressure through 
cylindrical holes in the form of long strings. 
This process is to prevent the formation of air 
bubbles in the bullet, which would cause it, 
when fired, to swerve from its course. The 
leaden strings are thence carried to the bullet- 
molding department, where tbey are cut into 
lengths and roughed, then shaped in one ma- 
chine and finished in another. They were foi - 
merly plugged with wood, but now plugs arc 
prepared from a special powder, which solidifies 
after being pressed into form. For sharpshoot- 
ing, great care is observed to obtain bullets of 
uniform size, shape and weight, and to use pow- 
der of a known explosive force. 

To remove caustic stains — or such as will 
not yield to ordinary appliances — 1st, take of 
chloride of mercury two drams; hydrochloric 
acid, two drams; dissolve. This must be ap- 
plied to the staiu with a camel's-hair pencil, 
and the liuen, paper, etc., immediately plunged 
into water, when the stain will be removed. 
Let it be afterwards dried in the sun. 2J, if a 
small piece of the iodide of potassium is tubbed 
on the part (which must be previously wet), it 
will immediately decompose the blackened ox- 
ide and convert it into the iodide of silver, 
which is soluble in water, and consequently 
may be discharged by washing. The above 
process will answer equally as well for linen, 
muslin, etc. Hot water dissolves the iodide 
much quicker than cold. 



30 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 



6fr 



a cmf; ; 

PULVERIZING HARROW, CLOD CRUSHER AND LEVELER 



» u. 

> .E 

■a 2 

Z. (3 




The "ACHIK" subjects tlie soil to the action of a Crusher and Leveler, and at the same time to the Cutting 
Lifting, fufnlug process of double rows of STEEL COULTERS, Hie peculiar shape and arrangement of which give 
Immense Cutting Power. The entire absence of Spikes or Spring Tetth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially 
adapted to Inverted sod, bard clay and "slough land" where other ilarrowj utterly fail, and also works perfectly on 



light soil. 



NASH & BSC, Sole Manufacturers 

22 College Place. New "Xork City. 



SOLD IN CALIFORNIA BY: 

Tuohy, Visaiia. 



G. B. Adams & Son, San Gabrel; Oliver Holden, San Jose, Jonn 



A NEW TREATMENT MKtWS^n^ 

prPKin, llriuhirlK', Debility, .Neurnl/gia, ltheuiuulixin, 
mand all Chronic and AferSOtU Disorders. 

I ACTS DIRECTLY upon the (Treat nervous and organic centres, 
land cures by a natural proem of recitalization. 
JHAS EFFECTED REMARKABLE CURES, wnich aro 

I attracting wide attention. . _ ' 

"HAS BEEN USED BY Rt. Rev. John J. Kcane, Bishop of 
. Richmond, l a., lion. Wm. D. Kcllcy, T. S. Arthur, and others, who 
/have been larirctv benefited, ar.d to -whom wo lvfor fty permission. 

IS STRONCLY ENDORSED : "We have the most unequivocal 
testimony to its curative power from many iK-rsons of hifb character 
und inlelliu-ence."— Lutheran Observer. "The cures which have been ob- 
ilued by this new treatment firm more like miracles thau cases of natural 
, ' hcalinu'."— Arthur's Home Magazine. " There is no doubt as to the genuine- 
ness and positive results (if this treatment. 11 — Boston Journal of Commerce. 
THE OXYCEN HOME TREATMENT contains two months' supply, 
with inhalin--- apparatus and toll directions for use. 
«ENT FREE : a Treatise on Compound Oxygen, giving the history of this new 
discovery and a Tan« record of most remarkable cures. Write for it. Address 

ADMINISTERED BY INHALATION. 1109 and nil Clrard St., Philadelphia, Pa< 

Depository on JPacific Coast. 

WE HAVE ESTABLISHED A DEPOSITORY OF OUR COMPOUND OXYOEX HOME 
TREATMENT at San Francisco, t'ul. This will enable patients on the Pacific Coast to 
obtnin it without the heavy express charges which accrue on packages sent from Eastern States 
All orders directed to II. E. MATHEWS, 60b Montgomery street, San Francisco. Cal., will be 
filled on the riitne terms on which we fill orders sent dircctlv to our office in Philadelphia. 

Patients ordering from onr depository in Sim Francisco, should, at the same time, write tc. us, 
and give a statement of their case, in order than we mav send such advice and directiau in iLe 
use of the Treatment as their special disease mav seem to require. 

DKS. STAUKEY &. PALEN, Noa. 11W and 1111 Uirard Street, Philadelphia, Pa, 




CTOHIIsr CAHsTB, 

Proprietor of the Globe Foundry and Machine Shop, and 
Stockton Tmproved Gang Plow Man'fg Works. 



AGENT FOR 

Studebaker Farm and Spring 
Wagons, Header Trucks with wide 
and narrow tires, Rakes, Derricks, Belt- 
ing, Cordage, Oil", ForkB, Hardware, etc. 

£3T Steam Engines, and general re- 
pairing, with large assortment of extras 
for Agricultural Implements, and the 
STOCKTON GANG Plows, Reversible 
Molds and Land Sides. Address 

JOHN CAINE, Stockton, Cal. 

GLOBE IRON WORKS. 

P. O. Box, 06. 





II. P. GREGORY & CO., 

2 <te 4 California Street, San Francisco. 
Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast for 

GOULD'S SPRAYING PUMP. 

Used by Orehardists for Spraying Kruit Trees w ith 

INSECT EXTERMINATING LIQUIDS- 

This Pump lias buen gotten up expressly for the purpose noted. 
The working parts are constructed entirely of Brass and arc not 
offuct 'd by the corosive solutions used in them The f-ale ol over 
100 (»f these Pumps l ist year— principally in the Santa Clara val- 
ey is utrong testimony as to their merit. Further information 
can be obtained by addressing the Agents, 

H. P. GREGORY & CO., 

San Francisco, Cal. 



BOZBS. 



M. J. PA1LLARD & CO., 

Manufacturers and Importers of all Kinds of 

MUSICAL BOXES 

Of Standard Reputation. The largost and finest assortment in the city. Musical 
Boxes with changeable cylinders always on hand at low figures. The latest style 
patented, "THK INTERCHANGEABLE," patented February 11, 1879. 

Repairing Musical Boxes and Furnishing Material a Specially. 

23 DUPONT STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. 

A. E. JUILLERAT, Sole Agent for Pacific Coast (Branch House of 680 Broadway, K. Y 



CHEAPEST. BEST. 

BOOTH'S SURE DEATH 

To Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, 
Mice, Etc. 

sWEndorsed by the Ora.ige and all others who have 
ueed it 

INFALLIBLE SQUIRREL and COPHER 
EXTERMINATOR. 

STRENGTH INCREASED. PRICK REDUCED. 

Put up in 1 III., 6 lb., and 6 gallon tins. Manufactured b 

A. R. BC0TH, Eagle Drug Store, 

San Luis Obispo. Cal. 
pott saLa BY ALL WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS 




The Merigot Pump and Spraying Nozzle. 

Largely used for Applying Insecticides in Orchards around San Jose. 

FAVORABLY MENTIONED AS SERVICEABLE AND REASONABLE IN PRICE BY THE 
SPEAKERS AT THE SACRAMENTO CONVENTION. 

fcrThe Merigot Spray-Tip Nozzle is the best known. — Dr. Chapin's Address. 

The pump is Well Made »llh Melal Valves. Price, $12. 

WESLEY FANNING, Co-Operative Workshop. 

277 to 281 St. John Street San Joee, Cal. 

THE KENNEDY REPEATING RIFLE. 




24 and 28-inch Barrels. 15 Shots in Magazine. 
Weight, 8 1-2 to 9 Pounds. 

USES THE WINCHESTER MODEL 1878 CARTRIDGE, 44 CALIBRE, 40 GRAINS. CENTER FIRE. 
Out of BOO Glass Balls thrown from a trap, 479 were broken with this Rifle. Prices Low. Circulars on application to 

F. T. ALLEN, Pacific Coast Agent, 

416 Market St , San Francisco. 



PURE BRED POULTRY. 

Langshans, Cochins, Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Dorkings, Pekin and Rouen Ducks, Bronze Turkeys, Etc. 

I have a large stock of the above varieties for Sale Che p, considering the quality of stock. For further lnforma- 
■nation, send 3 cent stamp for new circular and price list to R. C. HEAD, Napa, Cal. 





THE BOSS PRUNER. 

Patented Jan. 8, 1878. 




The best 1'runer madf. Small size, cuts 1 inch, price 
93 50. Large size, cuts two inches, price, $4 ftn. ForsinV 
plicity, ease, rapidity and durability they are unexcelled 
Apply to GEO. WOOL9EY, 

lone City, Amador County, California, 
General Agent for the State. 



THE MASSILL0N PONY MILL 

STRICTLY l*OH TA / ■ f I , 




Supplies a long felt want. IOO Sold In 
Ninety Days. 

Every owner of a Farm Engine located In moderately 
timbfrfd country ran find profitable employment the 
year round by purchasing one of these Mill-. 

Every wwnur of a timbered lot is interested In having 
one of these Mills in his neighborhood. No more hauH 
'I..: logs to mill. AM the waste saved. 

write for Circulars and Price Lists, and address of 
nearest Agent. [Name tbb Paper. J 

RUSSELL & CO., Massillon, 0. 



209 Percheron Horses 

Arrived in New York Aug. 25th 



And nnd.r ro.ton. T.lu.tlon 

Were Bonded for 

$350,000.00. 




es were imported by 



M. W. DUNHAM, 

W.VYNE, DUPAGE CO., ILL., 

upon whose larm can now be seen 
One-Fifth of All Imported French 
Horses Sow Living in America. 

During the past 17 months 360 STALLIONS AND 
MARES have been imported from France to this es- 
tablishment, being MORE than the combined impor- 
tations of all oilier importers of Draft Horses from 
all parts of Europe for any one year. 

100 Page Catalogue sent free on application. Con- 
tains over .0 illustrations and the history of the 
Percheron race. Order "Catalogue S." 

— AT THK — 

GREAT CHICAGO FAIR, 1881, 

In COMPETITION with the LARGEST and FINEST 
oollectiou of CLYDESDALE HORSES IN AMERICA, 

M. W. DUNHAM'S 

Herd of Percherons 

WAS AWARDED TUB 

1st PRIZE- $1,000 and GRAND GOLD 
MEDAL. 

His Mare "Allffnonetto" was awarded the 1st 
Prlae S500- and Grand Gold Medal; and his 

Stallion "Vidocq" was specially recommended to re- 
ceive the Society's Gold MedaL 
Mention the Pacif.c Rural Prrsb. 



SEND TO 

CADIEN & BAGLEY, 

Stockton. Cal , for 

A2TTX - RHEUMATIC 

Shrunk Flannel Underwear. 

Measure around chest over vest for undershirt; around 
waist under vest for drawers. Ooods sent C. O, D. per 
w. F. li Co. Price, »6 a suit. 



January 14, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



31 



Pf\EEDE^S Ulr\ECJGt\y. 

Six lines or less in this Directory at 50 cts a line per month. 

CATTLE. 



COL.. C. YOUNGER. Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horn Durhams, and pure bred 
Cotswold Sheep Young Bulls and Bucks always for 
sale. Herd took Gold Medal, 1881. 



WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House. S. F. Importers 
and Breeders for past eleven years. Berkshires, 
"Jerseys," "Short Horns," and all varieties of Sheep, 
and their grades. 



PAGE BROTHERS, HIS Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and Sp .m- Merino Sheep 

MRS M. E. BKADbE?, San Jose, Cal. Breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn cattle and 
Berkshire hogs. A cnoice lot of young stock for 
sale. 

R J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of 
Short-Horn Durhams and Noroian-Percheron horses. 

ROBT. BECK, San Frandsco. Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Jersey catile. Held took Six Premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, 1881. 

GEO. BEMENT, Redwood City, San Mateo Co., Cal. 
Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle. Several fine young Butls, 
Yeanings and Calves For Sale. 

R. NOELL, Grass Valley, Nevada Co., Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Thoroughbred Jerseys. 

R. McEN ESPY, Chico, Butte Co., Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons. 

HENRY PIERCE, 728 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Breeder of Jersey, Guernsey and Ayrshire Cattle. Has 
them for sale. 



HORSES. 



JAS. A. PERRY, of River View Stock Farm, Wil- 
mington, 111., has m Petaluma, Sonoma county, several 
fine Norman Sia. lions of his last importation direct from 
France. Cut-.iK>gues on application to Jas. A. Perry, 
Fashion Stibles, Petaluma, Cal. 

P. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Marin Co., Cal. Breed-.r of 
choice Jerseys, bred from butter strains. Hambletonian 
horses by the Silver Gray Stallion, "Rustic," remark- 
able for size, speed, and kind disposition. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co.. Cal. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Devons, roadster horses and Percheron 
draft horses. 



E. A. SAUK. RIDER, 325 eleventh St., Oakland, 
Cal Importer of Normao-Percheron horses. Horses 
on band and for sale at reasonable terms. 



WM. FARRINGTON, Santa C ara, Cal. Breeder 
of'Norman norses; owner of the horse "Cunard," of 
stock of Perry's importation. 

W. A. MUNNION, Dixon, Solano Co., Cal. Owner 
and Breeder of the celebrated Jack, "John Henry." 
Took First Premium State Fair, 1881, also Percheron 
Half-breeds, 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

J. B. HO YT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co , Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
St.,S F. 



POULTRY. 



H. S SARGENT, Stockton, Cal. Importer, Breeder 
and Shipper of Poland China Pigs, ana Bronze Turkeys. 



MRS. L. J. WAPKlNS, Ian Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Du :ki, etc. 

A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown and White Ltghoms, Plymouth Rock, 
Pekin Ducks. 

J. M. HALSTED'S NEW INUUBATOR. Price, 
330. No. 1011 Broaiway, Oakland send for circular. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importor, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. WAITE, Brighton, 8acramento Co. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Be kslure Hogs and choice Imported 
Poultry. Took Premium State Fair, 1880 and 1881 
of Leghorns (brown and white), Speokled Hamburgs, 
Plymouth Rocks and Pekin ! 'n k ■ 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogg are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



ELIA3 GALLUP, Hanford, Cal., Breeder of Poland 
China Swine. Stock recorded in American Poland 
China Record. Are descendants of the celebrated Mc- 
Crary -Bismarck, bred by D. M. Magie, Oxford, Ohio. 
Took five First Premiums at State Fair in 1880. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of thor- 
oughbred Berkshires of stock imported by L. Stanford. 



BEES. 



J. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal , Breeds Pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Comb Foundation. 



The American Driven 
WELL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

FOR MINING, IRRIGATION, MECHANICAL 
DOMESTIC & MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 

Send for Circulars. 
BABCOCK, HOWARD .t CO., 
40 Merchants' Exchange San Francisco, Cal. 



The Fresno Colony, 

On the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and adjoining Fresno City and the Central Colony- 
Has the most favoroble location of any Colony, as well as other superior advantages. Abun- 
dant water secured. Land unsurpassed for Vine Raising and Fruit Culture. Send for Map and 
Circular, or come and examine. Address 

THOMAS E. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno City, Cal. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

»"Free Coach to the House. O. F. BECKER. Proprietor 



JOS. FREDERICKS & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

CARPETS, FURNITURE, BEDDING, 

Rugs Mats, Linoleum, Oilcloths, Upholstery Goods, Etc. 

Lace Curtains, Window Shades and Draperies, 

649 and 651 Market St., Opposite Kearny, S. P. 



IMPORTANT!!! 

That the public should know that, for the past ELEVEN yean our SOLE BUSINESS has heen, and now is. importing 
(OVER 100 CARLO ADS) and breeding imp'ovrd Liv Slock- Horses. Jacks, Short. Horns, Ayrstiires and Jerseys (or 
Alderneya) and their grades: also ALL TH K VARIKTIES 01 breeding Sheep and Hogs We an mpp'y any and all good 
animals that may he wanted, aud at VERY REASON ABhE PRIOFS and on CON VI' NIENT TERMS. Write or call on 
us. LICK HOUSE, Sin Francisco, Cal., October 22, 1881 PETER SAXE & HOMER P. SAXE. 

PETER SAXE & SON 



THE MYERS PLOWS. 

All extras for Patent 

Slip-sliare Gang Plows, 
SIDE-HILL, SUB-SO L 

AND 

SIUGIiB PLOWS, 

Constantly on hand and for sale at 

RICE'S ENGINE WORKS, 

Sole Aqknct, 
Nos. 52, 54, 50 and 60 Bluxome St., S. F , Cal. 













If 







S. STEACEY, 

Lockeford, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 



MANUFACTURER OF AIiL KINDS OF 



FARMERS' WAGONS, 

Bnckboards, Family Buggies 

Of all kinds and sizes. 



Keeps a good supply of well seasoned wood on hand. 
Blacksmithing and painting departments in connection. 



Lands for Sale and to Lei. 



For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, Ir 
the best parts of the State. 

MCAFEE BROTHERS, 

328 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to (1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL & CO., 

Sole Agents, 430 California Street. S. F. 



We can furnish immediately in any quantity, 

CUTTINGS and ROOTED VINES 

Of Rupestrls. 

These stocks are phylloxera-proof, and will grow readily 
from cuttings as the vinifera. For i articulars apply to 

M. FISHEL & CO., 

Qranby, Newton Co., Mo. 



52 



Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Cards, name 
in gold and Jet, 10c. Clinton Bros., Cllntonvillo, Co 



SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 



Goods Crops every Season without Irrigation 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Ranches and homesteads of every 
cl»ss and description in this and adjoining counties for 
sale or rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estate 

EXCHANGE <& MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 



Fruit Farm For Sale. 

Containing 24 acres fronting on Davis Avenue, one mile 
no th of thu ttouriehing town of Lob Gatos. Good house, 
barn, chicken house and yard. A good well of soft water; 
],U00 fniit trees, assorted, and bbO grape vines, all set out 
la»t winter About 50 oak trees, large and small, adds to 
the beauty of the pl ice. This beautiful, healthy place, situ- 
ated in the charming warm belt climate of the foothills, is 
bo d for the want of health aud means to carry it on. 

Price. 5-U.70U. Address G W. MoGKKW, Lob (Iatos, Cal. 

Reference— Dewey & Co , Rural Tress. 



CHOICE FRUIT FARM FOR SALE. 



Located about J of a milo north of Los Oatos, fronting; 
on the county road. Containing 42 acres— '20 of which is 
planted to fruit and 10 acres to grapes. All planted out 
last winter and having made a Hplendid growth. The 
ir chard consibtn of the best, varie. ies of apple, pear, peach, 
plum, prune, cherr> , apricot and about 50 orange trees. 
Good house, bain, ch.ekeii and outhouseN; 2 wells of 
water. AH improvements new. Pr.cc, $5,200. 

Address J. B. BIBBEE. 



NOTICE ! 

THE MEMBERS OF TEE 

Wheat Growers' Association of California 

And others interested are notified that thcro will he a 
meeting held at ('rangers' Hall, corner Davis and Califor- 
nia streets. San Francis* o, Cal ., on Monday, January 9lh, 
1882, at 2 o'clock p. M. for the purpose of adot ting a code 
of hy-laws, and the transaction of |N9h other business as 
may properly come before said inoetinsr. A full attend 
ance is dosirablc. J. W MCCARTHY, 8ec'y. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

8AN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10.OO0 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $500,000. 

Reserve Panel and Paid np Stock, »5, 760. 

OFFICERS: 

0. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLINO Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

JOHN LEWELLINO. President Napa Co 

J. H. GARDINER - 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. C. MEKYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

1. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

DANIEL RHOADS Mussel Slough, Tulare Co 

C J. CRESSEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS areopenedandcondnctedinthe 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deoosi s receiveu 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on de 
na and. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: i% per annum if left for 3 months; 5% per annum if 
left for 6 months: 6"' per annum if left for 12 months. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 
and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1881. 



Agricultural articles. 

The Famous "EnterDrise," 

PERKINS" PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixlurn. 

These Mills and Point* are 
reliable and always give sat 
Isfaction. Simple, strong and 
iurable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
iouble bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
>t any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
jut of order, as such things 
io. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
nave never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infer 
[nation 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, HVERMORK, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for gale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 

& CO., 323 it 335 Market Street. 




MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




CD 



O 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match Id 
Stockton in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the business and know what is required iu the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists aud Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best mauuer at moBt reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 



Holstein Cattle. 

CLYDESDALE AND HAMBLETONIAN 

HORSES. 

The largest and deepest milking herd of 
Hoistelnn In tbe world. 225 trend, pure bred, 
luosrly Imported, males and lemalea of dif- 
ferent agea. 

A Large and elegant stud of Imported 
Clydesdale Stallions arjd Mares of all ages. 

Ilamhle toniun Stallions and Mares of superior breeding 
Personal Inspection invited. Separate < atnlojucs of each 
cbiss, and milk records of cows mailed froo on application. 
All inquiries promptly answerrd. Stale that jon saw 
this advertisement in the Pacific Rural Phkss. 

SMITHS & POWELL, 

Laketide Stock Farm, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Hunter's Eccentric Patent Coupling. 

For carriages, pumps and whiffletrees and other coup- 
lings. No bolts, no rattling and no unhitching. 8tace 
and County rights for sale. Address HUNTER & 
FRANCIS, Merced, Cal. 



32 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[January 14, 1882 



A TENTS AND 



G3 

INVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents for Paciflo Coast 
Inventors. 

From the official list of U. 8. Patents In Dkwev S 
Co.'* Scientific Press Patent AGENCY, No. 252 Market 

St. 8. F. 

For tub Week Ending December 27, 1881. 

251,402 — Paper Bao Machine— A. Beyer, Oakland. 

251,408.— Fkuit Drier- K. E Burns, S. F. 

2H 677 — Rickptaclr for Packi.no Soap— N. W. Gi'u- 
wold, S. F. _ 

251 86'. -Vail Pocch Fastener— R.. H. Hewitt, Los 
Ample*. CU. 

231,442.— Grinding and Amalgamating Pan— F. A. 
HuriiinBlon, 8 F. ... 

251.595 — Harvester Fi.soer-C. J. Johnson, Lone 
Pine, < al. 

251,448 —Sprat Nozzle— Long, Vestil & Mcrigot, San 
Jose, OL 

25 ,373.— Compressing Fcmp-8 D. Lount. Arizona Ter. 
2»1,449 — Box Fastrnrr— Chas. Martell, Vacaville, Cal. 
251.0*15. — Shackle for Horsed— J. C. McCdlum, Los 
Angeles. Cal. 

251.617.— Eoo and Frlit Carrier— John J. Mclntire, 
Oakland, Cal. 

261.404 —Shackle— Jas. T. Rojcrs, Westport Cal. 

2'il.4S0 —Carpet Beatek— John Spaulding. S. F. 

9.99J.— Po» »R Steering Apparatus for Vbsskls-A. J. 
Stevens, Sacramento, Cal. (re-iseue.) 

251,435. — Furnace— Henry B Taylor. H. F. 

251 488.— PortabuE Hammock — H . Vizelich, Stockton. 

251,417.— Railway Switch- M. R. Dahlgren, Oakland. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewky & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Eoo and Fruit Carrier.— J. J. Mclntyre, 
Oakland. Dated Dec. 27, 1881. No. 251,017. 
This is an improvement in cases designed for 
transporting eggs, fruit, or other similar articles; 
and it consists in a novel method of cutting, unit- 
ing and locking the strips which form the compart- 
ments thatcontain and sepatatethe eggs.and that 
are placed in tiers one above the other in suitable 
cases, each tier having a loose bottom or dia- 
phragm interposed between it and the next set 
of compartments. M .my forms of compart- 
ment cases have been constructed, most of 
which have one or both of the sets of trans- 
verse Btiips notched upon the edges, and as 
these strips are usually made of pasteboard for 
economy, these cut edges are easily folded 
down or destroyed by handling and breaking of 
eggs. This invention contemplates the use of 
two sets of strips, those running in one direc- 
tion having slots extending transversely across 
the center, but not extending to the edges. 
The other set of strips are sutiici mtly wide to 
just pasB through and till these slots, and they 
have small central Blots just where they meet 
the other set of strips, through which a nar- 
row strip of material passes, alternately to one 
side and the other of the hiBt-mtntioned strips, 
so as to form a lock. 

Gao Runner. — William If, Blaine, Salinas. 
Dated Dec. 20, 1881, No. 251,021. This in- 
vention relates to an improvement in gag run- 
ners for bridle, and especially to the construc- 
tion of a central bridge or support for the loop, 
and from the under side of which a spire pro- 
jects for adjusting the gag runner. It consists 
of an open elongated frame, with a central 
transverse piece or bridge, from which the 
loop extends, being made a part thereof, 
whereby strength is gained. Two openings are 
thus formed in the frame or clamp through 
which the strap passes, and by which it can be 
slipped up and down. From the underside of 
the transverse piece or budge forming the base 
of the loop, a spur projects to tit the holes in 
the Btraps, whereby the gag runner is made 
adjustable. The object of the invention ia to 
provide a gag runner, which will combine 
strength, durability and simplicity, and at the 
same time be adjustable whereby the check 
can be regulated 

Portable Covered Hammock and Frame. — 
N. Vizelich, Stockton. Dated, Dec. 27, 1881. 
No. 251.48S. This invention relates to a port- 
able hammock adapted to receive acover, and to 
the frame for swinging taid hammock, the ob- 
ject of the invention being to provide a ready, 
convenient and secure place to lie down, when 
necessary. The invention consists in the ar- 
rangement and combinat:on of certain props, 
supports and braces, which may be easily set up 
and taken down, and in a hammock adapted to 
be suspended from the frame thus made, said 
hammock being provided with head and foot 
stretcherB and curved bars, upon which is laid 
and supported a covering, whereby protection 
ia afforded to the occupant, and the whole de- 
vice being adapted, when taken down, to be 
rolled up together, the hammock forming the 
casing or sack, and strapped into a small com- 
pass, so that it may be transported with ease 
from place to place, as necessity requires. 

Poller Device for Seams of Tin Roofs.— 
Chas. D. Morin, Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. No. 
250,446. Dated Dec. 13, 1881. This is a ma- 
ohine or roller device for rolling and flattening 



out the seams on tin roofs of houses. It con- 
sists of a heavy roller, jonrnaled in a frame 
having a handle, in combination with a brake 
for said roller, and an upper or supplementary 
frame, on which additional weight may be 
placed when necessary. The object of the in 
ventor is to provide a device which will save 
labor and flatten out the seams regularly and 
easily, thus preparing them for the better re- 
ception of the solder. It therefore has applica- 
tion merely to such seams as require to be flat- 
tened and is not for making and rolling upright 
seams on tin roofs. 

Footstools for Rocking Chairs. — F. 
Franz, S. F. Dated Deo. 20, 1881. No. 
251,034. The invention consists in a flat board 
or foot rest, under which is journaled a roller, 
and to which is attached a wire or rod, the 
other end of which is fitted to and is adapted 
to move back and forth upon a guide board 
under the chair. The feet rest upon the board 
and by the motion of the chair, said board is 
rolled back and forth. 



Drvino and Canning Peaches. — Now that 
these fruits are in great demand, all supplies are 
being looked after; the announcement of W. 
W.Brier.in another column, will be looked after 
with interest. 



Meteorological Summary for the Month of 

December, 1881. 

Station, San Francisco. Cal. 

Daily Daily Daily Prevailing Daily 

Date Mean Mean Mean Direction Rain- 

Barom. Temp. Humid'y of Wind fall. 

1 29.904 507 78.7 W .27 

2 80.182 47.0 76 7 NE .02 

8 30.158 60 76 NE .18 

4 29.936 66.3 87.3 SB .87 

6 30.023 68 3 89.3 S .60 

6 30.207 60 7 92 SW .02 

7 80.827 61.7 93.0 NW 

8 30.231 60.7 86.0 8 

9 80.177 60.0 85.7 8E 

10 30.167 61.3 91.0 8 .18 

11 30.138 49 3 78 3 W 

12 30.046 49 3 84.3 NE .31 

13 80.294 48.7 75.3 NE 

14 80.202 49 3 80 3 NW 

16 30.038 49 3 91 7 NE .62 

16 80.128 48.7 89.3 SW 

17 30.233 47.0 93.0 W 

18 30.240 46.8 87.0 NW 

19 80.312 49.1 80 3 NW 

20 30.265 48.3 83.7 NW 

21 30.240 48.7 83 NE 

5.2 30.229 48.8 80.3 N 

23 80.230 48.6 82 7 SE 

24 80.219 61.8 86 3 W .33 

26 80.179 483 78 3 W 

S6 SO. 077 60.7 89 3 8 . 87 

27 80.160 65.2 95 W .18 

28 80.332 53.7 90 7 N 

29 80.336 62.0 86.0 NW 

80 30.266 51 7 82.0 NW 

31 30.229 48.7 87.0 NW 

Sums.... 935. 709 1,560.0 2,633 5 3.86 

Means... 30.186 60.5 85.0 NW 



averaoe temperature and relative humidity at 
different hours. 



Time. 


Av'age Tem- 
perature - 


Av'age Dew 
Point. 


Average Kela- 
tive U'miditv 
—Per Cent 


3 68 A. M. 


48.7 


45.0 


89 2 


7.68 A. M. 


49.1 


45.5 


87.5 


11 58 A. H. 


62.1 


46.5 


81.8 


N.58 P. M. 


62.8 


46 


78 1 


7.58 p. M. 


50.8 


45 9 


83 8 



During the month there were G clear, 8 fair, 
2 cloudy, 3 foggy and 12 rainy days. 

Tabular statement showing the mean barom- 
eter, mean temperature, rainfall, etc., for the 
past month and a comparison with preceding 
years : 



Tsars. 


Mean Barometer 


Mean Tempera- I 
ture. 


Mean Kelative j 
Humidity. 


Maximum Tern* I 
perature. 


Minimum Tern- 1 
perature. | 


Prevailing Wind. 


10 


Rainfall Since 
July 1st. 


1871 


30.095 


52.9 


81.1 


62 


42 


S W 


14.36 


17.26 


1872 


30.074 


52.1 


70.0 


62 


41 


N 


6.95 


8.90 




30.040 


60.0 


.3.5 


59 


44 


8E 


9.72 


11.80 




30.174 


50.9 


71.7 


62 


40 


N 


0.33 


9.59 


1875 


30.146 51.7 


81.4 


65 


39 


N 


4.15 


11.66 




30.100 53.2 


66.2 


64 


42 


N 


.00 


4.01 




30.039 52.8 


72.2 


64 


42 


N 


2.66 


4. CO 




30.120.51.6 


59.5 


68 


40 


N 


.68 


2.98 


1879 


30.138 49.4 


76.3 


64 


34 


N 


4.46 


9.30 


1880 


80. CSS 163.0 


84.9 


61 


42 


8 


12.33 


12.71 




30.180,50.5 


85.0 


63 


43 


NW 


3.85 


6.58 


Means, etc.. 


30. 104 51.7 


75.3 


03.1 


40.8 


N 


5.31 


9.06 



General Items. 

Highest barometer. 30.3C7, Dec. 7th and 28th, 7:58 a. II ; 
lowest barometer, 29 90S, Dec. 4th, at 3:58 r. M.; monthly 
range of barometer. .459; highest daily ave age of barom- 
eter, 30.336, Dec. 291 h; lowest daily average of barometer, 
29 936, Dec. 4th; highest temperature, 63, Dec. 6th; low- 
est t-mperature, 43, Dec. 18th; monthly range of temp-r- 
20; greatest daily ruiifce of temperature, 10, Dec. 18 b, 
!•.>. h and 26th; least daily range of temperature, 2, D. t 
27 th; highest daily average, 58 3, Dec. 6th; lowest daily 
avenge, 46 8, Dec. 18th; ineau of maximum temperature, 
54.2; mean of minimum temperature, 47 7; mean daily 
raiue of temperature, 6.5; highest observed relative hu- 
midity. 100%, Dec 16ih; lowest observed relative humid 
• • !«:. highest daily average of relative hu- 
midity, 95 Dec. 27th; lowest daily average of relative 
humidity, 73.3';, Di e. 11th; average cloudiness during the 
month, 60.57%; total movement of air, 4,371 miles; greit- 
est daily movement of air, 294 miles, Dec. 12th; least 
daily movement of air, 60 miles, Dec. 16th; average daily 
movement of air, 141 miles; average hourly velocity of 
wind, 6.9 miles; maximum hourly velocity of wind, and di- 
rection, 24 miles, SE, Dec 4th; average hourly velocity and 
prevailing direction ef wind al 3:58 A. »., 6 3 miles, NW; 
average hourly velocity and prevailing direction of wind 
at 11:58, a. m., 7.2 miles, NE; average hourly veWity and 
prevailing direction of wind at 7:58 P. M, 4.9 miles NW; 
date of solar halos, Dec. 8th, 14lh, 20th, 25th, 28th, 29th, 
SO'h, and 31st; dale of lunar halos, 25th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 
and 31st; date of frosts 11th, 13th, 14th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 
'2 2d, 23d, 29th, 80lh and 31st. 

Nelson Corou, Serg't Signal Corps, U S A. 



Business Offices and Sunny 
Rooms to Let. 

We have some desirable rooms to let adjoining th 
offices of this paper which will be rented on favorable 
icrms. Stair entrance, No. 252 Market St. Elevator, No. 
12 Front St. Parties wishing offices, eta , will do well to 
call and see them. DEWEY ft CO. 



Front «t Dewey & Co.'s Patent 
Agency and News- 
paper Offices. 

2 — 

ts Dewey & Co. s Patent Agency 
* and the business offices of the 
i$ Mining and Scientific 
Press, Pacific Rural 
Press, Pacific States 
Watchman and the Fra- 
ternal Record are now 
favorably situated at No. 262 Market Street. Elevator 
entrance, So. 1? Front St., F. 




Our Agents. 



Oitr Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favora We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

O. W. McGriw— Santa Clara county. 

M P Owes— Santa Crux county. 

J. W. A. Wrioht— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties. 

Jarkd C. Hoao— California. 

B. W. Crowbll— Humboldt and Trinity counties. 

D. W. KiLLiHBR— Merced, Fresno and San Benito. 

A. C. Knox— State of Nevada. 

Edward A Weed- San Francisco. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will find the date they have paid to 
printed on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents. 



Volunteer Testimonials of Those Who Have 
Used Booth's Exterminator. 

Paso Robles, Cal., January 15, 1880. 
A. R. Booth:— Dear Sir: Have tried one can of your 
Squirrel Poison, and find it very efficacious in destroying 
squirrels. Should like 2 cans more. O. W. Brewster. 



Liviry Stable ln Oakland— We call the attention of 
farmers visitiDg Oakland, and others to hire teams or 
stable teams in Oakland, to the Hay, Sale, Boarding and 
Livery Stable of T. A. Cunningham, 1368 Broadway 
Oakland. Mr. Cunningham (recently from Haywards 
where he still owns a ranch) has purchased a homestead 
in Oakland, and will do his best to give satisfaction to 
bis new customers and old friends who may call. 

Persons receiving a sample copy of the Pacific 
Ri'ral Press with thii notice marked, are requested 
to examine the merits of the same, and consider fairly its 
claims for support, and if consistent, subscribe for the 
paper through the P. M. or agent delivering it, or other- 
wise. We will send it, on trial, at the rate of $8 per an- 
num for any period the reader may wish. Please notice 
our terms elsewhere, and if desired, send for further 
samples and information. Those who can circulate this 
No. further to our advantage are invited to do so. 



Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Qardena The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chauce to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals io good vigor 
A da) at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 

8t. James Hotbl. First-class In every respect' 
When you go to San Jose, take free coach to the 
St James TYLER BEACH, Proprietor. 



Agents can now grasp a fortune. Outfit worth $10 
sent free. Full particulars address E. O. Ridiout & Co., 
10 Barclay St.. N. Y 



Note— Our qnotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 

the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. BTO. 

Sam Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 11, 1882. 
The grain trade is now hanging upon the prospects of 
the season, and waiting also for the report of grain on 
hand on January 1st, which will be forthcoming soon. 
Holders are firm, and prices for wheat are about 2}c per 
ell higher than last week. The latest from abroad is the 
following: 

Liverpool, Jan. 10 —Wheat: California spot lots, lOj 1 
@10s lid Cargo lots are quiet, at 49s for just shipped, 
60s 6d for nearly due, and 61s 6d for off-coast. 

The Forelsrn Review. 

London, Jan. 10 —The Mark Lane Exprett ln its re- 
view of tbe British grain trade for the past week, says: 
Young Wheats are looking exceedingly weak on most of 
the Provincial markets. Sound, dry samples of grain ad- 
vanced Is per quarter, and in some instances 2s. Damp 
sorts are difficult to sell. Oats unchanged. Foreign 
Breadstuffa closed easier. The general po-ition la un 
doubtedly in favor of buyers. The market the latter part 
of the week was rather more liberally supplied with ttuur 
Of 20,470 sacks and 601 barrels to hand Friday, five-sixths 
were from the I idled States. Trade ia quiet and ateady. 
Maize maintains its ateadinesa on account of the scarcity 
on spot. Fine foreign Barleys are higher; grinding sorts 
are unchanged. Oats Friday were 3d cheaper, There were 



10 fresh Wheat cargoes remaining from the previous 
week. Nine salea were reported, and five cargoes with- 
drawn. Sales of English Wheat during tbe week were 
84,000 quarters at 44s 9d per quarter, as agaiuat 22,297 
quarters at 43s 4u per quarter during the corresponding 
week of last year. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Jan. 10th.— The demand for Wool was steady 
to-day, and the market is firmer. The finer grades i f 
Wool are moat ln request, and the sales of Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania fleeces have been at 43}c for X, 44@46c for XX 
and above. Michigan and Wisconsin fleeces are steady 
and firm at 42@43c for X; medium and No 1 fleeces range 
from 46 to 48c for Michigan and Wisconsin. Combing 
and delaine stlec'.ions are quiet but ateady. The sale* of 
fine delaine and flue combing have been at 47<g50c. Coarse 
combing is quirt and prices unchanged. In unwashed 
fleeces sales continue to range from 25c to 30c tor medi- 
um, the Utter price for selected lots, 25<gS2}c for fin* and 
l8@22c for low and coarse. California Wool is in fair de- 
mand at low prices for defective Southern. Pulled Wools 
are firm and choice superflnes are scarce. We quote 
choice at 52}c, Eastern and Maine at 30@43c for common 
and good. In foreign Wools but very lime has been done 
for some days. Fine foreign continues to be held firm. 
Eastern Grain and Prevision. Market. 

Chicago, Jan. 10th Wheat, firm and higher; 81.28$ 

cash, 11.29} February. Corn weak and easy; caj y03}c 
cash, 62}c February. Pork, easier; $17 22} cash. $17.47} 
February. Lard, weak; $11.17} cash, $11.27} February. 

BAGS— Bags are quiet and unchanged. 

BARLEY— Barley has had a lively week of it, and is now 
about 7}c per ctl higher than last week. Holder* are 
looking forward to see the prospects of tbe season. We 
note sales: 440 sks light brewing, $1.67}; 1,000, 700 and 
400 sks feed, $1.65, and 800 ska coast Chevalier, $1.60. 

BEANS— Beana are quiet with a rise of 10c per ctl on 
small Whites; other sorts unchanged. 

CORN— Corn is held high at $1.75 per ctl, and bids an 
$1.65. The trade is at a standstill at present. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter is coming In quite frealy, 
and has dropped to 35c tor the fancy brands, with choice 
to good selllog down to 30@32}c. Cheese it very scare* 
and California has sold up to 18c per fit. 

EGGS— Eggs are now lower, at 35((s;6cfor the best Cali- 
fornia 

FRUIT— Some choice Navel Oranges in wrappers arc 
selling at $6 per box. Limes are high this week. Lem- 
ons are unchanged. 

FRESH MEAT— There is a special deal in Mutton, and 
the price is worked high. Other meats are the same as 
last week. 

HOPS— There is no change. 

OATS— Oats are still high, and unchanged from last 
week. Holders are Arm. 

ONIONS— There is muob variety in th* stock on hand. 
Some of best quality reach 86c. 

POTATOES — Potatoes have had a special excitement, 
and are now being run up because of small atocka on 
hand. Oregon Potatoes are now coming In, and bar* 
sold well. 

PROVISIONS -Provisions are quiat and a shade lower 
on all Eastern Hams. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Hens and Roosters have ap- 
preciated rapidly and are now higher than for months. 
Turkeys have been in excess and have dropped. 

VEGETABLES— There is no change in the few things 
now in stock. 

WHEAT— Wheat ia about 2}c V ctl higher, and the 
market is quiet and steady. We note sales: 75 tons -V. 
2, $1 65; £50 and 300 tons do, $162}, and 6,000 ska coast, 
$1.60 

WOOL— The market is quiet and nothing of note oe" 
urrlng.* 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

lWHOLKSALE.1 

Wednesday m , January 11. 1881 



FBI IT TlARKF.T. 

Apples, bx - 75 @ 2 03 

Bananas, bneb,. 2 50 @ 4 00 
Cocoanuta, 100.. 6 00 (ft 7 00 
Cranberries. bbl. 14 00 <f»16 00 
Lime*. Mex....l0 00 <gl2 00 

do. Cal, box.. 1 00 <et 2 00 
Lemons, Cal, bx 1 00 <a 2 50 

SicUy, box.... 6 50 (ft 7 50 

Australian @ 

Oranges, Cal. bx 1 50 (8 5 00 

do, Tahiti M ® 

do, Mexican. 15 00 OT20 00 

do, Loreto. . . @ 

Pears, bx. 1 00 <g 2 50 

Pineapple*, dnz 7 00 (g 8 00 

UKIEIf FBI IT. 
Apples, sliced. tt>— 6 0r- 61 1 Cauliflower, doz— 85 

do, quartered...— S @- 5} Garlic lb — 1} 

Apricot* — 15 m - 17 'Lettuce, doz....— 10 

Blackberries — 14 @— 16 Mushrooms, lb. . 

Citron — 28 W— 30 Okra, lb — 6 

Dates — 9 *»— 10 | Parsnips, lb 

Figs, pressed....— 4 <£?— 6 Squash, Marrow 

do. loose — 3iOP— 5 fat, ton 10 00 <gl2 00 

Nectarine*. — 14 @— 15 Turnips, ctl 0— 7$ 



Peaches — 11 fit— 11} 

do pared — 14 @— 18 

Pears, sliced....- 9 @- 9} 

do whole. — 7 * 

Plume — 5 «*— • 

Pitted - 13 m- 14 

Prunes — 9 (O— 12} 

Raisins, Cal. bx. (<< 2 75 

do, Halves.... id 3 00 

do. Quarters.. @ 3 25 

Eighth* @ 3 50 

Zante Currants.— 8 @ — 10 
I m.i; i AHLES 

Artichokes, doz. i 

BeeU, etl i 

Cabbage, 100 lbs— 75 i 
Carrots, *k — 30 i 



Signal Service Meteorological Report 

San Francisco.— Week ending January 10, 1862. 
biohist and lowest barometer. 
Jan. 4 I Jan. 6 Jan. t I Jan. 7 I Jan. 8 > Jan. 9 I Jan. 10 



30.2191 30.272 30 215 
30.1051 30.219! 30.202[ 

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TH EBMOMETEB. 



30.258 
30.218, 



30.3?6 30 3661 
3C.256 30303' 



58 
60.5 



69 I 
61.5 | 



30 367 
30.293 



MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 

89.7 I 91 I 70.3 | 42.3 I 44.7 I 65.3 I 64.3 

PBEVAILINO WIND. 

S I SW I NW I N I N | NW | NW 

WIND — MILES TRAVELED. 

215 I 163 | 219 I 311 I 239 | 87 I 210 

ST ATX OF WKATH IB- 
Cloudy I Cloudy I Fair. I Clear. | Clear. I Clear. | Claw 

BAINFALL IN TWENTY -POUR HOURS. 

14 I .03 I .06 | I I I 

Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1881, 7.01 Inches 



Bags and Bagging. 

[JOBBINO PRICKS.] 

Wednesday m., January II, 1882. 



Eng Standrd Wheat.. SJ® 9 

Cal Manufacture 

Hand Sewed. 22x36 . 8J"r 9 

20x38 SW "' 

23x40 12 & 

24x40 12}<< 

Machine Swd 22x36. 8)(< 

Flour Ska, halve* 9r| 

Quarter*. 

Eighth*. t 

Heaslan, 60 lnob. — ' 



45 Inch 

40 inch 

Wool Ska Hand Swd 

3} fb 

4 B> do 

Machine Sewed., 
Standard Gunnies.... 18}/ 

Bean Bag* 6t<d 7 

Twine, Detrtck'a A...32lt<r35 
▲A, 35 ifSil 



January 14, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



3 7 



BEANS .1 PEAS. 

Bayo, ctl 1 76 @2 25 

Butter 3 00 &3 25 

Castor 3 50 ®» 00 

Pea 3 50 @3 80 

Red 1 75 <S1 85 

Pink 1 75 M 85 

Large White 3 00 @3 25 



Domestic Produce. 

WHOLESALE. 

Wednesday m., Januay 11. 1882 



Peanuts 6@ 6J 

Filberts 14 (j* 15 

ONIONS. 

Red — (a — 

Silver skin. 60 @ 85 

Oregon — @ — 

potatoes. 

Early Rose... 1 15 (81 25 



SmaU White 3 75 @3 90 IPetaluma, ctl 1 40 @1 50 

Lima — <S4 00 JTomales 1 40 @1 50 

Field Peas.blk eyel 50 <ai 75 Humboldt — <ai 55 

do, green.. 2 00 @2 25 "Kidney — @l 50 

" Peachblow..l 62J@1 70 
Jersey Blue 1 30 @>1 35 



BROOM CORN . 

Southern 3 @ 3i 

Northern 4@ 6 

CHICCORY. 

California 4 <3 4J 

German 6J@ 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE. ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb. 32J(» 35 

do Fancy Brands. — @ 35 

Pickle Roll 26 @ 28 

Firkin, new 26 <g 28 

Eastern 20 @ 25 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, CaL, lb... 17 (3 18 

EGGS. 

CaL Fresh, doz. . . 35 @ 36 

Ducks — @ 35 

Oregon 30 <@ 32J 

Eastem,by express 27J@ 30 

Pickled here — @ — 

Utah — @ 324 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 16 00 @16 50 

Corn Meal @36 00 

Hay 9 00 (*14 00 

Middlings @23 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. <»25 00 

Straw, bale — 62 J@- 67S 

FLOUR. 
Extra, City Mills . 5 25 @5 62$ 
do, Co'ntryMills.4 75 @5 00 

do. Oregon 4 75 @5 121 

do, Walla Walla. 4 50 (85 00 

Superfine 3 50 (84 25 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, lstqual'y.tb. 6i<g 8 

Second 5JC* 6J 

Third 4 @ 4J 

Mutton 4 @ 6 

Spring Lamb 6i@ 7 

Pork, undressed.. H@ 6jf 

Dressed 9 @ 91 

Veal 64<a 7 J 

Milk Calves 7j@ 8 

do, choice.... — @ 8J 
GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed. ctl..l 60 <§1 65 
do, Brewing.. 1 67$ "1 72J 

Chevalier 1 60 (91 65 

do, CoaBt .1 50 @1 60 

Buckwheat — <»1 50 

Com, White 1 65 @l 75 

Yellow 1 65 (Si 75 

SmaU Round.... 1 65 @1 75 

Oats 1 70 <ai 77 J 

Milling 1 75 <ai 90 

Rye 2 00 (32 124 

Wheat, No. 1 1 67}@1 70 

do, No. 2 1 60 m 65 

do. No. 3 1 45 @1 50 

ChoiceMilliug.. — @1 70 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry - @ 18 

Wet salted 9J@ 11 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 23 @ 25 

Honey in comb. . . 15 @ 20 
Extracted, light. . 9 @ 10 
do, dark.. 7J@ 9 
HOPS. 

Oregon 20 <fb 21 

California, new. . . 25 @ 274 

Wash. Ter 23 @ 24 

Old Hops — @ - 

NUTS-Jobblng. 

Walnuts, Cal 10 (3 11 

do. Chile... 7i@ 8 
Almonds, hdshilb 8(0 10 

Soft shell 14 <a 15 

Brazil 10 <a 11 

Pecans 13 (a 15 



Cuffey Cove 1 25 (gl 32J 

River, red 95 @1 10 

Chile — @1 25 

do, Oregon 1 00 @1 65 

Sweet 1 00 @1 25 

POULTRY A GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 00 @ 7 50 

Roosters 5 00 (3 7 00 

Broilers 4O0@6O0 

Ducks, tame, doz. 6 50 @ 7 75 

Mallard — @ 3 00 

Sprig 1 50 @ 1 75 

Teal 75 @ 1 00 

Widgeon 1 00 @1 12J 

Geese, pair 1 75 (32 00 

Wild Gray, doz. 2 00 <S2 50 

White do — (<<1 50 

Turkeys 11 & 12$ 

do, Dressed 13 <§ 14 

Turkey Feathers, 
tail and wing, lb. 10 @ 20 

Snipe, Eng 2 00 @2 25 

do. Common.. 50 @ 75 

Quail, doz 1 00 @1 25 

Rabbits 1 00 @1 50 

Hare 2 00 @2 25 

Yenison 5 w 7 

PROVISIONS. 
CaL Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 13 (3 

Medium 12 (3 

Light , 13(3 

Lard 13 <3 

Cal. Smoked Beef. 11$<3 

Shoulders 9$@ 

Hams, Cal 12$(3 

Dupee's 16 @ 

Whittaker 16 (3 

Royal 16 (3 

Stewart 16 @ 

Eastlake 16 <g 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 12 @ 13 

do Chile 

Canary 3$ 

Clover. Red 14 

White 45 

Cotton — 

Flaxseed 2$i_ 

Hemp — (3 

Italian Rye Grass.. 25 @ 

Perennial 25 @ — 

Millet, German .... 1 @ 12 
do, Common... 7 @ 10 
Mustard, White... lj(g 23 

Brown 2$@ 3 

Rape 2$<9 21 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ 25 

2d quality 16 @ 18 

Sweet V Grass — <3 75 

Orchard 20(325 

Red Top — (3 15 

Hungarian 8 w ID 

Lawn 30 @ 40 

Mesquit 10 (3 12 

Timothy 9 (3 10 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6 @ 6$ 

Refined 9$<3 10 

WOOL, ETC. 

FALL — 1881. 

San Joaquin 9 @ 14 

do. Lamb.... 13 <" 15 

Southern Fall 9 (3 12 

do lambs' 13 @ 14 

Northern, free 16 (3 20 

do. defective.. 14 & 16 

Mountaiu, free 16 (3 18 

do, slightly seedy. 13 @ 15 

Humholdt & Men- 
docino 18 @ 21 



General Merchandise. 

WHOLESALE. 



CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 16 @18 

Paraffine 20 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 —28 

CANNED GOODS. 
Assrtd Pie Fruits. 

2$ ft, cans 2 25 

Table do 3 5C (3 — 

Jams and Jellies. 3 75 (3 — 
Pickles, hf gal.... 3 25(3 — 
Sardines, qr box..l 67 @ — 

Hf Boxes 2 50$@1 90 

Merry. Faull & Co s 
Preserved Beef 

21b, doz 3 55 @3 - 

do 4 lb doz 6 50 (36 — 

Preserved Mutton 

2 lb. doz 3 25 (33 50 

Beef Toncue 5 75 @6 00 

Preserved Ham, 

21b. doz 5 50 @5 60 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 3 00 @3 50 

do Ham $ lb doz 2 60 @ — 
Boneless Pigs Feet 

3tbs 3 50 (S3 75 

2 lbs 2 75 (3 _ 

Spiced Fillets 2 Il>s3 50 (3 — 
Head Cheese31bs.3 50 <g — 

C«»AL— Jobbing. 
Australian, ton. — (3 8 50 

Coos Bay 6 50 @ 7 50 

Bellingham Bay - OT — 

Seattle 700® — 

Cumberland.... — (313 00 

Mt Diablo — (3 — 

Lehigh — @ — 

Liverpool — @ — 

West Hartley.. — (<* 9 00 

Scotch - @ 8 50 

Scranton — (3 — 

Vancouver Id. .. —(3 — 

Wellington — (3 9 00 

Charcoal, sack. . — @ — 

Coke, bush — <s — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id lb. — ® — 

Costa Rica i2 ® 14 

Guatemala 12 (3 14 

Java 18 (3 20 

Manilla 15 (3 — 

Ground, In cs... — @ 22, 
FISH. 

Sao'toDryCod. ® - 5 

do in cases.. @ — 5$ 

Eastern Cod...— 7(3— 7J 
Salmon, bbls... 7 00 <3 7 50 

Hf bbls 3 50 & 4 00 

1 lb cans 1 12$<3 1 22$ 

PkldOod, bbls. @ 

Hf bbls (3 

Mackerel. No. 1 

Hf bbls 9 50 (3 10 00 

In Kits 1 75 m 1 85 

Ex Mess 3 50 (3 4 00 

Pickled Herring, 

box 3 00 @ 3 50 

Boston Smoked 

Herring 65 ® - 70 

LIME, etc. 
Plaster, Colden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 (3 3 25 
Land Plaster, 

ton 10 00 @ 12 50 

Lime, Snta Cruz 
bbL 1 25 @ 1 50 



2 00 
4 00 



4 00 



69 



Wednesday m., January 11, 1882 
Cement, Rosen- 
dale 1 75 (8 

Portland 3 75 @ 

NAILS. 
Assrtd sizes, keg.3 75 << 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No. 1.1 00 @1 00 

Castor, No. 1 — (31 05 

do, No. 2 — @ 95 

Baker's A A — (31 30 

Olive, Plagnoil...5 25 @S 75 

Possel 4 75 (35 25 

Palm, lb 9 @ — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl — (3 60 

Boiled — @ 65 

Cocoanut 60 @ 

China nut, cs 68 (3 

Sperm 1 40 @ 

Coast Whales 35 (3 

Polar — (w — 

Lard — @1 00 

Petroleum (110').. 18® 22 
Petroleum (If 0°).. 28 @ 35 

PAINTS, 
Pure White Lead. 75® 8 

Whiting 1$® — 

Putty 4 ffl 5 

Chalk 1$® — 

Paris White 2$@ — 

Ochre 3J@ — 

Venetian Red.... 3$@ — 
Averil mixd Paint 
gal 

White & Tints. .2 00 @2 00 
Green, Blue and 

Ch Yellow 3 00 ®3 50 

Light Red 3 00 (33 f.O 

Metallic Roof ..1 30 @1 60 
RICE. 
China Mixed, lb.. 4J@ 6 

Hawaiian 42(3 5 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton... 14 00 (322 00 

Common 6 50 ®14 00 

Carmen Id 14 00 ®22 00 

Liverpool fine... 14 00 ®20 CO 
SOAP 

Castile, lb 

Common brands.. 4$@ 

Fancy Brands 7 ® 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 37$@ 40 

Cassia 19 ® 20 

Nutmegs 85 @ 90 

Pepper Grain 15 ® 16 

Pimento 16 @ 17 

Mustard, Cal $ lb 

Glass — (81 25 

SIIttAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube lb — @ 12i 

Powdered — ®. 12: 

Fine Crushed! 

Granulated 

Golden C 

Cal 8yrup, kgs 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 
TEA. 
Young Hyson, 
Moyune, etc.... 
Country pkd Cun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 35 

Hyson 30 

Fcoo-ChowO 27$ 

Japan, medium. . . 35 



9 @ 10 



(3 



65 (3 
25 ® 



40 @ 65 



Commission Merchants. 



J. P. HULME. 

Wool and Grain 

Corrimissioii Merchants. 

10 Davis Street, near Market. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



jtSTLiberal advances made on all consignments, and 
mpt personal attention given to all tales. 



COSTIGAN, COHEN & CO. 
COMMISSION 

Grain and Wool Brokers. 

OFFICE:- as California St., San Francisco 

REFERENCE— LAZARD FRERES, BANKERS. 



WOOL and GRAIN. 

J. H. C0NGD0N&C0, 

Produce & General Commission Merchants 

6 STUART ST , COR. MARKET, S. F. 
Orders for Goods not in our line will be carefully pur- 
chased by experienced buyers. Ranch Supplies and the 
best Sacks and Twine, Tobicco, Sheep Dip?, etc , fur- 
nished to customers Doing business exclusively on com- 
mission. Liberal advances made on consignments at 
low rates of interest. Personal attention given all con- 
signments. We are agents for the 

PARADISE MILLS FLOUR. 

The lowest priced firstrdass Family Flour in the market 
— try it All orders from the interior promptly filled. 



L. G SRESOVICH & CO., 

Importers, Wholesale Dealers, and Commission Merchants 

FOREIGN AND 

DOMESTIC FRUITS 

—ALL KINDS OF— 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUITS, 

Walnuts, Brazil Nuts, Pecan Nuts. Filberts, Pea- 
nuts, Almonds, Dates, Etc. 
505 & 507 SANSOME ST., Nl ANTIC BUILDING, S. F. 

Packing House of all kinds of Green Fruits in Paper, 
Third and Fourth fits., bet. Julian and Empire, San Jo^e. 
Branch house in Honolulu, H. I. 



DALTON i GRAY. 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers In ail kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Da via St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants, 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



PETER MEYER LOUIS MEYER. 

MEYER BROS. & CO , 

—IMPORTERS AND— 

Wholesale Grocers, 

—AND DEALERS IN— 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

412 FRONT STREET, 

Front Street Block, het. Clay & Washington, San Francisco 
£S~ Special attention given to country traders. _gj 

P. O. Box 1040 



HATCH & BARCLAY, 

Commission Merchants, 

(Members of San Francisco Produce Excliang 
30 California. Street. Ran Francisco. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rkfkrkncrs. — Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y.; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.;C. W. Reed; Sacra- 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisoo, Cal. 



Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

The Steamships of this Company will sail from SAN 
FRANCISCO during the year 1882 as follows: 

From wharf, corner of First and Brannan Sts., 
Hour of departure, 2 p. M., 

For Yokohama and Hong Kong. 

CITY OF PIKING, ClTf OF TOKIO, 

February 11, July 29 January 7, June 22 

May 6, October 19 April 1, Sept. 13, Dec. 5 

Connecting at Yokohama with Steamers of the Mitsu 
Bishi Co for Hiogo, Nagasaki and Shanghae. Excursion 
tickets to Yokohama and return at special rates. 

For Sydney and Auckland 



Via 
Honolulu 



CIT! OB NfclW YOKK OITY OF BYDJNciY 



March 11th 
July 1st. 

October 21st. 



ZEA.L.ANDIA. 



April 8th. 
July 29th. 

November 18th. 



January 11th, 

May 6th, August 26th, 
December 16th. 



AUSTRALIA. 



February 11th, 

June 3d, 
September 23d. 



Round the World Trip, via New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia, $650- 

For New York, via Panama. 

ON THE 4th AND 19th OF EVERY MONTH, 
At 12 o'clock, noon. Taking Passengers and freight for 
Mexican, Central American and South American ports, 
for Havana and all West India ports; for Liverpool, Lon- 
don and Southampton; for St. Naziire, and for Hamburg, 
Bremen and Antwerp. 

WILLIAMS, HI MUM) & CO., Gen'l Agents. 



Grangers' Business Association of Cali- 
fornia.- Principal pla e of business, No 38 California 
street, San Francisco, State of California. 
NOTICE! — There are delinquent upon the following de- 
scribed stnek on account of an assessment levied on the 
Twenty-first (21st) day of November, 1881, the several 
amounts set opposite the names of the respective share- 
holders, as follows: 

Number of Number of 

Name. Certificate. Shares. Amount 

Adams, DQ 467 4 $10 00 

Allen, James 1461 2 5 00 

Allen, H M 1220 25 100 00 

Bennett, Albert 671 4 10 00 

B.uton, A 1187 2 6 00 

Bolli' ger, A J 312 4 10 00 

Barnes, Nathan 919 8 20 00 

Buford, S H 622 2 R 00 

Carpenter, J H 87 3 5 12 f 

Clock. Mrt. Sarah D 1621 4 10 00 

Cooper, J T 146 1 2 fiO 

Coulter, Rachael M 1082 4 10 00 

Cox, William W 1374 2 5 00 

(;ox, Mrs ME 1376 1 2 50 

Cox, E J 607 6 12 50 

Co 'k, Mary E 4 5 12 50 

Coulter, ST 1639 5 12 60 

Cmpbell, SA 1679 10 2i 00 

Frazer, Tlmmas 1680 10 25 00 

Oimble. Mary C 579 20 60 00 

Gates, T M 602 1 2 60 

Gartleman, Daniel 994 2 5 00 

Gartleman, Daniel 1001 2 5 Ou 

Gaston, Hugh 663 4 10 on 

Glaildan, WN 1191 4 10 00 

Gyte, J<«eph 139 1 2 50 

Heald, J G H98 4 10 00 

Heald, J G 1066 2 5 00 

Heald, J G 1664 1 2 60 

Heald, Rachael 1064 1 2 60 

Hutson, J L 1475 5 12 60 

Lindner, Lucinda 839 2 6 00 

Lindner, John D 847 10 25 00 

lyman, Charlts 498 10 J5 (0 

McMullin FA 327 " 2 5 00 

Meyer, Wallemar 583 10 25 00 

Meyer, Wtldemar 1635 10 25 00 

Meese, William 1158 2 6 00 

Moore. Samuel L 1146 2 5 00 

Morris, J R 1176 20 50 00 

Morris, J R .1609 1 2 50 

Morris, J R 1687 5 12 50 

Morris, Maggie C 1177 20 60 00 

Moch, J L 666 6 12 50 

Proctor, Geo W 1655 12 30 00 

Proctor, Geo W 1713 8 20 00 

Rauschamp, Geo 282 2 1 5 00 

Rector, W H 1085 8 20 00 

Say ward, J W 129 2 5 00 

Sco.t, PH 7 1 2 50 

Scott, PH 1676 1 2 50 

Smittle, J W 6i6 10 25 00 

Sollars, S W 692 1 2 50 

Stoddard, O L 719 2 5 00 

Taber, G R 189 2 5 00 

Troxell, J R 1589 6 15 00 

Troxell, J R 1679 1 2 50 

Unger, Frederick 1241 4 10 00 

Vauderbilt, Wm 867 5 12 50 

Vanderbilt, Wm 638 10 25 00 

Valpey, Mrs Elizabeth 1728 2 6 00 

Weymouth, Almon 1448 6 12 60 

Weymouth, Harris 1166 3 7 50 

Wilsey, Amasa 201 2 5 00 

Wileey, Amasa 485 8 20 00 

Wilhout, Jessie 436 4 10 00 

Wood, George 1164 1 2 60 

Yeiser, Daniel 182 10 25 00 

And in accordance with law and an order of the Board 
of Directors, made on the 21st day of November, 1881, so 
many shares of each parcel of such stock as may he neces- 
sary will be sold at public auction at the office of tho 
company, No. 38 California St., San Francisco, Cal , on 
Tuesday, the 17th day of January, A. D., 1882, to pay the 
delinquent assessment thereon, together with costB of 
advertising and expenses of sale. 

AMOS ADAMS. Secretary 
Ot Grangers' Cusincss Association of California. Office, 
No. 38 California St., San Francisco. 



PEACH TREES FOR SALE. 

18,000 One-year-old trees, budded on Georgia Seed- 
ling stocks of the leading varieties, best for canning and 
drying, will be sold at reduced rates by 

W. W. BRIER, 
Cc terville, Alameda County, California. 




DEWEY & CO. 

P'tlcnt Agency nml 
1V< .rspaiH-r OIHcck, to ••>;>•£ 
Market St , cor. of Front. Take 
elevator. IS Front St.l 



Flg-.I 



A sample File- 
; holder sent post 
paid, L from^ this 
office on receipt 
of 50 cents. 



This is the best durable file-holder 
in use. Send for sample, or further 
information, to this office. 




ITALIAN SHEEP WASH. 

EXTRACT OF TOBACCO. 

Free from Poison. Prepared by 
the Italian Government Co. 
Cures thoroughly the 

SCAB OF THE SHEEP. 

The BEST and CHEAPEST rem- 
edy known. Reliable testimonials at our office. 

Has been Applied in Destroying the 
Phylloxera and Garden Bugs 
with Success. 

For particulars apply to CH AS. DUISENBERG & CO., 
S>Ie Agents, 314 Sacramrnto St., San Francisco. 

APPLE STOCKS BY MAIL. 

Fruit Seeds, Etc. 

40.000 Small Apple Stocks, MAIL FREE, for S5 
per 1,000. 

Apple Seed, 75 cts. , Pear Seed, 52 25 per ft>. Also 
mail 'ree. 

Catalogues of hundreds of otherTrces and Seeds, suited 
to mail, express, or ordinary freight, on application. 

THOMAS MEEHAN, 
Nursery and Tree Seedsman, 

GERMANTOWN, PENN. 

SMITH & JOHNSON, 

(Successors to J. S. Davis), 
MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

Davis Gain Twist Regulating Windmill, 

Tanks, Troughs, Etc 

Jobbing of all kinds promptly attended to. 
No. 183 Commerce Street. Stockton, Cal. 

;%a£ AMERICAN 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 

All kinds of Light Iron and Wood Wnrk, including Pat- 
terns, Gear Cutting, Planing. Engine, Musical Instruments 
and other repairing. Dies. Taps, Reamers, etc., a specialty. 

HEALD & BANKS. Pronrietoro. 

Adams' Patent Pillow Sham Holder 

Thousands ave proved it the be t. Can be adjusted to 
any ordinary bed. B.ack walnut a,nd nickel plate, S2 2f; 
cedar and brass, Sl-75. Sent by mail with directions. G. W. 
Waoooneu, General Agent, 40S Tenth St., Oakland, Cal. 
£2fr*The trade supplied 

STENCIL PLATES cut by EDWIN 



V I AlVIHS MOHRIG, Rubber Stamps, Burning 

V I Hill I SJ Brands, Stencil Brushes, Inks, Cups, 
Etc. Removed to No. 252 Market f>Tf* lipi I f% 
Street, San Francisco. Use the \ | kMI I \ 
elevator at No. 12 Front Street. • UIIUILW 

YOUR NAME WcT^Sl 105 



7n 

111 Vhrmna,, I.,„'uhrn,„„, Kut, r Scrnn.ctc.- "<> i 
B V Agent * Compli-'lcS»niploBook.860. Great v»n«y 

AdvtriM,,,, ami H>„ci-Mgt «W*. Lowest prloei 
«nJ printer*. I O0_ *•""/■'' " M™«>™9 ,',7'/^ £•» 

Address 



STKVKNS ItKUS.. Ikix M, NortLlord. Ct. 



C n rvvn i ■ S n «v Su P er ' or Wood and Metal Engrav. 
Pny|3Vinfi: illff > Electrotypmg and Sterootyp- 
D M, Q*mg done at tho office of the Mining 

INO Soirntifio Prkss, San tTancisco. at tavo-anle ratu 

ciejvxipio Jtreso 

to 



I 



No. 2b2 Market Street, CI "n 
Elevator, 12 Front St., Oi Ii 



J. H. Wythe, M. D. 



Residence: 
965 West Street, Oakland. 
Be ore 10 A. M.. after 5 p. M. 



Office: 

759 Market St., San Franoisoo 
I From 11 A. M. to 3 P. M. 



1 New and Popular Spngs, 10c and stamp. Address 
i Canada Purchasing Agency, Wm. J Plaver.M'n'ger 
Nassagaweya P. O., Halton, Out. Mention this paper. 



ptpnp All new, imported designs of hand and 
vHnlltf) bouquet, gold, silver and others, name in 
fancy script type, 10c. Clinton & Co., North Haven Ct. 



50 



This paper Is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Rneu Johneon 6t Co., 509 South lOth 
St.. Philadelphia & P>9 G-old St.. N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 527 
Commercial St., S. P. 



THE PACIFIC BUHAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 




GEO. BULL & CO., 

—IMPORTERS OF- 

Agricultural Implements. 

AND SOLE AGENTS FOR THE 

J. I. CASE T. M. CO.'S 

Celebrated Straw and Wood-burning En- 
gines, Separators and Horse-Powers. 

Also a complete assortment in stock of the J. I CASE 
PLOW CO 'S Center and Side draft Wood and Steel-beam, 
Racine Chilled. Breaking, Vineyard, Sulky and Gang 
Plows and Harrows. 

Every plow or implement sold is warranted to give un- 
exceptional satisfaction, or m my refunded. Send for 
Catalogue and Price List, or call and examine stock and 
prices at the store. 

No. 31 Market St., S. F. 

BRANCH HOUSE, 

332 Market St., San Jose. Cal. 
tarSpccial inducements offered to Dealers, Farmers and 
Ranchers. 

Moore's Prepared 



o 

a 

V) 

The most successful Poison in use for Squirrel K:.'i . 

C. E. WILLIAMS & CO , Proprietors, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Moore's Sulphur Dip; Safe, Sure and Cheap prepara- 
tion for the cure of Scab In Sheep. 

PETALUMA INCUBATOR. 

[Illus' rated la Ri ual Press, Dec. 3, 18S1 J 

Awarded the first premium over the Axford or National 
and others at the PeUlunia fair of 1SS1. 

Furnishing ample heat, easily managed and nothing to 
get out of order. 

PRICES: 

200 Egg capacity $60.00 

360 Egg capacity 75 OO 

6U> Egg '^capacity 9J.0O 

I L. DIAS. 
Manufacturer and Proprietor, 
Box 242, Petaluua, Cal. 
WTKfvTEB & CO., 17 New Montgomery St., S. F.. Agl's 

EGGS TO HATCH 

From the ful'owiug varieties: 

LANGSHANS, 

Slick Coctalna, Plymouth Rocks, 
Brown and While Leghorns, Toulou e 
Geese and Pekin Ducks. 

My breeding i artls are composed of 
selected birds from ihe leading strains 
mated to secure the best results. 

Fair dealing :«nd satisfaction guiran- 
t<ed Corres| o dence promptly an- 
swered. Send tor cir- ularand prices. 

CEO. TREFZER, Napa City, Cal. 

LAUrEL RANCH! 

Thoroughbred 

Spanish Merino 

SHEEP. 

We offer for sale 400 HEAD OF YOUNG EWES AND 
RAMS. Prices alwa>s reasonable and terms liberal. Qual- 
ity and condition superior to any flock in this State. 

J. H. STROBKIDGE. Haywards, Alameda Co. 

E. W. PEET, Agent. 

Whitmore's Improved Gear, 

ADAPTED TO 

Buckwagons, Bugg es and Light Business 
Wagons. 

Weight carried to the extremities of the Axles. Long, 
soft, double tweep springs. No siue sway or pitching 
motion. It i - jointed, relieving all strain. 

E. WHITMORE, Maker, 
' 1507 Polk St., San Francisco, Or Charles Whitmore 
Traveling Agent for the Pacific Coa»t. 

Harvey's Hot- Water Radiator 

For Worming and Ventilating Private 
Residences and Public Buildings. 

Introduced into TEN PUBLIC BUILDINGS and ovei 
FORTY PRIVATE RESIDENCES the past year with satis- 
factory results. Less attention and less fuel required to 
heat 4 rooms with this system than would warm 1 room 
with the open grate. Highest testimonials. Address 
C. D. HARVEY, 
213 Mission St., bet. Main and Beale, S. F. 
Residence, 1227 Eleventh Avenue, East Oakland. 

Af\ Comic Transparent Cards, name on, 10 cents, or 50 
~W Hue Chroinos, 10 cents, Wise & Co., Clintom illc, Ct. 





1881. THE H. C. SHAW 1881. 



Plow Works. 




GANG PLOWS 

No. 201 and 203 El Eorado Street, 



AND EXTRAS. 



Stockton. 



THE STOCKTON GANG PLOW, 

Over 2,OO0 of H. C. Shaw's Improved Patent Stockton Gang Plows Sold In Five Tears 

CajlOOn and Gem Seed Sowors, Harrows. Etc. Extras for all Plows and Machines I have sold for the past 
TWENTY YEARS in this valley. «T Send for Circular and price list. Always on hand a full stock of Single Plows 
Have used these Gangs for over 15 years. Now using 70. Adapted to all soils.— John W. Joses, Atlanta, Sari 

Inaquin Co., Cal. 



T^athaniel Curry & Bro, 

13 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 




AGENTS FOrt 

W. W. Greener's Celebrated Breech 
Loading Double Guns. 

FULL STOCK OF COLTS, PARKER AND REMINGTON OHMS, SHARPS, BALLARD, WINCHESTER, 
KENNEDY, MA KLIN, and REMINGTON SPORTING RIFLES; PISTOLS OF ALL KINDS. 
Ammunition in quantities to suit A liberal discount to the tra le. P,ice List on Application 



The best of 




Through Dewey & Co.'s Scien- 
tific P ress Patent Agency. 

So. 252 Mnrkf t Street. Elevator, 12 Front St., v F. 
Telephone No. 7t>. 



Our U. S. and Foreign Patknt Agkncy pre- 
sents many and important advantages as a Home 
Agency over all others, by reason of long estab- 
lishment, great experience, thorough system, in- 
timate acquaintance with the subjects of inven- 
tions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library containing 
official American and foreign reports, tiles of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a 
description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of Patent 
business, and obtain Patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices are 
as low as any first-class agencies in the Eastern 
States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
inventors are far superior. Advice and Circu- 
lars free. DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG 



HENRY F. GULLIXSON & CO , 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

CARPETS. OIL-CLOTHS, LINOLEUM, UPHOLSTERY 
GOODS, LACE CURTAINS, CORNICES, Etc. 



Orders from the Interior promptly filled, and goods sent C. 0. D. 



G30 Market St., Opposite the Palace. Hotel, 



San Francisco. 



Woolsey's Steam Generator and Power 
and Steam Cheese Vat for Ranch- 
men and Dairies. 



Tliis is the Cheapest and Hest Steam Generator ever 
invented; and the cheese vat is so constructed that the 
temperature can be kept even and steady. 



WOOLSEY'S TARPOLA GOPHER TRAP, 
never fails to kill all varmints when properly set. Price 
$'.50. WOOLSEY'S IMPROVED LAWN 
SPRINKLER, Cheapest and Best in use. Price, $5, 
Address JOHN S. WOOLSEY, Inventor and Manufac- 
turer, Gilroy, Cal. 



50 



THE DAVIS IRON WAGON. 

E, A. SCOTT «&. CO., 

Sole Importers and Dealers for the Pacific. 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 
The La France Steam Fire Engine. 

Circulars furnished on application. 



H H. WILSON & SON, 

513 Clay S»,, S. r. 

Importers and Dealers in Guns, Rifles, 
Pistols, and Fishing Tackle, etc. 



FELIX GILLETS 



NURSERIES, 



Nevada City, 



California. 



Landscape, Chromo Cards, etc., name on, 10c. 20 Gilt I? fl LOVELY FRENCH CHROMO CARDS with name 
Edged Cards, 10c. Clinton & Co., North Haven, Ct • " 



1 on 10 cents, Chas. Kay, New Haven, Conn. 



SPECIALTIES Xuls of all kinds (Walnuts. 
Chestnuts, Almonds and Filberts.) 

PR(EPARTURIENS. 

Or early bearing Walnut. Introduced Into California from 
Kuroue In the spriLg of 1871 by Felix Gillet, of .\. vida City. 




The poiuts of ouperiorlty which the Pncparturlens posses* 

are: 

Hrs*— It bears earlier than any other kind, very often 
when 3 years old; hence Its name, Pnepartuilens— fertile or 

precocious. 

Second— It is a harly variety, getting in bloom lite In the 
spring, and being very icld < m injured by frost In the spring 
or fall. 

Third — It matures its wood well before the winter; thus 
insuring a crop of nuts for the ensuing year. 

Fourth - It is a regular and proline heart r 

Fifth— The nut 1b large, the shell aoft, and the meat full 
and easily extracted from iu socket. 

jtiTOne, two. three aud f our-) ear-old trees for sale One- 
year old tret*, heavily rooted, sent bv mail to any p*rt of 
California and the United States »t $1 i-er tree, or $10 per 
dozeu, including packing and mailing. 

Also, GAND WALNUT, the largest of soft-shell ta le 
ties 

SEROTINA or LATE WILN'UT a kind that leafs rut 
late In the spring. Very desb able (or a cold climate. One- 
year-old trees of the two above kind* at the same rates a* 
Pneparturien*. 

FILBERTS. CHESTNUTS, 

Pears, Cherries, Peaches, Etc. 

STRAWBERRIES, RASPBERRIES, 

Blackberries, Currants, Gooseberries, 
Grapes. Etc , Etc. 

Send for descriptive catalogue aud price list. 



SILKWORM EGGS 

From Felix Gillet's Cocoonery, 

AT $5 PER OUNCE. 

Sent by mail to any part of the United States, picking and 
mailing included, in i|U.r,tities from 50 cents and over. 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



SMALL FRUIT PLANTS 

OUR SPECIALTY. 
— New /xn Olb Varieties or — 

STRAWBERRIES, 

RASPBERRIES & 

BLACKBERRIES. 

Large and select stock of 
Monarch of the West, Sharulesg, Capt. Jack, 
?Iiner»' Great Prolific, B {dwell. Etc., 

AT LOW RATES. 
— Nsw Varieties or -- 

Peaches, Plums, Apricots, 

AND OTHER FRUITS. 
XS"Send for Circular. 

C. M. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer Co., Cal. 



Rlparia Grape Cuttings. 

Genuine Riparia Grape Cuttings by the hundred, thou- 
sand or the million, as may be desired. For particulars 



address 



FURNAS FRUIT FARM, 



Brownvillc, Nebraska 



FRUIT TliFES FOR SALE. 



15,000 Bartlett Pear and Apiicot trees. Also Apple, 
Peach, Prune, Nectarlue, Plum, and other trees for salo, 
retail or wholesale at reasonable price* Address, UELLE- 
VUE NURSERY, Box 304, Los Angeles, Cat, Care of 
Hilton Thomas. 



January 14, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 

BULES, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We rail the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. laTTrade price 
list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instruc- 
tions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 
607 Sarjsome Street, S. F. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers in 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT AND OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS. — Orm Descriptivb Illus- 

RATRD CATALOOUR 07 SRKDS, THRO), PLANTS, ETC. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. F. 



IMPORTED 

SEED WHEAT and OATS, 

Direct from AUSTRALIA by late steamer. Sold in lots 
to suit by S. L. Jones & Co., 207 & 209 California St., and 
M. WATERMAN & CO- 
113 Clay St., S. F. 

KELLER'S NURSERIES, 

Oakland, Cal. 

For Sale Cheap, 

Trees, Seeds, Shrubs, Ornamental Fruit and Shade 
Tre-s. Nurseries at Mountain View, neir Ceme- 
i tery Floral, Plant and Peed Depot, Seventh St., 
bet. Washington and Clay. Send for catalogue and price 
list. Address KELLER & CO., Oakland, Cal. 



TURNER'S NURSERY, 



San Bernardino, Cal 



- P. O. Box 275. 



I have a few thousand left of my half- yearling or June 
Budded Trees, from 15 to 18 inches, consisting of 
Lemon Cling?, Smock's Free. Crawfordg, etc. 
Also, Royal and Large Early Apricot. 

Price, $15 per ICO this season. I am also prepared to 
make contracts for the season of 18S2 83. 

DAVE TURNER. 



CYPRESS and GUM TREES. 



Blue or Red Gum trees. Monterey Cypress, Acacias, 
and Pines of all sizes or the seed of each kind, very 
cheap for cash. Trees in condition to ehip long dis- 
tances. Send SI in stamps for samples of each kind, 
with prices. GEO. R. BAILS V, Berkeley, Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES 

Established in 1858. 

For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised without irrigation. Also, a general assort 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower 
ing Shrubs; Roses in assortment. Conservatory and Bod 
ding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma Sonoma County, Cal. 



Apple Root Grafts 

For Spring planting. Order now. Address ' 
PUCENIX BROS. * EMERSON, Nurserymen 

Bloomington, Illinois. 



Stockton Savings and Loan Society 

Paid up Capital, $500,000. 

Tranracts a General Banking Business, Foreign and Doin 
estlc Exchange; receive* Deposits or makes Loans on th< 
moat favorable terms. L. U. SHIPPEE. President. 

FRED. M. WEST. Cashier. 



<T. IP. SWEENEY 5c CO., 

SEEDSMEN, 

Dealers in all Kinds of Field and Garden Seeds at Reduced Prices in 
Large Quantities. 

SPECIALTIES: 

ALFALFA, EED AND WHITE CLOVER; AUSTRALIAN, ITALIAN AND ENGLISH 
RYE GRASS; BLUE GRASS, LAWN, ORCHARD, MISQUIT, RED TOP 
AND TIMOTHY SEED; CALIFORNIA W< iRKST AND EVER- 
GREEN '1REE SEEDS. ALSO FRUIT AND ORNAMENT- 
AL TREES AT LOWEST PRICES AT OUR 

SEED WAHEHOTJSE. 

No 409 and 411 Davis Street - - San Francisco, Cal. 

W. J=l>. STRONG &C CO., 

WHOLESALE 



Every description of Field, Garden, Flower and other Seeds, Flowering Bulbs, etc. Can be obtained at our 
Establishment Fresh, Pure and Genuine, at the Lowest Rates. California Alfalfa, Eastern Clovers and Grass Seeds 
a Specialty, (beed and Tree Catalogue sent by Mail free ou Application.) 

-ALSO- 

Wholesale Fruit and General Produce Dealers. 



Special attention will be given and prompt returns rendered for Consignments placed with us. Orders for Mer- 
chandise of every description promptly and carefully filled at lowest rates. 

Our constantly increasing line of customers atttst to the fairness of our prices and quality of our goods. 

Nos. 106 to 110 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



Fruit and Evergreen Trees, Plants, Etc. 
ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Budding Knives, Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



r 

o 

w 
a 



GARDEN SEEDS. 



THOS. MEHERXXT, 

Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

SEEDS, TREES AND PLANTS. 
Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, 

Australian Rye Grass, Timothy ana Orchard Grass, Kentucky Blue Graes, Hun- 
garian Millet Grass, Ked Top, etc. 

Also, a large and choice collection of FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL 1 REES, 

BULBS, ROSES, MAGNOLIAS, PALMS. ETC . AT REDUCED I RICES. 
Budding and Pruning Knives, Greenhouse Syringes. Hedge and Pole Shears. 

aSTPrice List ready Jan. 1st THUS. M i .li DIE i N , r> !(, Buttery St., San Francisco. 



Agoiit for 33. S. Fox's ZN"xix*sici*3^. 



CHOICE TIE^IEjI&jS FOB SALE. 

We will soon be in receipt of the fallowing varieties of choice 
yearling trees: 

Silver Prunes, Yellow Egg, Coe's Golden 
Drop, Petite Prune de Agen. 

The above trees are all selected and on Peach Roots and free from 
scale and other injurious insects. 

Orders taken now for above tree3 in lots to suit. 

HIXSON, JUSTI &. CO., 

316 and 318 Washington St., S. F. 



TREES! TREES! TREES! 



CAPITAL NURSERIES, SACRAMENTO, 

—AND— 

Orange Hill Nurseries, 

PenryD, Placer Co., Cal. 



We de-ire to call attention to our stock of nntive frui'. 
tree-, viz: Petite Piunes, Silver Prunes, Yellow Egg 
and Coe's Golden Dmp Pluru», Barllett Pears, Aprici t?. 
Apples, Cheiries, Peache-i, etc Also 100,000 Rooted Grape 
Vines i f leading kinds, such as Muscat. Tukajs, Ham- 
burgs, Z'titindel, Seedless Sultana, etc. Also ornamental 
treis and plmts, such as Magnolias, Arbor Vines, Pi' es, 
Cyprets, Palms, e'c. Orange and Lemon trees, best 
budded vaiieties Also Elms, Maples, Poplars ami Mul- 
berries for avenue and street planting— in fa t every- 
thing u-ually kept in Art-class Nurseries. We have 
many new and rare Fruits and Plants for description of 
which our Catalogue will he mailed free to any address. 
Office and Tree Depot, I and Seventh streets, near Court- 
house, Sacramento. Addieis all communications 
CAPITAL NUKSER1ES, P. O Box 407, Saciamento or 
OKANGE HILL MJrtt-EKIES, Penryn, Placer county, 
Cal. Williamson & Co., Proprietors. 




ALBERT DICKINSON. 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red-Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, etc. 

POP CORN. 

Warbhocbes: 

116, 117 & 119, hinzie St., Office i 115 Kinzle St. 

104, 106, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO, ILL.. 



MAKE HENS LAY. 



traveling In this country, says that most of the Horse 
andCdtlc Powders sold here are worthless ti ash. He 
says that Sheridan's Condition Powders are absolutely 
pure and Immensely valuable Nothing on earth will 
make hens lay like Sheridan's Condition Powders. Dose, 
onctcaspoonful toono pint food. Sold everywhere, or sent 
by mail for eight letter stamps. L S. JOHNSON 4, CO., 
Bostou, Muss., formerly Bangor Me. 

tr A Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike 10c. Name 
0\J In fancy type Conn. Card Co., NortHoid, Ct. 




P. POWKI.T. AS 



/est prices ever known 
on IKr«>4Tl, - LfiacU'r*, 

ttlflea, and Revolvers, 

OUR $15 SHOT-RUN 

at greatly reduced price. 
Send stamp fur our New 
Illustrated Catalogue ( Bl 
B8AMaln Street riNfiltflTATI.O 



Larroche's Fertilizer. 



It is manufactured solely of Bones and residues of Meats 
dried and pulverized iu su h manner that all the Calcium. 
PhospnateB, Carbonates, Nitrates and Potassium, which are 
the main assirnilators to plants, a>e entirely preserved 
in the Fertilizer and reLder it most valuable to the cultiva- 
tors of the soil. 

Stable manures require frenuent irrigation in order to 
develop its properties; it is expensive, voluminous, and re 
quires great labor to spread and subsoil it; it propagates 
weeds, worms, snails and destructive animalcules, the 
pests of the farmer. Ou the other hand, Bone Powder can be 
easi y handl d, transported at low rate3 of fieight, iu bags. 
It checks the propagation of insects and luxuriates the 
growth of hops, vines, fruit trees, etc.; can easily be spread 
around the plants and is most efficacious as an impediment 
to tlu rapid and terrible encroachment of the Phylloxlra. 

The Fertilizer should be sowu by hand on the ground 
when it is moist like seed, and then harrowed. About 400 

rands is the quantity for an acre. Price, $41) per ton. 

For fuither information apply or address to, 

F. LARROCHE. 

Stall 21, San Francisco Market, San Francisco, Cal. 

—OR— 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., Seedsmen. 

607 Sansome St., S. F. Cal. ' * 



MERRILL'S PATENT REIN HOLDER. 

This is a bure and certain preventative to keep horses 
from running away. Price $2.50. Address W. P. 
MERRILL, Florin, Sacramento Co., Cal. 



IMPORTANT TO THE FARMER. 



-tjse- 



CHOICE NEW CROP 



ALFALFA SEED. 



FOR SALE BY THE 



Carload or in lots to suit buyers. 



E J. BOWEN, 
Seed. Merchant, 

815 & 817 Sansome St., S P. 



GRAPEVINES. 

CUTTINGS.— Zii'fln^e', Golden Chas-el s. Black Mai. 
vois e. Whltj hi" shop, Or y Kietl ng. Be ger. Mission, Mus 
sat II i, Maliga. etc. $5 per 1,0(10, from well likened, 
I ea'thy wood All selected. 

Rooted Clinton, phylloxera-proof sock, §30 per 1,00 

■Cooled Willi Rlparla, $4 per 100. 

CI' I'TIXGS-Pliylloxera-rronf— Taylor. 89 per 1,000 
Wild R paria. $10.50 per 1,000; Elvira, Leaoir, Cynibinna. eto 

FRUIT TREES. 

Full as^rtm nt for fanrTy orchard; also Coe's Golden 
Drop, Yellow Kgg, Peti e d'Age-i. Fellen erg, Green Gage, 
Columbia, Early Crawford, Foster, Bar.lett, etc., at reasou- 
ab'e r«tes 

IAPA1VE&T CHESTNUTS, very profitable as well a 
ornamental, $41) P8T ll>0. 

Trees gro«u WITHOUT IRRIGATION. No scale bugs 
or other noxfou* inflects 

B I ON ASCi> COATES, Box 2, Napa City, Cal. 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 



I offer the trade this season a LARGE and GENERAL 
ASSORTMENT of 

FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

My trees are healthy, ttalky and well grown. Prices 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flower- 
ing Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. 
Catalogues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 



Short Horn Bulls For Sale. 



The undersigned now have for sale a few choice Thor 
oughbred and high grade hulls from the best milk strains 
Our herd consists of "Young Marys," "Daisies," "Imp 
Britannias," etc. Prices Reasonable. 

HYDE & MOORE, Vlsalla, Cal. 



36 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 14, 1882 



AMERICAN" BARB WIRE 




i^Eisroiisrcx. 



OAX/^AILTIZEID, PAIISTTED OR/ vTAZPAlSrisrZEID. 

The Handsomest, Stiff est, and Most Durable. No Rust. No Decay. Secure Against Fire, Flood and Wind. 

IT IS THE ONLY BARB WIRE that will prevent small animals, such as rabbits, barer, pigs, dogs, cats, etc., from passing through, under or over it, the barbs are so near each other. 
The Barbs being triangular-shaped, like the teeth of a saw, and close together, there is no cruelty to animal*, as they cannot pierce the hide; they only prick, which is all that is ever necessary, 

as no animal will </o mar a Barb Fence twice. 

AS THE WIRE IS NOT BENT OR TWISTED, its tensile strength is much greater than the Wire in all other Barb Wire Fences, as they are all made of twisted or bent Wire. 

HEAT AND COLD CANNOT AFFECT THE AMERICAN BARB FENCK, as it can be allowed to sag when put up, enough to cover contraction and expansion, because it it a continuous 
Barb and cannot slip through the staples one inch. E»ch panel of Fence takes care of itself. 

The Barbs cannot be displaced or rubbed off, and are not poundid on and indented into the wire to hold them in place, as in other Barb W ire, thereby decreasing the strength of the Wire. 
The Barbs are short, and broad at the base, where strength is required. 

THE PAINTED WEIGHS A POUND TO THE ROD, 60 that the purchaser knows exactly how much fencing he is getting. Galvan zed weighs slightly more. 



*e SEND FOR SAMPLES AND PRICES.*** 



IIO, 112, 114 and 1 16 Battery St., San Francisco, 



dfc 00, 

Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



AUCTION SALE! ^ e ^ s * m ^ or ? P a J-' e ^ team ^ r '" er 



Friday, January 20th, 1882, 



At 10 o'clock a M , at salesroom. 



207 and 209 California St., 



SAN FEANCISCO, 



To closs a consignment, By order of coT>»ignees ( 



AUSTRALIAN 



SEED WHEAT, 



AND 




s 



366 Bags Australian Seed Wheat, 
277 Bags New Zealand Seed Oats. 



We beg to call the attention of FARMERS and SEEDS- 
MEN to this tale. The goods have been especially 
■elected for 'Seed and were recle>ned in Australia and 
New Zealand prior to shipment. 



Will be sold in lots to suit, buyers. 



S. L. JONES & CO., Auctioneers. 



h Keepers 9 Mi £ 

I necU 



complete 
Manual and Ref- 
erence Book on 
subjects con- 
nected with suc- 
cessful Bee Culture, by E. Kretcbmor, of Coburg, Mont- 
gomery County, Iowa. A new edition, containing 2*4 
pages of plain and full instructions by a practical and 
scientific apiarist, and illustrating the new sistem of Bee 
Culture with the Honey Extractor. It alBO tells how to 
rear Italian Queen Bees. Bound in cloth. Price, post- 
paid, $1. Sold by DEWEY &. CO., 202 Sansome St. Ban 
Francisco. 



MULBERRY CUTTIKGS 

FOR SALE, 

From choice seloctcd varieties of •' M0RU3 ALBA " 
White Mulberry. Also a limited amount of 

SILKWORM EGGS. 

Address MRS. S. A. SELLERS, Antioch, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 
A PATCHEN STALLION. 

Three Years Old. 
Can be seen at the ranch of S. B Emerson. Mountain View 



Dril ing Artesian and Ordinary 
Water Wells, Test Wells 
tor Minerals. 



Drilling Air Holes for Shafts, 
Shallow Oil Wells, Etc. 

PATENTED JUNE lotb. 1880. 




CHALLENGE WELL AUGER COMPANY 

Sole Licensees for West and South. 

1424 North Tenth St., St. Louis. Mo. 



Good Land and Sure Crops. - 

There has been steady and tolerably rapid advancement made in 
the growth of a majority of the towns in Colusa, Butte, Tehama 
and Shasta counties. Especially is this so in the agricultural dis- 
tricts where the land produces at least fair crops in all seasons — 
wet or dry — as does the land on the Reading Ranch. Those look- 
ing for homes in California where diversified farming will pay every 
year; where wood and water are plenty and easy to be obtained, 
and other desirable advantages are to be had, should address the 
proprietor of the Reading Grant. 

Some 14.000 out of 26,000 acres of the grant remain for sale 
at comparatively low rates, in quantities to suit purchasers, on easy 
terms. Prices range from $5 to $30 per acre. The tract is be- 
tween two and three miles wide, with the Northern Division of the 
C. P. R. R. passing centrally through its entire length. Send 
postage stamp for free circulars containing information about 
Shasta County and these lands, to the proprietor of Reading 
Ranch. EDWARD FRISBIE, 

Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



\QQQ Established 22 Years. 1882 

DEWEY & CO.'S 
Scientific Press 

American and Foreign 

PATENT AGENCY 




New Offices: 
NO. 252 MARKET STREET, 

(Elevator, No. 12 Front Street,) 

Ban Francisco, Cal. 

Branch Offices in all Foreign Couotiies. 

Our Pai enl Agency presents many and important ad- 
vantages as a Home Agency over all others, by reason of 
long establishment, great expeiience, thorough system, 
intimate acquaintance with the subjects of inventions in 
our own community, and our moat extensive law and 
refer, nee library, containing official American and foreign 
reports, files of scientific and mechanical publications, etc. 
The large majority of V. 8. and Foreign Patents issued to 
inventors on the Pacific Coast have been obtained 
through our Agency. We can give the best and most 
reliable advice as to the patentability of new inventions. 
Our prices are as low as any flrst-clies agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for Pacific Coast 
Inventors are far superior. Circulars or Ihformatiok 
roR Investors sent free on application. 

A. T. DBWEV. W. B. EWER. 0E0 H. ITB01C0. 



COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLER'S GUIDE, 

A Popular Exposition of our Public Land 
System. 

PRICE— On fine paper and in substantial cloth bind- 
ing, 11. 

Send to the office of this paper and get a copy of this 
p opular book. 

To Fis h Raisers. 

I am now ready to sell Carp whtoh were Imported from 
Germany in 1872. In lota to suit. Address 

J. A. POPPB. Sonoma, Cal. 



Instructor and Piano Teacher, 

Get man. single, respectfully solicits offers from the coun- 
try. Expectations modest. P. Wermbr, San Francisco. 



PEBBLE SPECTACLES. 




Cfl All Gold, Cliromo and Lithograph Cards. (No two 
«*V alike). Name on, 10c. Clinton Bros., Clintonville, Con 1 



Dewey & Co. { „ a & ! Patent Agt's i 



Muller's Optical Depot, 

185 Montgomery St., near Bush. 
SPECIALTY FOR 30 YEARS 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

p The most complicated cases of defect 
Ire vision thoroughly diagnosed, free ol 
oharge. Compound Astigmatlo Lenses 
_ Mounted to order in Two Uourt notioa 

sVOrders by mail promptly attended to. 




Volume XXIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY at, 1882. 



Number 3 



am 



Situation and Surronndings of Portland. 

We give on this page a handsome engraving 
showing Portland, Oregon, and some of the not- 
able features of the country surrounding it. The 
growth and prospects are themes which the Ore- 
gonian never tires to talk about, and they are 
matters in which all who eDjoy the growth and 
development of the Pacific coast will take an 
interest. Of late years, Oregon and Washing- 
ton Territory have secured a large share of the 
immigration to this coast, and the settlement of 
the country and the increase of its productions 
has been notable. It cannot be doubted that 
progress in this direction has but just set in, 
and that the coming completion of through 
lines of transportation eastward will add a new 
impetus to all industries and swell the popula- 
tion of all well-placed towns, while at the same 
time it will plant new towns and new country 
homes upon the vast and rich region 
which is still unoccupied. 

But it is rather of the city of Portland 
and its immediate surroundings of which 
we would speak at this time, to enable 
the reader to understand better the en- 
graving. And in so doing, we shall be 
free to take paragraphs from local writers, 
who will present a more appreciative 
view of the scene than anything we could 
ourselves prepare. 

''Portland — in latitude 45° 30' north, 
longitude 122° 27' 30" west— is a port of 
entry, the county seat of Multnomah 
county, and the commercial metropolis of 
Oregon. It is pleasantly located on the 
west bank of the Willamette river, about 
13 miles above the junction of the Col- 
umbia, and about 110 miles — by the rivtr 
course — from the Pacific ocear. The city 
is located on a plateau, which gradually 
increases in higbt as it recedes from tl e 
river, unt 1 it torn s a range of hills at 
the western extremity of the city, from 
which may be seen the snow-capped sum- 
mits of Mounts Hood, St. He'.ens and 
Jefferson, the Cascade range of mount- 
ains, and the meanderlngs of the C.lurr.- 
bia and Willamette rivers." 

Approaching Portland on board a 
steamer from San Francisco, at the pres- 
ent time, one's first impression of the 
place is usually of a decidedly unfavor 
able character, owing to the long line of 
dingy -looking docks that obstruct the view. 
However, on landing and passing from 
street to street, a city of peculiar beauty is 
opened to the view, and ooe is surprised at 
the maesiveness of the buildings and general 
thrift displayed in all branches of business. 
However, one blot on the otherwise unsoiled 
picture consists in the narrowness of the streets, 
most of which are but CO ft. in width. This 
defect, however, is soon lost sight of as we 
move from place to place and see on all sides 
unmistakable signs of wealth and comfort. 
From the summit of the hills above referred to, 
a scene of simple grandeur is unfolded. Away 
to the north the whole face of the country is 
dark with timber, through which the silvery 
water of the Willamette is p'ainly visible until 
it empties into the great Columbia, 12 miles dis- 
tant. From far up the Columbia, the bright 
water may be seen as it moves steadily onward 
to the sea, and it is only lost to sight in the dim 
distance far to the west. Slightly east of north 
and beyond the Columbia, the quiet little vil- 
lage of Vancouver is plainly visible, while, over- 
looking the river to the east of iD may be seen the 
government reserve with its barracks and parade 
ground, while in the latter a tall mast supports 
the stars and stripes as they proudly wave in the 
free airof Heaven. To the right of this, and far 
off in the north, the pure white summit of S\ 
Helens maybe seen reaching above the surround- 
ing mountains, standing 9,570 ft. above the level 
of the sea; behind it Hunter shows its cap of 
perpetual snow looming up in the heavens for 
14,444 ft. Two other snow-capped mountains 
are st en to the right, but to grand old Hood, 
"the pride of Oregon," is ascribed the honor of 
capping the climax, as it Bits in its silent glory, 
11,255 ft. high, off in the mountains to the east, 
perfectly formed, symmetrical and beautiful. 



Of Mr. Hood, as it sometimes appears from 
Portland, a writer in the Telegram says: "The 
day had been cloudy, but the clouds parted just 
before night so as to send the rays of the sun, as 
if concentrated for that special purpose, upon 
the distant Mt. Hood. The effect was to make 
the snow-capped king of the Cascades appear to 
lose the 60 miles between us and its great snow- 
white sides, so that the rough contour was 
brought out by light and shade with such dis- 
tinctness, that it appeared as if drawn within a 
few feet of us; so while we were eDjoying a 
warm, sunshiny evening, with rich, green hills 
surrounding our city, there stood an enormous 
pile of the purest and whitest snow at our very 
doors. It is indeed surprising the variations in 
the appeal ance which our beautiful mountain 
presents to the people of this city, and the 
whole State, in the different shades of light 
thrown upon it from different directions as the 
sun moves over us in his daily rounds. Never 
twice alike, we are always seeing new beauties 
in the everlasting hills, and especially the great 



Our engraving gives a section of the Willam- 
ette valley, which is the most famous agricul- 
tural region of Oregon. The valley is about 200 
miles in length and has several important towns, 
besides the villages and hamlets which occur at 
short intervals. Farm houses abound, and or- 
chards; and meadow lands stretch away into 
little valleys. Level prairies are encountered 
here, billowy hillocks there, and dark green 
forests yonder, diversified occasionally by dense 
groves of undergrowth. The timber in the 
valley is principally oak and nr, the latter pre- 
dominating. 

The Willamette valley is famous for its moist 
climate, its dripping skies being a by-word 
through the outside world. But it seems that 
the dwellers there rather enjoy it. In fact, 
some local writers would have us believe that 
the inhabitants get so used to rain that (,hey 
cry for it. We quote as follows: 

"The resident will grow to like the humid 
atmosphere, and, as his years advance, will 
learn to long for rain when lowering weather 




PORTLAND, WILLAMETTE RIVER, AND MOUNT HOOD. 



white-capped mountains seen from this city, 
Mounts Hood, St. Helens, Rainier and Adams." 

The city of Portland embract s a population 
of about 25.000 of all nationalities. It is the 
first city in point of wealth, proportionally to 
size, in the Union. Practically, all phases of 
life, except extreme poverty, and all occupa- 
tions to be seen in any American city, are ob- 
servable here. The tone is higher, as prosperity 
of sober, industrious labor is greater, and the 
success of success is more productive of wealth. 
The propottion of wholesale to retail houses in 
all lines of ttade is much greater than would be 
expected of its inhabitants. For instance, the 
number of wholesale groceries actually exceeds 
the number of first class retail houses in the 
same line. The business of several of the former 
reaches into millions annually. It may truth- 
fully be said that Portland is the market-place 
for the north Pacific coast, the granary of Ore- 
gon and Washington, and the treasure vault of 
the whole northwest country. 

Thirty years ago the city of Portland was 
little except a dense fir forest, with here and 
there a clearing yet full of blackened stumps. 
There were several business houses, where 
trade was brisk, and a number of temporary 
buildings for family dwelling?, with a noticeable 
preponderance of boarding houses and gambling 
dens. Initial steps had been taken to establish 
the schools and churches that have since growa 
into prosperity and permanence. There were 
no regular sidewalks or public street lamps, and 
the visitor carried away vivid recollections of 
the abounding mud. Portland has since grown 
into a city of over 20,000 inhabitants, is the 
point where all the great railroads of the pres- 
ent and the future are to meet, and her mari- 
time interests control the entire commerce of 
the Pac'fic Northwest. Her schools are second 
to none in North America. 



J ceases. He will learn by gratified experience 
that the rainy seasons, of which the temporary 
visitor to the Willamette valley usually com- 
plains to the outside world, are not the terror 
he has been led to imagine. And yet the cli- 
mate is excessively humid in winter along the 
coast, and also in the great vaileys between the 
coast and Cascade mountain ranges. There is 
rain enough to make the unmade roads of a new 
country very muddy and disagreeable, and to 
keep them so till the summer sunshine comes 
to the rescue. But the same humidity that 
spoils the roads bathes the mountains in per- 
petual green, and so fructifies the valleys that 
crops never fail, and all the abundant and varied 
products of the soil are of the very best 
quality." 

Horticultural Society Meeting. — The next 
meeting of the State Horticultural Society will 
be held at the Academy of Sciences, corner Cal- 
ifornia and Dupont streets, on Friday, Jan. 
27th, at 12 m. An address on the "Use and 
Abuse of the Eucalyptus" will be delivered by the 
president, Prof. Hilgard. The Mechanics' In- 
stitute has expressed its desire that the Horti- 
cultural Society take charge of the fruit, plant 
and flower departments of the Mechanics' In- 
stitute Fair of 1882. The advisability of this 
action on the part of the society will come up 
for general discussion at the "meeting of Jan- 
uary 27th, and it is hoped that all members will 
attend and give their views on the subject. 

Two bills have been introduced in Congress 
for a reduction of letter postage to two cents. 
It is said that a reduction of letter postage 
would probably decrease the revenue from that 
service for a time, but the decrease would only 
be temporary. 



Birds and Worms. 

The discussion of ways and means for destroy- 
ing linnets which has proceeded in the last 
three issues of the Rural, leads to a considera- 
tion of 'the insectiverous character of the differ- 
ent birds, for this is of the greatest importance 
to the orchardi3t. One of the most thorough 
students of this branch of ornithology is Prof. 
S. A. Forbes, of Normal, 111. He recently read 
an essay at a horticultural meeting giving the 
results of last summer's study of the behavior 
of birds during the visitation of army worms 
and chinch bugs. He shows how widely birds 
differ in respect to insect eating and his record 
of the different birds named may be of value. 
Prof. Forbes said that in the orchard infested by 
canker-woims, 6'4% of the birds and 60% of 
the species were found eating them; 40% of 
the food of all the birds taken together consist- 
ed of the worms. They made 40% of the 
food of the robin, 23% of the brown 
thrush, 60% of the bluebird, 75% of the 
chickadee, 66% of the summer- warbler, 
35% of the warbling viros, 100% of the 
cedar bird, 66% of the rose-breasted gross- 
beak, 78% of the indigo bird, 50% of the 
black-throated bunting, 79% of the or- 
chard oriole, 43% of the king bird, 32% 
of the red headed woodpecker, and 75% 
of the cuckoo. The usefulness of the 
thruBh and bluebird was very consider- 
ably impaired by their attacks on car- 
nivorous beetles, which made 15% of 
their food. These beetles were proven 
to take about 16% of their food from the 
canker- worms. Of the 20 birds repre- 
senting 12 species, shot where the army- 
worm abounded, only two birds, a grose- 
beak and a cuckoo, were found to have 
paid anv attention to the pest, the worms 
making about 5% of the food of the 20 
birds. Fifteen representatives of eight 
species, shot among the chinch bugs, had 
not touched these insects at all, but the 
catbird, the brown thrush and the 
meadow-lark, had been previously found 
eating them in small quantity. He con- 
cluded that there was a claes of entomo- 
logical insurrections, sudden, wide- 
spread, immense, and short-lived, upon 
which birds could make but little im- 
pression, as a whole, although they 
might be clearly useful on the outskirts of the 
region involved; and that there was another 
class, more limited in area and numbers, af- 
fected little or not at all by meteorological 
conditions, and consequently, less abrupt and 
longer lived, over which birds had a powerful, 
although not necessarily a controlling, influence, 

Iiie Phylloxera in France. — The present 
condition of the phylioxera plague is sketched 
by Galignani's Messenger (Paris) as follows: 
Notwithstanding all that has been done to 
check the ravages of the phylloxera vastatrix 
in this country, the destructive parasite is still 
spreading, and has now destroyed some of the 
most fertile vineyards of Italy. The actual 
money loss in France alone can be estimated 
from the fact that about one-quarter of the 
acreage of the wine-growing districts will need 
replanting, while another quarter is so badly 
attacked that replanting will probably bo the 
best remedy, although altogether it involves an 
expenditure of three milliards of francs. Out 
of the host of remedies tried, only three 
have given any promise of success, and they 
are almost as bad as the disease. They are: 
Total submersion of the district, so as to drown 
the insects; the use of insecticides, such as the 
sulphide of carbon; and the planting of Ameri- 
can varieties of vine, the last-mentioned rem- 
edy being only in the form of American roots, 
upon which the French vines are grafted. To- 
tal submersion, however, appears to yield the 
best results; but the congress which is to open 
on Sept. 5th will probably throw some light on 
the subject, which, to the inhabitants of the 
south of France and adjoining countries, ia 
rather more serious than the potato disease in 
Ireland. 



38 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



Correspondence. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Edb 



Freeno Notes. 

Kditors Press:— This seems fair to be the 
worst year in all respects yet seen in central 
California. We've had only 1.9 inches of rain, 
beginning with a heavy shower Sept. 22J, and 
since then it has fallen at such intervals that it 
has all dried up about as fast as it has falleD. 
This is the coldest morning that I have ever 
seen in this county. Thermometer was down 
to 11" Fahr., and ice froze in the still water in 
my ditch over one inch in thickness. Once 
only before has the thermometer reached 12*. 
The weather is now clear and dry, roads as 
dusty as in July. We've been having heavy 
winds for a few days, an almost certain sign of 
rain. May it prove so in this case. 

Over a foot of snow has fallen on the mount- 
ains, the head waters of King's river. This 
will insure water for irrigation in the colonies 
to those who hold "water rights" from the 
"Fresno Canal and Irrigation Co.," which holds 
the oldest right in our county to the waters of 
King's river. But those dependent upon ditches, 
holding water rights acquired within the past 
half dozen years, will fare poorly, if there is 
not yet a much greater snow-fall in the mount- 
ains. 

OraDge Trees. 

In a lecture before the Central California Col- 
ony five years ago, I asserted that orange trees 
would stand 20° below freezing point, equal to 
12° Fah. I've a lot of trees here that have 
stood that, and I'm certain, from their appear- 
ance new, that they'll stand with but little in- 
jury, the one degree more than we had last 
night. But they are not wholly unprotected, 
though the protection is not against the cold, 
but against the morning sun. The sun's rays 
must not strike them till the frost is entirely 
out of them. Plant on the west, or northwest 
side of a house, barn, evergreen shelter belt of 
trees, steep high hill or mountain, where the 
sun's rays cannot strike them till, say about 
noon, and they are secure from any degree of 
cold that we will ever have in the great valley of 
California. Five yearB ago, in my lecture, I as- 
serted the fact. I did not then comprehend it, so 
as to give directions to enable one to demonstrate 
it, as I have now done; but I knew I was right, 
and I've been observing and experimenting ever 
since, and now, if any reader of the Kiral 
Press will plant orange trees, anywhere from 
Kedding to San Diego, in the valley or lower 
foothills, as I have suggested above, he can 
raise oranges with as much certainty and ease as 
he can apples or peaches. I hope this will be 
as widely eircul.-.ted as was my assertion of the 
fact in my lecture five years ago which appear- 
ed in over (>0 newspapers, in our country, be- 
sides being published in Australia and New 
Zealand. The good that this item will do 
whei - e known will far more than repay me for 
all the unfriendly (yes, and sometimes ungentle- 
manly) criticisms that my enunciation of that 
fact called forth. My only wonder is that some 
old orange raiser, some "citrus sharp,'" has not 
long before this, given confirmation of it by the 
above instructions that will enable anyone to 
demonstrate it. \V. A. Sanders. 

Sanders, Fresno Co. 



Lessons of a Dry Year. 

Editors Press:— And still the dry weather 
continues, and farmers' hearts fail. The faces 
of many look blank; some abandon hope in 
despair, and the tongues of a few blaspheme. 
Hay is excessively high and scarce; in the up- 
per part of the county, cattle are in a starving 
condition; sheep are dying by the hundreds. 
Some are throwing up their leases and leaving 
their homes in utter and sullen abandonment. 
It clouds up, gives us every indication of a 
heavy downpour; a few sad drops weep, and all 
stand in joyous expectancy, and wait with open 
mouths and hearts. But the ardently prayed 
for and so long, so very long waited for rain 
does not come. The wind veers round, the 
clouds dissolve into thin air, and the hated sun 
shines clear as on the morning of creation, and 
hope is throttled by despair. And eo again and 
again, until the stoutest heart is almost ready 
to exclaim, "There is a fatality in it!" Butthis 
is taking an extreme view. We still have time; 
and although a dry year is probable, I still think 
we'will have rain enough to mature crops. If not, 
there will be ead suffering to many; but there 
will be no actual starvation; there will be abun- 
dance to eat for all. And our suffering will be 
a benefit to us in many ways. Our mad, head- 
long chase after the dollars will receive a fear- 
ful, but a beneficial check; we shall, perforce, 
pause and see to where and to what we are tend'- 
ing. We shall, some of up, it is to be hoped, 
reform our lives, and become more honest, more 
benevolent, more charitable, more Godlike. 
We shall see more opportunities to help our 
neighbors, and we shall be impelled to seize 
them. We shall learn to live for a juster pur- 
pose in this world. Nor is this all. 



We shall learn to make better provisions for 
the future. We shall learn, although the lesson 
is a hard one, that dry years — years of suffer 
ing — will occasionally come to California: and 
we shall learn to provide for them beforehand, 
so that we shall not Buffer ao much. We shall 
learn that it is not always best to sell hay be 
cause it is high, unless we reserve a year's sup 
ply. We shall learn that it is not best to lay 
out all our means, reserving no surplus, even if, 
by so doing, we are apparently making money. 
It is far better — more conducive to health, hap- 
piness, long life — to make haste to get rich 
slowly, exceedingly slowly. 

Our enforced idleness will give us leisure for 
long-delayed improvements, necessaries and 
conveniences of life. Already I hear of farmers 
planning improvements in case of a dry year, 
that will add materially to the capacities of 
their farms. And a thou.- and and one good 
things, morally, socially, intellectually and gen- 
erally, will be done, that were we continually 
piled with the nevei -ceasing labor that a good 
year would bring, would never be thought of. 
If we have no more rain, let us rejoice all we 
can. The man whose barn burnt had a splen 
did watermelon patch upon the ruins. Every 
cloud has a silver lining, and every case has two 
sides, and it is much more pleasant and health- 
ful to look upon the bright side. 

Is it any consolation to look upon the mis 
eries of others? What land, what State, is 
more exempt from afflictions than our own 
loved California ? I know of none. The grass- 
hoppers, the chinch-bugs, the rose-bugs, the 
borers, the roasting heats and marrow-chilling 
blasts and blizzards, afffict other States with a 
more deathly scourge than ever dronth, or any 
other calamity, ever afflicted California. From 
my old home in Kansas, 1 just learn that 
although crops have not entirely failed, suffer 
ing is fearful. Most farms are mortgaged to 
the utmost extent, and unless they have good 
crops this coming year, ruin is inevitable. 

Let us take heart and rejoice. Let us return 
thanks continually to the Great Giver of all 
good. S. P. Snow. 

Santa Barbara Co., Jan. 14, 1862. 




A Portuguese System of Long Pruning. 

Last week Dr. Bleasdale gave us a note, ask- 
ing the experience of those who had grown 
vines with long canes with reference to the 
effect of tie phylloxera upon them. He alluded 
to a piece of recent European experience bear- 
ing upon this practice of growing, which he 
translates from the Portuguese. It forms one 
of the appendices to the recent work, J\ramtal 
de VUicidlura Practiea, by the Viscount Villa 
Maior. He heads it. ' Upon a New System of 
Long Trailing, Pruning." (Suhre tin iwvolsyt>tem.a 
de poda longa e rosttira): 

At the Grange School for the education of 
apprentices to viticulture, a method of cultivat- 
ing vineyards has been reduced to practice, 
which appears to have proved to be extremely 
productive, and which is founded upon the vast 
natural fertility of the vine, when cultivated on 
the plan known as "grand arborescence. " An 
idea may be readily formed of this new method 
by imagining that a vine, instead of being 
trained over a high arbor, should be spread out 
upon the groucd with its branches and canes sup- 
ported on small forked props, just sufficiently 
high to protect it and its bunches from touch- 
ing the ground, and turn to account all the 
radiated heat to mature them. The planting is 
done in rows, at distances of from 3 to ti meters 
asunder (1) ft. to 18 ft). M. V. Nanquette, the 
directer of the above-named institution, states 
that in many vineyards of Turenne the plants 
are (i ft. asunder in the rows, and the rows 18 ft. 
apart, and that the yield is .30 hectoliters — ap- 
proximately, 10 pipes of wine to the hectare (2) 
American acres). The hectoliter is 2G.4 Amer- 
ican gallons. 

In another place Director Nanquetto says: 
"The most remarkable thing about these vines 
of enormous size is the condition of perfect 



health (if we may use the expression) which 
they exhibit in their entire vegetation, being 
free from nodosities (black knot), warts or galls 
on the canes and principal branches, the bark 
clean, free from moss," etc. 

In confirmation of the above facts, it will be 
enough to call attention to what may be noticed 
any day in the instance of vines of great arbor- 
escence; i. e , trained over arbors or extensive 
trellises, without needing to cite the instance of 
the huge old vine at Hampton Court. The 
healthy and vigorous condition of these vines 
makes ub reflect whethir vineB which have suc- 
cumbed to diseases, of which phylloxera is the 
worst, would not either have entirely resisted 
their attacks, or at least have remained mate- 
rially uninjured. 

In order to throw some more light on this 
new system of -vineyard culture, I will tran- 
scribe the short account which M. Nanquette 
gives us of it in the Journal de Agriculture 
Praetique, of 17th December, 1874, page 840: 
"The system of cultivating and pruning vine- 
yards known in Turenne as the process of Chis- 
xay, en chointre, or long creeping pruning, has 
been employed at the grange-school of Huband- 
leres for a number of years. 

Comparison of the quantity of wine yielded by 
a vineyard on the creeping system (rastreira), 



with long pruning, and that of another adjoin- 
ing, with the same variety of vines, cultivated 
on Dr. Guyot's method, with cane and bud 
pice for next year's cane (pollegar, literally, a 

thumb.) 

1. One and cue-quarter acre, planted and 
cultivated ai above described, produced 1,261 
gallons of grapes, which yielded 1,053 gallons of 
wine and 221 gallons pomace. 

2. An equal area, planted on Guyot's plan, 
produced 66'2J gallons grapes, yielding 559J gal- 
lons wine and 117 of pomace. The article is 
illustrated by two drawings showing the vines 
loaded with grapes. 

According to this system of cultivation, with 
the vines si" ft. asunder in the rows, and the 
rows IS ft. apart, the hectare would contain only 
830 plants, and their yield is incomparably supe- 
rior to that of vineyards planted with 10,000 or 
more to the hectare. The hectare is 2k acre* 
nearly. "Experience," says M. Nanquette, 
shows that, not only does this system of long- 
rod pruning give a far greater return than the 
old one, in good years, but its mean yield is 
more regular and uniform." 

This fact is accounted for by the diminished 
risk of spring frosts, the less danger of the flow- 
ers proving unfertile, and other accidents which 
may happen during the period of vegetation. 

It must be clear to the mind of everyone who 
knows what ?. vine is, and who reflects on isola- 
tion as secured by the above system, that its 
physiological state is far better than where the 
vines are crowded together. On the other hand, 
in the instance of an invasion such as oidium or 
phylloxera, are we not justified in calculating 
on the efficicy of this sytt?m as a preserva- 
tive, or, at any rate, as greatly facilitating the 
application of remedial measures ? 

The roots, rootlets and spongioles of a vine 
cramped, as in the old system, form a tangled 
mass, of which no adequate idea can be formed 
without seeing old vines dug up which have 
been placed in such conditions. Now, this un- 
derground state, so singularly favorable to the 
propagation of insect pests, finds no place in the 
system of cultivation at long distances, the use 
of which can never be too highly praised. So 
far M. Nanquette. Evidently, the system of 
vine-cultivation on the plan of "creeping" and 
''long-rod pruning," resting as it does on valid 
theoretic grounds, and already to some extent, 
as we have just seen, deserves at least a fair 
trial by our vignerone -not in every place nor 
in all kinds of soil, but where the fertility of 
the soil is assured, and where the strong and 
spreading roots of an arborescent vine can find 
space to stretch themselves without danger of 
injury from too much moisture. In this sys- 
tem, when properly carried out, we meet with 
none of the drawbacks to the maturing of the 
fruit, and, by consequence, for the production 
of good wine, which are experienced where the 
vines are trained to trees. On the contrary, 
this system seems competent to correct the 
faults arising out of excessive sugar in the 
grapeB, so common in many of the vineyards of 
Portugal. 



Gmpe Cuttings. 



Editors Phkss:— Among the appendices to the recent 
work on "Practical Viticulture," by the Viscount Villa 
Maior, I found the following interesting discussion of the 
question as to which portion of a long vine cane will form 
the best cutting for planting. And as preparing cut- 
tings for sale is just at present inorder, I thought it of in- 
terest to vineyardists to translate it, and send it out for 
v% ] 1 1 r it is worth, in the hope that now when so much 
planting is about to take place the matter may be set at 
rest once for all, by direct experiment. If what M 
Oiuseppe Froio says prove to be the fact, much import- 
ance will ncceFsanly attach to it; seeing that the country 
requires bo many new varieties of valuable foreign vines 
introduced, while those cuttings most likely to thrive 
should be preferred.— John I. Blkasdale, 61$ Merchant 
St., S. F. 

A sing'e cane of one year's growth may fur- 
nish more than one plant, by dividing it into 
suitable pieces, according to its length. It is 
not desirable that a cutting should be very long, 
n order to be planted with profit. 

Some authors prefer very short cuttings (say 
from 7 to 10 inches long), and leave one or two 
eyes above ground. 

Now, in view of what has been said, the fol- 
lowing questions naturally arise: Which part 
of the cane will furnish the best cutting? Will 
it be that in contact with last year's wood, or 
the portions nearer the extremity of the cane? 

The Italian writer, Sr. Giuseppe Froio, in bis 
small but excellent treatise "Bui iviglior modo 
di cultivare la vite in Italia" holds the opinion 
that the best cutting, -that is to say, the one 
which takes most readily, and forms the best 
and most productive vine, is that taken from 
the extreme point of the cane; consequently 
the farthest from the two-year-old wood. 

He declares that "if we take 10 canes (sar- 
mentos) and divide each into three parts — the 
first having a bit of the old wood adhering, the 
next out of the middle, and the third being the 
extreme portion of the canes — and if we plant 
them all in the same soil, and in the same way, 
and treat them exactly alike, we shall find that 
those cuttings which take root moat readily, 
and give the best shoots, and come soonest into 
bearing, are those from the extreme end of the 
cane." 

Villa-Maior remarks: "As I myself have 
never experimented in this direction, nor met 
with special mention of it in other authors, I 
give it with reserve, yet I hope practical men 
will give it a trial, and judge of it according to 
its merits. " 

Froio Continues: "All observations prove 
in effect that the sap, as it circulates in the vine, 
exerts its influence always rather towards the 
end of the cane than towards the lower portions 



of it, and the old wood is fonnd from year to 
year ever poorer and poorer, both in fruit and 
buds, to such an extent as to render it improper 
to use the shoots thrown out upon it for the pur- 
pose of planting. It would appear that the oil*. 
culatioB in the vine daring August, and through* 
the autumn, deposits juices more nutritive and! 
more life-giving in proportion as they rise to- 
wards the extremity of the cane, since the last, 
eyes give always the earliest and most vigorous 
shoot-. Notwithstanding it is only right to 
say that, with dne care, the base, the middle 
portions and the extremities of canes, of good 
kinds, in good condition, may each alike serve 
to form good vineyards'." 

N. B.--As stated already, the real value of 
the above doctrine rests upon the circumstance 
of our having yet to import cuttings from many 
countries where first cost, freight and loss, 
render it desirable that cuttings-should alone 
be selected that appear to possess- a maximum 
of vitality. j; I. B. 



TrjE Stable. 



The Horses of California. 

Judge Jones, of Ohio, who was in California 
last fall as one of the U. S. Arid L»nd Com- 
missioners, was -truck with the excellence of 
the horses which he saw in the city streets, and 
here and there in the country. He desired to 
know more of the stock from which the animals 
descended, and addressed a letter to Joseph 
Cairn Simpson, Secretary of the Pacific Coast 
Blood Horse Association, and well known as an 
equine expert of the highest rank. Judge Jonea 
wrote as follows: 

"1 have been at a loss to account for the high excel- 
lence of the general imrpose and roadster horsei* of Call- 
fr rnia. atid would bs greatly obliged if you could haTe time 
to write ma a brief statement of the ki-i- of the stock, the 
blood and character of the inures, and the horses chiefly used 
aw sires 

To this request Mr. SimpBon replied at con- 
siderable length, the reply being published in 
the Call. We quote the portions of leading in- 
terest as follows: 

When California wa? ceded to the United 
States at the close of the Mexican war, there 
were few others than the native horses. These 
were descended from stock imported from 
Spain, and their characteristics were hardihood, 
wonderful endurance and spirit. Some of them 
were horses of very high form and of much 
beauty. They were admirably adapted for the 
wants of the people who bred them, and it is 
doubtful if there ever was a race of horses which 
equalled them for the saddle. With speed in 
the gallop only second to the thoroughbred, 
sore-footed, capable of standing a journey of 
hundreds of miles without other food than the 
herbage they could gather in the circuit of a 
lariat, and covering from 60 to 120 miles a day 
for a week at a time, they enabled the residents 
to go long journeys with a celerity which is ab- 
solutely astonishing to those who imagined, 
from the common name, "mustang," that they 
were the same as the wicked little ponies of 
Texas and Mexico. They had 

The Best of Legs and Feet, 

Hard, dry muscles and sinewy limbs. For the 
uses of the vaquero they were unrivalled. Gal- 
loping down hills so steep that an English fox- 
hunter would dismount and lead his horse, or 
expect to have bis neck broken, stopping at full 
speed and turning on a square of 20 ft., entering 
into the spirit of the chase with all the zest of 
the keenest sportsman, and so intelligent that 
they knew what to do nearly as well as their 
riders. No other race of horses could have 
taken their place, and answered the require- 
ments of the old, old days of California — the 
days before the stars and stripes floated over 
the Band hills of San Francisco, before the bunt- 
ing adorned with the gam visaged bruin, waved 
over the valley of Sonoma. A short time pre- 
vious to the conquest a few settlers came from 
Oregon, and these brought some "American" 
horses. The same causes led to the introduc- 
tion of a capital class of "all purpose" horses in 
Oregon as afterwards came to California, viz. : 
the long journey "across the plains." Those 
who bad spirit enough to venture on such a long 
and tiresome pilgrimage had sense enough to 
know that only the very best animals would do. 
Before starting, for months, and perhaps years, 
they were en the lookout for the kind that they 
knew had the proper qualification, and many 
"swaps" would be made before they were en- 
tirely suited. The early emigrants to Oregon 
"carried" with them a race of powerful horses, 
the blood being that of the old-time quarter 
racers — a combination of Printer, Bacchus, 
Henry, Lummix, and other strains of noted 
| champions of the short-paths. The immense 
' muscular development which enabled them to 
] rush into top-speed, almost instantaneously, 
I also gave them the power to haul a heavy 
1 load, and they were justly celebrattd for the 
j business of the farm. 

In Northwestern Mlseouri 
There was a great deal of thoroughbred blood, 
and was the only kind which met with any 
favor, in those days, in the lead-mining country. 
As early as 1840 there was a fine race course at 
Galena, and in 1846' there were two in active 
operation — one at Dubuque, one at Mineral 
Point, with quarter-paths near every village. 
Blood horses came from Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama and Mississippi, raced there, and were 



January 21, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



sold. The animals which carried a great share 
of this blood were the ones sought after for the 
California trip, and these had the courage and 
hardihood to bring them through to the end. 
The whirl and perfect fever of excitement 
among the new-comers prevented them from 
paying any attention to the horses after the 
journey was completed. They were sold for 
whatever they would bring. Some of them 
were turned out and never thought of again, 
and the pedigrees which they had been so care- 
ful in looking up, before the purchase was made, 
forever lost. There was a preponderance of 
mares. Whenever a person was looking for a 
team to cross the plains, the preference was 
given to mares, and, if of equal quality, the 
female would bring the largest price. Even in 

The Early Days of California 
Many thoroughbreds were brought here, one 
class of which had short and unfashionable 
pedigrees, and these were quite numerous, 
while a few were of capital breeding. The in- 
ferior were of vast service in improving the gen- 
eral stock of the country, while the better have 
left their impress on the blood stock, and from 
them have descended very superior race-horses. 

Oregon breeders sent mares here of the blood 
already mentioned, being, as a rule, large and 
highly finished, and some of them capable of 
running from a quarter of a mile to a thousand 
yards very fast. Of this class were "Oregon 
Amanda," "Big Gun," "Comet," etc., animals 
which would weigh over 1,200 lt>3., and 16 
hands in hight. Before we leave the considera- 
tion of the old-time mares it may be as well to 
note another element which had an effect in 
perfecting the heavier California horses. When 
the excitement and tumult whi;h followed the 
discovery of gold had partially subsided, men 
of acumen foresaw the prominent position which 
this country must eventually occupy in agri- 
culture, and especially for horse-breeding. In 
addition to the importation of high-class thor- 
oughbreds from Eogland, they also brought 
some of the heavier kinds — Clydesdales, 
crach stallions and Eoglish draft horses. 
No one knows better than Judge Jones 
the difference between the Clydesdales of thirty 
years ago and those which are most in favor 
now. There has been such a demand for ani- 
mals which would weigh more than the ponder- 
ous Normans, that the best qualities of the 
Clydesdales have been sacrificed to gratify the 
prevailing mania, and in place of the compact, 
symmetrical animal of 1,400 or 1,600 lbs., the 
range now looked for is from a minimum of 
1,600 lbs. to a maximum of over a ton. William 
Hood, of Sonoma county, H. W. Seale, of Santa 
Clara county, and others, were instrumental in 
introducing these breeds, and, coupling them 
with the finer strains, increased the size, while 
much of the quality of the better blood was re- 
tained. Thus Mr. Seale, in the second genera 
tion from the Clydesdale, has animals of large 
size which can trot fast, the result being ob- 
tained by crossing with his stallion Elmo, a 
lineal descendant from the imported Barb, Grand 
Bashaw. This sketch, though necessarily brief, 
will show that there was a good foundation laid 
to produce the excellence noted by our corre- 
spondent, and that the maternal line could 
scarcely be bettered. There is less difficulty in 
tracing the blood of the sires, as the advertise- 
ments of stallions furnish the information. 

The Belmont Stock 

Of all the old-time stallions of California, 
Belmont takes the precedence. He has left his 
impress on every class of horses on the Pacific 
coast. On the race- course, on the trotting 
tracks, on the road, before the carriage, on the 
farms, hauling the heavy trucks of the cities, 
stages, street railways, everywhere are to be 
found his descendants, and in every situation 
playing well their part, and gaining honor in 
every field. It is not necessary in a disquisi- 
tion on roadster and general purpose horses to 
follow Belmont's offspring on the race course; 
the trotting proclivities of his detcenuants, 
however, come legitimately into the discussioD. 
Belmont's breeding in the first place will be 
properly considered, and that could scarcely be 
found fault with by the most captious of critics. 
His sire, American Boy, was by Sea Gull, a 
son of Expedition, and his dam was a sister to 
Boxer, and she was also by Expedition. Judge 
Jones is well acquainted with this strain of 
horses, and he is well aware of the immense 
value of the horses which were brought by the 
"Jersey settlers" to the stock of Ohio. The 
late George Grain of Cincinnati, (and a 
better judge of coach and carriage horses 
never lived), told the writer that he could 
always find a few extra carriage horses 
iu the Jersey settlement from the Expe- 
dition stallions, which were kept there. 
That was before the time when so much atten- 
tion was paid to trotters; but he said it was no 
trouble at all for a pair of them to pull a heavy 
coach at a four-minute gait, and in bis opinion 
there never was a family which could excel them 
in size, style, high form, good color, and the 
strong family resemblance, which made it easy 
to find those which would match closely. 

Belmont was taken by Henry Williamson to 
Oregon, and was brought from there to Califor- 
nia. Contemporary with him were the thor- 
oughbred stallions "Ashland by imported Glen- 
coe, and Billy Cheatham by Cracker, Jack Hawk- 
ins by Boston, Rifleman by imported Glencoe, 
Belshszzer by imported Belshazzer, Joseph by 
Hermes, imported Lawyer, imported Nena 
Sahib, imported Hercules, Young Consterna- 
tion by imported Consternation, and quite a 
number of others. Very many of these horses 
were large, stylish animals, and from 1853 there 



was no lack of patronage. This disseminated 
the thoroughbred blood in every portion of the 
State, and then there were other strains which 
were of vast service among the 

Early Importations. 
For instance, there was brought here about 
1S57, Abdallah, by Bysdyk's Hambletonian, his 
dam by Roebuck, and his grandam by Henry, 
the competitor of American Eclipse. He is de- 
sciibed as being 16 hands half an inch high; 
color, a mahogany bay, and a horse of very fine 
appearance. In 1860, Mystery was brought 
here, and he is described as "a dark chestnut, 
full 16 hands, and weighing about 1,200 lt>3." 
He was by Cassius M. Ciay, the sire of Geo. M. 
Patchen, and his dam was claimed to be thor- 
oughbred. As early as 1858, Battler was brought 
here from the northern part of New York State, 
and he was by Biggart's Rattler. He was also 
16 hands, and weighed 1,200 lbs. John Nelson, 
by imported Trustee, came about the same time, 
and his dam was by Abdallah. There was 
brought with Rattler, another son of Trustee, 
his dam by Haight's Paymaster. (Juite a num- 
ber of horses were brought herein 1860, '61 and 
'62, by Vermont Black Hawk. One of them, 
Benicia Boy, is described as being 16 hands and 
weighing 1,260 lbs. Mine Creek, Black Hawk, 
Comet and Manhattan, of this strain, were me- 
dium-sized horses. Vermont is represented as 
16 Lands, weight, 1,100 1T>3. , and Stockbridge 
Chief, 15 j hands, and with a weight of 1,131 lb 1 . 
Burgess' Sherman-Morgan is classed as 15| 
hands, and 1,100 R>3. ; Keokuk, by Vermont 
Black Hawk, 15| hands, and 1,080 tbi. 

Information for Others. 

It does not require further explanations to ac- 
quaint Judge Jones of the grand foundation 
which was laid here in these early days for the 
excellence in the classes he has noted, but to 
others who are not so well versed in pedigree, it 
may be as well to throw more light on the sub- 
ject. There was a large amount of thorough- 
bred blood of nearly every strain, and not a 
trotting family of any note which had not rep- 
resentatives previous to 1865. Hambletonians, 
Mambrino Chiefs, Vermont and Long Island, 
Black Hawks, Hiatogas, Clays, the Morse 
Hoars, Kentucky Hunter, Morgan, Patchens, 
Royal Georgr, ets. Since 1865 there have been 
such a number of importations apart from thor- 
oughbreds that it is safe to assert that Califor- 
nia is now better supplied with trotting stal- 
lions than any State in the Union. But before 
calling attention to the later importations we 
must notice a family, peculiar to California, 
which is likely to increase the pre-eminence in 
a still greater degree. In fact, the "great sen- 
sations" with a few exceptions, which startled 
the trotting world on the o her side of the 
mountains, have sprung from this family. 
The head of the fountain was a horse which 
was brought to Sacramento in an early 
day, and who was afterwards called St. Clair. 
He was of medium size, muscular in form, 
and apparently of high breeding. Though 
every effort was made to trace his origin, noth- 
ing could be learned about his pedigree, but 
those who were the most familiar with his ap- 
pearance, say that there can be no doubt that 
he had a great deal of the blood of the thorough- 
bred. This idea is strengthened by the looks 
of his sons and daughters. Nearly ail of them 
show a great deal of quality, and his daughter, 
Lady St. Clair, would pass for a thoroughbred, 
and Mayflower and Mayfly, the dams of Wild- 
rlower and Bonita, show a great deal of finish. 
The first really notable event in trottiDg in Cali- 
fornia was when Occident trotted a mile at Sac- 
ramento in 2:1 64. It was the fastest record at 
the time it was made, and he was dubbed the 
"California Wonder." The three fastest two- 
year-olds iu the world are from St. Clair mares, 
and the fastest five miles, trotting or pacing, is 
the 12:56; — or about that figure — of Lady St. 
Clair. Not having the record at hand it may 
not be the exact time, but, at all events it was 
some seconds faster than the time of Lady 
Mack — 13 minutes. St. Clair was a pacer, 
though his offspring generally trotted. Atten 
tioo was first drawn to him by the hardihood 
and capital working qualities of the St. Clairs, 
which were hauling carts in the construction of 
the Central Pacific railway, and the purchasing 
agent of the company would pay a higher price 
for a St. Clair then one of any other breed of 
the same quality. 

Since 1865, the importation of trotting stal- 
lions have embraced some of the foremost ani 
m'als of the country, and it is a matter of record 
that more money has been paid for them in Cal- 
ifornia than any other State. Thus Governor 
Stanford pai l $25,000 for General Benton, $12,- 
500 for Electioneer, and $10,000 fur Mohawk 
Chief. Thirteen thousand dollars was the cost 
of Steinway. William Corbitt is reported to 
have paid $20,000 for Irvington and $5,000 for 
his yearling brother Arthurton. Elmo cost 
$15,000, and Carr's Mambrino some $7,000 
when a year or two old. Sam Purdy was sold 
at auction on California street and realiz d over 
$20,000 in gold, when coin was at a good deal 
of a premium over greenbacks, and the list 
could be extended so as to substantiate the po- 
sition beyond doubt. Although there were so 
mauy strains of trotting blood antecedent to 
1865, since then there has been a wonderful 
augmentation. The sons of Rysdyk's Hamble- 
tonian are Ulster Chief, Mohawk Chief, Echo, 
Irvington, Arthurton, and the now celebrated 
Electioneer. There are several Almonts of 
the finest breeding, and Happy Medium has the 
fast Brigadier and Milton Medium to sustain 
the credit of the Princess family of Hambleton- 
ians. Strathmore has Steinway, and though 



his famous son Santa Claus is in the East, he is 
still owned in California. 

There are several of his colts here, with a 
weanling brother at Palo Alto. Woodford Mam- 
brino has Abbotsford and Inca, and Mambrino 
Patchen, Carr's Mambrino and two others. The 
most noted grandson of Rysdyk's Hambletonian 
in California, is Whipple's Hambletonian, who, 
more appropriately, should have figured in the 
earlier importations, though he is still in service, 
hale and vigorous. There are 

So Many Promising Young Stallions 
In California, that it would be manifestly be- 
yond the scope of this article to mention them, 
though some are of such prominence that they 
are well worthy of a place. Priam, by Whip- 
ple's Hambletonian, from a thoroughbred 
daughter of imported Glencoe, Revere, is the 
sire of Honesty, with a four-year old record of 
2:25§, and of Upright, from the thoroughbred 
mare, Gilroy Belle, which is held to be of 
fully as much promise. Nephew, a son of 
Mambrino, by Edward Everett, is the sire of 
Fred Arnold, and others which show well; and 
so the list could be extended until the repeti- 
tion would bocome tiresome to all except- 
ing those who have more than a passing inter- 
est in the breeding of trotters. The mares, 
all which have been brought here since 1865, are 
entitled to as high a place as the stallions, and 
to present their claims properly would require 
fully as much space. A few illustrations will 
show something of the quality. L. J. Rose, in 
1870, imported Minnehana, by Bald Chief. She 
has three daughters in the 2:30 list, viz: Beau- 
tiful Bells, 2:29J; Sweetheart, (two-year-old 
record), 2:26A; at three years old, in 2:22$; 
Eva, two years old, 2:26, 2:26.^, and the grand- 
daughter of Minnehaha, Hinda Rose, with the 
still more wonderful performance of 2:36.2 when 
a yearling. Mr. Rose at the same time import- 
ed Gretchen by Mambrino Pilot, and she is the 
dam of Del Sur by the Moore record at four 
years, 2:25, and Romero by A. W. Richmond, 
at the same age, 2:22j. She is also the dam of 
Inca and Sable, a very fast mare, now in the 
breeding stud of William Corbitt, at San Ma- 
teo. Barbara, by Bald Chief, the dam of Len 
Rose, was brought at the same time. There are 
so many celebrated mares at Palo Alto that it 
would require columns to present their claims 
to distinction, and the same can be written of 
the studs of Wm. Corbitt, H. W. Seale, John 
B. Haggin, Daniel Cook, Peter Coutts, Jesse D. 
Carr, while all the way fro.n San l>iego to Sis- 
kiyou, and from the ocean to the Sierras, are a 
great number in the hands of the smaller breed- 
ers which will bear comparison with those on 
the 1 rg) stud farms. 



1\[E pIELD. 



Irrigation Ditches in Colorado. 

Some items of the experience of our Col- 
orado neighbors, as given by a correspondent 
of the Mark Lane Express, may be of interest: 
It is always a few years before a canal runs to 
its full capacity. In the first place, the loose 
earth of the artificial banks is unable to with- 
stand the pressure of the water until they are 
settled down and firm. Again, as these canals 
are all formed with the plow and horae-scraper, 
both banks and bottoms are very rough, which 
at first is the cause of a great amount of fric- 
tion, retarding to a considerable degree the 
passage of the water. This is generally obvi- 
ated in time by the action of the water smooth- 
ing off projections and filling up hollows. One 
of the grc atest drawbacks to a new canal the 
first few years is the seepage orsoakage as it is 
called, which is reckoned at almost 50% of the 
whole water. 

The soil having been dry for centuries re- 
quires an enormous body of water to thoroughly 
saturate it, and its percolations to a lower level 
are also considerable. This soil is very deep and 
porous, and it is only after a number of years 
when the glutinous sediment carried down by 
the water falls to the bottom and partially 
puddles the ditch, that the canal carries any- 
th ng like the supply of water to the points of 
delivery which enters at its mouth. The carry- 
ing capacity of a canal at the end of five years 
is reckoned to double its capacity when newly 
started. Irrigation farming the first few years 
is almost as unsatisfactory as the working of 
the canal. Even allowing the farmer to get his 
full supply of waterdelivered over the bankof the 
main ditch, he has often to run it in a lateral 
ditch for several miles over a parched,dry soil be- 
fore getting it on to the land he intends to irrigate. 
The small body of water and big surface of the lat- 
eral causes the loss of a great portion of the water 
at a time when the newly-broken soil requires 
double the supply to saturate it which it will 
do after being irrigated for several years, and 
thorou ,hly saturated and consolidated. Thus 
it u ually occurs that the farmer under a new 
ditch barely gets half his supply of water, when 
double his water right would not be sulficient 
for his purpose. These causes frequently lead 
to a great amount of trouble and dissatisfaction 
with the management of a new ditch the first 
few years. The oldest ditch of any consequence 
in Colorado is the Greeley Colony ditch con- 
structed, in 1870. This ditch is on the Cache la 
Pondre river, and lies between that river and 
the Larimer and Weld ditch already referred to, 
watering all along the lower bench lands of the 
river parallel to that canal A good deal of diffi- 
culty was experienced at first in getting this 
canal to work satisfactorily. It is now wholly 



owned by the farmers under the ditch, who ap- 
point a superintendent to look after the canal and 
the water, with the result that the proper quan- 
tity of water is now delivered with perfect reg- 
ularity when required. The English company 
who own the Larimer and Weld ditch sell their 
water in what is termed water rights. A water 
right constitutes a quantity of water delivered 
over a weir at the rate of 1.44 cubic feet per 
second, which is supposed to be sufficient to ir- 
rigate 80 acres. This is delivered over the bank 
of the main ditch, the company having nothing 
to do with the laterals leading away from it, 
these being managed by the farmer or farmers, 
as the case may be. In the water right certifi- 
cate the company insert clauses relieving them 
from consequential damages caused by deficient 
supply of water during times of drouth, or in 
event of an accident to the canal; in such cases 
the water in the canal is divided equally amongst 
the water rights. Every owner of a water 
right is given four shares in the canal, and as 
soon as the sufficient number of rights are sold 
to cover the capability of the canal, it is handed 
over to the owners of the water rights to man- 
age for themselves. A water right on newly 
broken sod has only been found sufficient for 40 
acres; but after a few years and with a regular 
rotation of crops, using water all over the sea- 
son, it may be equal to 120 acres. It has been 
found so in California. The Larimer and Weld 
Ditch Company are selling these water rights at 
£100 each. The least quantity sold is a quarter 
water right for $125, suitable for 20 acres of 
land. Where the water is rented year by year 
it costs $1 an acre for the season. The company 
sell these rights either for cash or on five year's 
time in equal installments, paying in advance 
10% interest on deferred payments. Their lands 
are sold from $7 to $12 per acre, being appraised, 
not on account of any difference in quality of 
soil, but solely on the ground of its suitability 
for irrigation. The rough and steep soils being 
cheapest and those with a nice, smooth surface 
and suitable grade being dearest, as being capa- 
ble of being watered with less waste of labor 
and water than the rougher parts. 



Bluestoning Seed Grain. 

Editors Press: — I read in your issue of the 
7th, a communication signed J. B. B., Oakdale, 
on bluestoning wheat. I think I recognize in 
your correspondent an old friend, a good farmer 
and a close observer. I have not had the ex- 
tended experience of J. B. B. , but so far as my 
experience and observation goes, when wheat is 
properly prepared by bluestoning, and not put 
in when the ground is too wet, or while it is 
raining, it is a certain preventive of smut. 
With J. B. B , I had the impression that vol- 
unteer wheat never smutted, until the past sea- 
son, the volunteer crop of which was very 
smutty. On my own volunteer crop, I had 
sown some additional seed, which was well blue- 
stoned as any grain I sowed. The crop was 
quite smutty, while volunteer wheat around 
where no additional seed was sown, was very 
much more smutty. My summer-fallow and 
winter-sown wheat, the seed being all the same 
as that sown on the volunteer, and out of the 
same lot, prepared at the same time, had only 
an occasional head of smut in it. 

In the harvest of 1878, one of my neighbors 
had a very smutty crop of barley. Another 
neighbor got some of it, and sowed it with- 
out soaking in bluestone. I at the time 
asked him, he being a man of ex- 
perience in the business, if he was 
not afraid of having a smutty crop of barley. 
He answered no, he had never seen barley smut 
when sown in dry weather, and never fail to 
smut when sown while raining. The following 
season being the dryest we ever had before this, 
the crop merely sprouted and died out, so we 
could not tell the result; but in the fall of 1870 
my neighbor and I sowed from the same 
seed without steeping in bluestone, and both 
had some smut in our crops. In the fall of 
1880 the same man soaked his barley in blue- 
stone, both of us sowing on -:he same character 
of land, a black adobe, or dry bog as it is called 
here; I sowing without any preparation of the 
seed, and both had barley entirely free from 
smut, although at the time of sowing there was 
smut, in the seed. 

In the harvest of 1880 the volunteer crop was 
entirely free from smut; in the harvest of 1881 
the volunteer crop was very smutty — of course 
I mean wheat in both cases, and for all this sec- 
tion. 

I do not pretend to account for this, but will 
leave it for some scientific man to explain, if he 
can; for myself, I believe that a particular state 
of the atmosphere occurriug at a particular 
stage of the growth of grain has a tendency to 
produce smut. From this statement will some 
one else ph ase yuess at the cause? J. T. 

Tulare, Ca l. 

New Use for Sheet Iron. — An inquiry has 
been started as to the possibility of using sheet 
iron as a covering for cotton bales. The pres- 
ent hemp or flax covering is used solely on ac- 
count of its cheapness; but as it admits moist- 
ure and sand, it causes a considerable wasto of 
cotton in the course of transportation. A num- 
ber of heavy cotton dealers of Memphis, Ky., 
have written North for quotations on No. 30 
sheet iron. If the change should be generally 
made, it will produce an enormously increased 
demand for that material. Each bale will re- 
quireasheet 76x44 inches, with a weight of 22 lbs. 
The annual crop of cotton wouldabsorb 66,- 
000 tons of sheet iron. 



40 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
port a of transactions of subordinate Granges are respectfully 
requested for this department. 



Grange Elections. 

Elliott Grange, San Joaquin Co. — J. 
Wiltae, M. ; Ja*. Hoyt, O. ; Mrs. Jennie Hitter, 
L.; F. Ritter, S.; Robt. Adams, Jr.. A. S.; 
Mrs. F. L. Johnson, C. ; ffm. Knnis, T. ; H. 
H. West, Secy. ; LAV. Pound, G. K. ; Mrs. Emslie, 
Ceres; Miss Maggie Emslie, Pomona; Miss Amy 
O'Neal, Flora; Mrs. M. H. West, L. A. S. 

Florin Grange, Sacramento Co. — W. L. 
Montgomery, M. ; Hiram Simons, 0.; W. K. 
Garwood, L.; J. Reese, S. ; C. Towle, A. S.; 
W. A. Smith, C. ; D. H. Buell, T. ; U. Reese, 
Secy.; Joseph Jackson, G. K.; Julia F. Wilson, 
Ceres; Maggie Meadows, Pomona; Ada Fas- 
sett, Flora; Kate Jackson, L. A. S. 

Washington Grange, San Joaquin Co. — 
Nelson Dill, M.; S. C. Waters, O.; A. A. Van 
Zandt, L. ; Joseph D.bold, S ; Mrs. A. E. Bly- 
ther, C ; Chac. Clyther, T. ; R. D. Wilson, 
Sec'y; Wm. Beck, G. K. ; Miss Josie Stamper, 
A. S. ; Miss Amy Mclntyie, Pomona; Miss 
Gerty Holman, Flora; and Miss Rosa Stamper, 
Organist. 

Merced Grange.— R S. Clay, M.J H. C. 
Healey. O.; A. Smith, L; W. W. Gray, S.; 
Wm. Wheaton, A. S.; S. W. Heath, C.j 
Thomas Upton, T. ; Mrs. H. J. Ostrauder, 
Sec'y; M. D. Atwater, G. K.; Mrs. Atwater, 
Ceres; Mrs. Smith, Pomona; Mrs. Heath, Fiora; 
Mrs. R. S. Clay, L. A. S. 

Bennett Valley Grange.— R. A. Temple, 
M.; G. N Whitaker, O.; Dan. Mills, L. ; Chas. 
De Turk, S. ; Chas. D. Bonner, A. S. -, Andrew 
Lacque, C. ; W. H. Lunsden, T. ; Fannie Luof- 
deD, Sec'y; Perry Whitaker, G. K.; Mrs. C. 
Lyman, Ceres; Mrs. E. E. Whitaker, Pomona; 
Mrs. Chas. Da Turk, F:ora; Miss Sarah Lacque, 
L. A. S. ; Trustee for three years, D. Lacque. 

St. Helena Grange. — David Edwards, M. > 
John Lewelling, 0. ; Sarah Pellet, L. ; Capt- 
Peterson, S.; Fr W. Hewes, A. S. ; Mrs. Samce 1 
Stone, C. ; Chas. A. Storey, T. ; H. J. Lewell- 
ing. Sec'y; Samuel Stone, G. K.; Jas. L. Peter- 
son, Ceres; Mrs. Hannah B. Weinberger, Po- 
mona; Miss Fannie Stone, Flora; Mrs. Wm. H. 
Castnen, L. A. S. ; Mrs. Wm. Castnen, Or- 
ganist. 

Geokgiana Grange. — H. F. Smith. M. ; F. 
M. Pool, 0.; Emma Limbaugh, L. ; J. H. Stav- 
ton, 0.j Jesse Knott, T.; J. Pool, Sec; C. P. 
Hensley, S ; P. H. Gardiner, A. S. ; Mary 
Hensley, L. A. S. ; Eliza Limbaugh, G K. ; 
Martha Pool, Ceres; A. E. Pool, Flora. 

National Ranch Grange, San Diego Co. — 
W. C. Kimball, M.J Charles Hubbell, O ; Flora 
M. Kimball, L.; Hemy C. Barnes, S.; N. P. 
Rolund, A. S.; James Todd, C. ; Thos. Walker, 
T. ; Mrs. Jennie H. Barnes, Sec. ; Sarah C. 
Kimball, G. K.; Mrs. Carrie Moore, Pomona; 
Mrs. Mary C. Morse, Flora; Mrs. A. M. Field, 
Ceres; Josie Perry, L. A. S. 

Plymouth Grange, Amador Co. — E. S. Pot- 
ter, M.J F. Vanderpool, 0. ; S. J. Worley, L. ; 
M. L Gregg, S.; L. T. Lefebre, A. S.; Mrs. M. 
M. Ford, C ; John Sharp. T.j J. Salee, Sec'y; 
S. C. Wheeler, G K.; Ida Caldwell, Pomona; Sis- 
ter McMillan, Flora; Sister M. E Wheeler, 
Ceres; Sister Vanderpool, L. A. S. 

Ceres Grange, Stanislaus Co. — H. W.Brower, 
M.; A. J. Boyd, O.; P. W. Cook, L ; M. J. 
Hall, S.; R. K. Whitmore, A. S. ; Mtp. 
H. M. Whitmore, C; John Service, T.; 
W. G. Muriger, Secy. ; E. Hatch, G. ; Mies 
Nellie Whitmore, Cerea; Miss Nettie Brouse, 
Pomona; Miss Mamie Williams, Floia; Mrs. 
R. K. Whitmore, L. A. S. 

Wheatland Grange, Yuba Co.— Daniel 
Fraser, W. M. ; Julius Hollister, 0.; Mrs. Lir- 
nie Keves, L. ; Samuel E. lnlow, S. ; Cyrus K 
Dam, A. S.; Mrs. R. H. Durst, C; A. I. Web- 
ster, T. ; I. W. Huffaker, Sec'y; Frank Krish 
ner. G. K.; Miss Emma D. Scott, Pomona; Mrs. 
L. Fraser, Ceres; Miss Ma-y I. Ostrom, Flora; 
Mrs. L. G. Jasper, L. A. S. 

Elmira Grange, Solano Co.— Jas. A. Clark 
M.; G. W. Til ison, O. ; G. W. Fraser, L.; M. 
D. Cooper, S. ; Jas. McCrory, A. 3. ; J. H. Bul- 
lard, 0. ; Jno. M. Elliott, T.; A. P. Coburn, 
Sac'y;G. W. Ruscheart, G. K ; Sister Cooper, 

Ceres; Sister , Pomona; Sistei Bullard 

Flora; Sister K. McCrory, L. A. S. 

Placerville Grange, El Dorado Co.— C. G. 
Carpenter, M. ; A. S. Cook, ; F. Goyan, L.; 
L. Gignac, S. ; I. S. Bamber, A. S ; Minnie 
Bryan, L. A. S. ; J. Bryan, C. ; Jacob Lyon.T. ; 
J. P. Allen, Sec'y; J. Burnham, G ; Susan 
Goyan, Ceres; C. Allen. Pomona; M. Martin, 
Flora; F. M. Dickerhoff, Trustee. 

Vallejo Grange, Solano Co. —J. T. Deming, 
M. ; S. S. Drake, 0.; John Frisbie, L. ; James 
Hunter.S. ; Wm. Corwin, A. S. ; Mrs. S. Hobbe, 
C; Mrs. M L. Uobinson, T.; Mrs. F. A. Mos- 
ley, Sec'y; R. Miller, G. K.; Mrs. Hettie Dem- 
ing, Ceres; Clara Deming, Pomona; Miss Emma 
Corwin, Flora; Miss Rose Drake, L. A S.; C. 
B. Deming, Trustee. 

A co-operative society in Philadelphia, hav- 
ing 980 members, owns three groceries and a 
meat market that pay well The dry goods 
and shoe stores hardly pay expenses, but on 
the whole it does well. 



A Day at Haywards. 

Eden and Temescal Granges installed officers 
together at Haywards, Jan. 14th. Thirteen 
members from Temescal, with the Edenites, af- 
forded a good attendance, and rest assured a 
pleasant and animated time was had. State 
Secretary, J. V. Webster, assisted by P. H. 
McGrew, of State Ex. Com., duly installed the 
officers. Bro. Webster a'so made an excellent 
and eucourakiog speech, followed by brief and 
interesting remarks by other Brothers and Sis- 
ters. Mrs. May and Miss Lucy Stone received 
the third and fourth degrees, after which the 
latter was elected Flora in place of Miss Angie 
Woods, resigned. 

It is a noticeable feature that this Grange is 
taking in young members, and old ones are being 
re instated in its working ranks. The enrolling 
of young members has been the fast want of 
the Granges in our State, and we a e glad to 
observe, from all quarters, that our young 
people are now coming forward more freely than 
before, and pledging themselves for active and 
vigorous work for the good of the Order. The 
importance of admitting young members cannot 
well be overrated. The reports of the Treasu- 
rer and Secretary showed Elen Grange in good 
financial condition. The ladies of Eden spread 
their exceedingly well prepared harvest feast in 
one of the best constructed and arranged frater- 
nal halls we have ever visited in this State. 
The Grange evidently has chosen a sterling 
Master in Bro. Anway, and well supported 
him with good assistants. Bro. B. Woods and 
family are about moving to Peach Treo, Monte- 
rey county, to the sincere regret of many friends 
(resent. Bros. Anway and B yg , Masters of 
Eden and Temescal Granges, were appointed a 
Committee on Ways and Means for advancing 
the Grange wi rk in Alameda counly, with a 
view to tl e reviv.l of Centerville and L ; ver- 
more Granges, and their efforts will le hearli'y 
supported, no doubt, by all thi ir worthy assoc • 
ates. Bro. Cunningham, of Eden, provided a 
spaQking team from his Oakland stable, for a 
delighted load of Temescal passengers, who. on 
returning, uranimously voted "EJenward" "a 
pleasant road to travel." 

Installation at Placerville Grange. — 
District Lecturer, A. A. Bayley, assisted by C. 
E. Markham, in>talled the officers of Plscerville 
Grange, on last Saturday eveniog, Jan. 7th. At 
the close of the installation and the regular busi- 
ness of the Grange, about a quarter past nine 
o'clock, a number of invited guests appeared, 
and were admitted and heartily welcomed, among 
whom were School Superintendent C. E. Mark- 
ham, Supervisor A. A. Bayley, F. M. D cker- 
hoff, Capt Wiltse, Frank Goyan, L. Gignac, J. 
P. Allen, Wm. and Philip Kramp, aud many 
others ; also the wiv, s and daughters of 
many of them. A table was soon spread and 
loaded with a splendid lunch, to which all 
seemed to do ample justice. A couple of songs 
were admirably rendered during the evening, 
and several short speeches were listened to from 
both members of the Order and visitors, all of 
which, together with the general social chat be- 
fore and during supper, rendered the affair 
highly enjoyable to all present, and at 11 o'clock 
the congregated throng took its departure, feel- 
ing that Placerville Grange was far from being 
a cold "corpus" as yet; and the mental wish 
must have been most general, that the institu 
tion may not only survive, but grow in numbers 
ai.d strength, to participate in many more of 
these aunual installation feasts. Much good 
has been accomplished since the establishment 
uf the Order in this county, as may be clearly 
seen by the greatly inoreased acreage of crops, 
the better system of agriculture, and especially 
in permanent improvement. Every farmer 
should take an interest in the Grange for the 
good it has dene, and the good it is yet capable 
of doing. * 

To make quickl) -drying polish or varnish to 
be applied to small turned articles while in the 
lathe, with a hard and glossy surface, dissolve 
ten ounces of shellac in one gallon of wine spirit 
by gently heating over a water bath and stir- 
ring. Let it stand for several days in a covered 
vessel, then draw off the clear portion from any 
sediment, for U6e. For ebonizmg articles of this 
kind, put the wood for about half aa hour into 
a hot solution of one ounce of logwood extract 
in a quart of water, and then transfer to a 
warm solution of one pound of copperas in a 
gallon of soft water, and let it remain in this 
bath for several hours. Give the pieces a 
second dip in the logwood and iron liquors, then 
rinse and dry. 

Sheet zinc is largely used for ceilings in Ger- 
many, especially where the beams of the upper 
tloor are made of iron. The use of wood is en- 
tirely dispensed with, and excellent decorative 
< Herts are produced by stamping, painting and 
gilding, or bronzing a part of the ornaments. 



Improving the Mississippi. —The Missis 
sippi valley members of CongreSB will meet 
soon to consider the improvement of the Mis- 
sissippi. They say that they are determined to 
have an appropriation this season, and are all in 
accord. 

The Illinois Supreme Court decides that a 
Board of Education cannot set apart a certain 
school for colored children and exclude them 
from others. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

Livkrmore District.— Herald : Our grape 
men have begun plowing their lands for the re- 
ception of cuttings, and planting will soon be- 
gin in earnest. There has been expressed by 
some a fear that the present will be a dry sea- 
son, and an opinion that it would be best to 
await a certainty of a good year before planting. 
That the rainfall has so far in the season been 
light is not the least reason for believing there 
will not be a sufficiency of rain before its close. 
In fact, it rather favors such a conclusion. 
Many of our best years show a light rainfall to 
the middle of January. Our advice to our grape 
men is to get in their cuttings as soon as possi- 
ble, and in the best possible condition. If the 
rainfall amounts to nine inches, and it never but 
once fell below that figure, good cultivation 
will pull the viaes through. 

COLUSA. 

Crop Prospects — Sun, Jan. 14: Notwith- 
standing the heavy and cold north winds of the 
past week, we cannot but regard the crop pros- 
pect of Colusa county as favorable. It will 
take but little more rain, at the right time, to 
make us big crops. There was a very large area 
summer-fallowed, and this has been put in in un- 
usually good order. The lands that were over- 
flowed last year and planted this, will make 
sure crops if we have an extra dry spring. As 
will be seen by another item, the first half of 
January has not given us much rain for some 
years back. 

The Weather. — We have had less than an 
inch of rain <n January. In 1877 January gave 
us no rain up to the middle. In '78, up to the 
14th, it had given us only a little over a half an 
inch. In '79, up to the middle of January we 
had for the month only three-fourths on an 
inch. In January, '80, we had less than an 
inch and a half up to the middle of the month, 
and in '81, January gave us less than an inch up 
to the middle, so there is nothing to get scared 
at even if the north wind does howl. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

The Season. — Martinez OaztUe, Jan. 14: 
Notwithstanding the bright, clear sunshine, the 
biting, searching north wind that has been blow- 
ing several days this week, has made the weather 
as coldly disagreeable as any we have had this 
season, and we hope for an early change that 
will bring with it moderate rains, for which the 
farmers are now ready, nearly all of them hav- 
ing finished their seeding, for which the season 
has been unusually favorable. We do not in- 
deed remember any season when at so early a 
date so large a portion of the seeding was com- 
pleted. We are, from all appearances to reckon 
on but a light measure of rainfall for the season, 
but if we get the usual proportion that falls 
after this date, and it is fairly distributed over 
the coming four months, we can reasonably 
count on a good harvest. 

FRESNO. 

Editors Press: — Our section of country, 
though situated in the very center of agricul- 
tural wealth, has so far been slighted in the way 
of winter rains. Though most other portions of 
the State have received their due quantum of 
rain, it seems that we are left without. The 
farmers generally have planted their usual 
amount of acreage (though some would plant 
more in case of rain), expectant of the usual 
providential favors. The loss to the interests 
of the county will be considerable, doubtless, 
but there never was a time in the history of the 
county when we were better able to stand a 
drouth than at the present, owing to large area 
of irrigated lands. Should abundant rain fall 
even in February, we would doubtless raise fair 
crops from seed already sown, while that sown 
after would probably make hay. The substitut- 
ing of various other crops, instead of cereals, 
has tended much toward making this county 
what it is, and consequently will enable it to 
stand such a shock of drouth as it could not 
otherwise undergo without almost absolute ruin 
to its agricultural interests. — C. M.. Selma, 
Cal.. Jan. 17, 1882. 

KERN 

Cause for Congratulation. — Californian: 
If there is to be a dry season throughout the 
southern part of the State, we have reason to 
congratulate ourselves upon the fact that our 
lot is cast in the delta of Kern river. There is 
reason to believe that the supply of water for 
irrigation will be ample. It will certainly be 
much greater than that of the last dry season. 
If used with a fair degree of economy it will 
suffice to maintain a prosperous condition of the 
farming interests of the valley. The crops will 
be just as large as usual, if not larger, and prices 
will be better. Those who make good use of 
their opportunities will have no reason to com- 
plain of results. 

A Drouth Apprehended. — Lonis Gurnett, 
of Glennville, who was here the early part of 
the week, says the people of Linn's valley are 
very apprehensive of a drouth, the disastrous 
consequences of which they have heretofore ex- 
perienced. Two good years have placed them 
in a prosperous condition, and, while they are 
in a state to tide over one bad year, the pros- 
pect is not pleasant. The locality is one, pro- 
vided there is a fair amount of rain, where any 
industrious man may do well, and it is surpris- 
ing the accumulations many have made in a 
short time. 



LAKE. 

Planting.— Lower Lake Bulletin: We no- 
ticed a day or two since 27,000 grape cuttings 
being taken on to the lands of the (.'.ear Lake 
Water Co. to be planted on grounds already 
prepared. D. M. Hanson has just planted a 
nice orchard of assorted fruit bearing trees. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Storm Notes.— Commercial, Jan. 14-': The- 
Signal Service observer reports a temperature 
of 33° registered early on Thursday mornisg. 
We believe this is the lowest registered in se - - 
eral years. Ten inches of snow fell at Col ton; 
four inches fell at Spadrs, and three inches at 
Sao Fernando. Ice formed in this city nearly 
a quarter of an inch thick, and in the lowlands 
to a greater thickness. D^ep snow lies on the 
mountain slopes in all directions. The rain 
and snow fall of Thursday amounted to six- 
hundredtbs of an inch. 

Pasadena Pomologists. — At a meeting of 
the Pasadena fruit growers on Monday, a com- 
mittee, consisting of Messrs. P. M. Green, D. 
R. Risley and 0. S. Dougherty, which was ap- 
pointed to ascertain the amount of the fruit 
crop and the most advantageous method of dis- 
posing of the same, reported as follows: The 
total number of fruit trees in the Pasadena and 
Lake Vineyard districts they gave as 52.235; 
of vines, there were 103,228 raisin grapes and 
31,050 wine grapes; making a total of 134 288. 
They estimate the number of boxes of oranges 
at 3,000 and lemons at 500. Pasadena will ship 
not less than 10 carloads of oranges an 1 lemons 
this season. 

Citrus Orchards. — Mr. W. H. Workman, 
chairman of the fruit growers' meeting held in 
Union hall Tuesday, appointed the following 
gentlemen as a committee to investigate the 
condition of our citrus orchards, and report to 
the County Horticultural Commissioners all 
cases needing treatment: A. B. Chapman, 
Santa Anita, Chairman; C. E White, Pomona; 
A. B. Clark, Orange; B. M. Lelong, Los An- 
tieles; E. E. Wise, Duarte; H. G. Beonett, 
1'asadena; S. MeKin'ey, Vernon; D. Halliday, 
Santa Ana; J. D. Young, Ballona; L. L. Be- 
quette, Los Nietos; A. Poillips, Alhambra; — 
VV right, El Monte; Geo. R. Hinds, Anaheim; 
Robert Strong, Westminster; S. K. Sewall, 
San Gabriel; Dr. Wall, Tustin City; C. B. 
Wright, Compton. 

MERCED 

Crop Prospects. — Argus, Jan. 14: The cold, 
dry weather prevailing throughout this valley 
has a tendency to make farmers look exceedingly 
blue. Though it is not too late for copious 
showers to enable farmers to yet plant and raise 
average crops this season, but all fear that a 
dry season is upon us, and are therefore dis- 
couraged. Nevertheless, plowing and seeding 
continues, farmers having plentiful stores of 
feed aud seed, and provided rain Bhould fall in 
time, they may have a paying harvest. As 
there are facilities for irrigating large bodies of 
good wheat land from the canals and ditches in 
the county, and numerous small farms that are 
supplied with water for irrigation by artesian 
wells, none need fear a famine, and we hope 
that all who have land so situated as to be 
available for irrigation will pnt it in order at 
once, a_d be ready to make a crop if the sea- 
son fails. 
NAPA 

Berryfssa Items — Register: The copious 
rains with which our valley has been favored 
during the past six weeks give to all our farm- 
ers the hope of an abundant harvest. All those 
who have not already finished seeding are vigor- 
ously at work plowing the moist earth and 
scattering the seed which, if the rains continue, 
is to bring a liberal reward for their labor. 
Stockmen are wearing cheerful faces as the 
fresh, green grass is rapidly starting up, aud 
in a few days, if the weather continues warm, 
will afford abundant feed for impoverished flocks 
and herds. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

The Stokm. — Index, Jan. 14: The snow- 
storm of yesterday is said by everybody to be 
the biggest storm ever known in this val- 
ley. 1 1 is said by good authority that at the 
time it quit snowing, the gronod was covered 
to the depth of 10 inches; as the snow was 
melting all day, there must have been 
over a foot of snowfall, so that the water it 
will furnish will be as much as a rainfall of two 
or two and a half iuches. The snow on the 
mountains is sufficient to remove all fear of a 
scarcity in the streams for iirigation purposes. 
The snow going off slowly, as it is, will all be 
taken up by the gronnd, and if we get the 
usual amount of spring rains, the grain crop 
will be insured. With the mountains covered 
with snow, we may feel reasonably certain that 
we will get a good supply of rain from this 
time on. List evening about sundown it was 
feared the fruit trees would be badly damaged 
by the cold, but at present there is no fear on 
that score. It did not freeze as much by con- 
siderable as was expected, and remained oloudy 
all night, su that orange trees and others are 
not supposed to be damaged any up to this 
time. 

Inspector. — L. M. Holt has been appointed 
horticultural inspector at Riverside. 
SAN DIEGO. 

Editors Press: — A phenomenal storm has 
visited this region. On Wednesday, 1 1th inst., 
the monotony of dry, sunny weather was varied 
with a cold north wind, continuing until near 
evening. About daybreak on the 12ch, a sound, 
as of falling snow, was heard on the roofs, the 
actual presence of which was confirmed by a 
glance without. A strong east wind set in, and 



January 2i r 18B2.J 



TIE PACIFIC BtJBAL PRESS. 



4' 



bore in upon us a steady storm of alternate snow 
and rain throughout the day, and at intervals 
during the night. A full inch of snow lay in 
the valley, and four inches at an altitude of 600 
ft. on Poway grade. Showers have continued 
until the present writing — Saturday A. M. — at 
which time tho clouds are clearing away, with 
prospect of pleasant weather. Our rain guage 
marked 3.84 lain, but probably full 4 inches has 
fallen, as the gauge was once running over when 
measurement was taken. It came slowly 
enough to be all taken up by the ground, except 
On steep hillsides, and assures us against the 
drouth which was so much apprehended. The 
appearance of snow in this locality is an event 
of which we have no record, and we are waiting 
to hear from " the oldest inhabitant." — 0. S. 
Chapin, Poway, Jan. 14th. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

West Side Outlook. — Independent, Jan. 12: 
Farmers on the west side are becoming very 
despondent and apprehensive of the future of 
this season's crop of grain. High winds have 
■prevailed for several days, and in places the 
ground is too hard to admit of plowing. The 
large majority of the area to be seeded has been 
plowed, though a few teams are still at work. 
The grain has secured a good start, and is not 
yet suffering for want of moisture, but if rain 
does not follow the wind immediately, the 
growth of the young crop will be seriously re- 
tarded. No more land will be seeded until the 
prospects warrant. The drying out of the land 
'by the high winds has been so rapid that the 
roadway, which was quite muddy last week, is 
swept by clouds of dust. 

SONOMA. 

Horse Sales. — Petaluma Courier: On Thurs- 
day last, an agent for the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road came to Petaluma to buy horses for their 
work in Arizona. He wanted 50 of the best 
work horses to be had, but doubted whether os 
not he could get them all here. He bought a 
few Thursday afternoon. On Friday he ran hir 
purchases up to 51 head. He paid for several 
spans $500, and the entire lot averaged $200 
each. Tne whole amount paid for these horses 
amounted to a little over $10,000. The horses 
were shipped on Saturday, and was the finest 
lot that ever left Sonoma county in one band 
On Friday the report got circulated through the 
country that there was a demand for good 
horses in town, and before 10 o'clock on Satur- 
day there were over 100 tine, large horses 
brought in for sale. The agent, however, had 
got all he wanted, but expressed great surprise 
at finding so many first-class work horses about 
Petaluma. In addition to the above sales, Ben. 
Cox, of this city,, bought of Mr. Clark, of Bo 
degs, three fine work horses, for which he 
paid $750; and Geo. Charles bought a Norman 
stallion for his ranch in Humboldt county. He 
is a dapple gray, large, well shaped and active, 
The price paid was about $3,000. Petaluma is 
no one-horse town. We have lots of them, and 
they are of the very beat. 

January Fruits. — Healdsburg Flag, Jan. 
12: John Cook, living near Magnolia farm, 
1$ miles from this town, has presented us with 
a few pears from his orchard, which shows what 
nature sometimes does in Russian river valley. 
These pears are nearly as rosy-cheeked as the 
noted Flemish Beauty, large, juicy, tender and 
just ripe enough to please the palate. The 
trees that bore this fruit, produced a full crop 
early in the season; after this crop was picked 
in October, the trees again b'ossomed, the 
pears ripening this week. It is not unusual 
for cherries and apples to bear a second crop 
of small, defective fruit; but in the present 
instance, the pears are even larger than the 
usual size, and the crop nearly up to the av- 
erage. Mr. Cook also raised a second crop of 
apples this season. We are indebted to Mrs 
William Blackman, of North Healdsburg, for 
a quantity of grapes of the Flame Tokay va 
riety. They are large, plump and luscious 
not being withered in thu least. Mrs. Black 
man's method of keeping grapes fresh is mere 
ly to envelop the vines with paper when frost 
is apprehended; after several weeks of frost 
the bunches are plucked from the vines and 
hung up in a cool place in paper bags. 
STANISLAUS. 

Notes. — Stockton Independent, Jan. 12: Geo 
Perry, of Ceres, Stanislaus county, was in town 
yesterday. He reports the summer-fallow grain 
around that section as doing well at present 
The land is very sandy, and has been wet down 
by the rains from 10 to 14 inches, but it is rap 
idly dying out. Until a few days since it was 
in good condition for plowing and seeding, 
Though the plows are still running, seeding has 
been stopped and will not be renewed unless 
more ram falls, and that soon. Mr. Perry'i 
brother, with Mr. Hall, has seeded 900 acres 
mostly winter-plowed. The present outlook is 
not encouraging, and they will seed no more 
unless a favorable change occurs in the weather, 

TEHAMA. 

VrNE Planting. — Chico Record: Two car 
loads of grapevine cuttings passed through 
Chico last week to Vina, to be planted in Gov 
Stanford's immense vineyard. One thousand 
acres of] land are now being placed in a con 
dition to receive the cuttings, which are mostly 
of the raisin variety. Gov. Stanford owns the 
Gerke ranch, and intends to turn the greater 
portion of it into a huge vineyard. The Record 
contained an item a few days ago concerning 
the large ditch being made on the ranch for the 
purpose of irrigating the vineyard. The ditch 
in to be 30 ft. wide at the top, and 15 at the 
bottom, and will be abont 10 miles in length. 



TULARE. 

Pa rming Notes. — Stockton Independent: 
From J. G, Blair, well known in this locality, 
some interesting items regarding the present 
grain outlook in Tulare county weie gathered. 
Mr. Blair's farming operations in that county 
are 15 miles southeast from Visalia, where he 
farms 320 acres. He has plowed none yet, but 
ntends to summer-fallow the land, when it 
shall have been put in condition by the expected 
rains. The summer-fallow grain in that section 
looks well yet, but the winter-sown has not yet 
prouted, owing to want of moisture. Mr. Blair 
says more land has been seeded in that coui.ty 
this season than in any previous year, but only 
the summer-fallow grain gives promise of any 
crop at present. John Jones, of this county, 
who owns a large ranch in that valley, near the 
foothills, is running 14 large teams, plowing 
and seeding, and will continue the work for a 
week yet. The land in that portion of the 
county does not require so much rainfall to per- 
fect a crop as is required here or in many other 
parts of the valley, and moderate rains soon, 
with spring showers, will make a crop. There 
is no green feed to speak of, and but little old 
or dry feed. The weather during the week has 
been extremely cold, water freezing in the 
dwellings. Outside creek was frozen over, the 
ice being of sufficient thickness to permit of 
yearling cattle crossing on it in safety. Im- 
provements are going on throughout the county, 
notwithstanding the present dull outlook for the 
coming harvest. 
VENTURA. 

Editors Press: — The past six days have 
been the most windy, cold and disagreeable 
weather of the season. On Thursday morning, 
Jan. 12th, the hills around Nordhoff and Cliff 
Glen were white with snow, but the cold cut 
ting wind, which came from the south and east 
in almost a gale, swept it all away before noon. 
More than half of the wheat land in this county 
has been plowed and sowed, and the farmers are 
now waiting for the needed rain to bring it 
up. Some of the early sown grain still looks 
green and growing, but all the grain and pasture 
is in need of rain. Some of the farmers have 
their grain all in, and are now plowing for corn 
and beans. The majority are still sanguine of 
raising fair crops in 18S2. Stock men and es- 
pecially sheep owners, have already begun to 
experience losses in their flocks and herds. About 
16,000 sheep have passed up the Matilija canyon 



the breeze began to increase, and by 5 p. m. had 
increased to a perfect tornado, demolishing 
almost everything in its path. Oak trees two 
ft. in diameter, which had withstood the storms 
of centuries, were overturned as though they 
were bulrushes, blocking the roads in all direc- 
tions. Houses and barns were prostrated right 
and left, but fortunately we hear of no id jury to 
life or limb. 



Stanley's Vine-Setter. 

We give herewith an engraving of a new de- 
vice to facilitate vineyard planting. It is the 
Stanley patent vine-setter and hole digger. 
Of late years such laige tracts of land have been 
planted in vineyards, that wine growing is fast 
becoming one of the leading enterprises of this 
State. One unacquainted with setting out 
vines, does not appreciate the great expense and 
labor connected therewith. After the land is 
prepared by plowing and harrowing, then fol- 
lows the most expensive and laborious part of 
the work; namely, laying out the ground so 
that the rows will be straight, and the vines 
equally distant from each other, and the digging 
of the holes and setting the vines. It is in this 
last part of the work that the greatest care is 
necessary. At the time of planting, in a great 
many cases, there is but little thought of the 
proper method in which it should be performed; 
but in after years the imperfect manner of digging 
the holes and setting the vines will be plainly 
visible. Certainly, the work that will serve 
for a lifetime if correctly done, is worth doing 
well. There is no question that heretofore the 
poor planting that has been done has not been 
altogether the fault of the person who per- 
formed the work. 

It is impossible to do good work with poor 
tools. Thus far nothing has been used for the 
purpose of digging the holes but the primitive 
crowbar, the dibble and the auger, all of which 
are wholly inadequate for that purpose. Vines 
set in holes made by the crowbar and the dibble 
cannot be tamped so as to make the earth as 
compact around all parts of the vine as should 
be, hence, when the dry season begins, if the 
vines have not a good start, they must neces 
sarily die. The above tools being tapered to a 
paint, and there being no show to make the 




THE STANLEY PATENT VINE-SETTER AND HOLE-DIGGER. 



during the last two weeks. About one-half of 
them were fat weathers, and among that class 
of sheep there is little or no loss; but the stock 
sheep, ewes and lambs, which were in the 
mountains during this cold blustering weather, 
are reported to be dying by hundreds. The 
first large flocks of sheep denuded the little val- 
leys of the Matilija of everything in the shape 
of forage, and the last droves were compelled 
to travel days without anything for the poor 
sheep to eat. It was painful to hear the piteous 
bleating of poor starving sheep, left by the 
roadside to die alone, after they became to fee- 
ble to farther follow the great drove. And 
truly, we think, of all the geueral business and 
callings carried on in California, that of the 
landless sheep raiser is the most heartless, cruel 
and detestable. They own thousands of sheep 
without owning an acre of land, or so much as 
one rod of pasture on which to graze 
them. They shear their sheep twice a year, 
as long as there are good seasons, 
and plenty of wild pasture to be had for noth- 
ing. Then when a dry year comes, as it does 
every five or six years, they let the poor creat- 
ures starve to death, because they say it would 
cost more to buy pasture or food for them than 
it would cost to buy other sheep to replace 
them. There may be money in such a business, 
but there is neither heart or conscience in it. 
The present outlook is drear and dry, but there 
is yet an abundance of time for rain, and we 
will hope for the best. However, there is one 
thing to be grateful for. The last three years 
were favorable for crops in southern California, 
and farmers are generally well fixed and clear 
of debt. Therefore, they can stand a blank 
now much better than they could in 1877. Until 
this week, the winter has been mild and pleas- 
ant. At the present time many of my orange and 
lemon trees are in vigorous growth, throwing out 
new shoots and new leaves. Some of my lemon 
trees are in full bloom, and at the same time 
loaded with ripe and green fruit. My oranges 
are mostly ripe; we have been gathering ripe 
oranges since Christmas day. On Thursday 
morning, when the snow was all around us, the 
mercury stood at 34" at 7 a. m. (only 2° above 
freezing.) At present writing (8 P. M., Friday, 
Jan. 13), the temperature is 45°, and black, 
rainy-looking clouds are rising in the east. We 
feel rejoiced at the indications of rain. May 
we not be disappointed. — Robt. Lyon, Cliff 
Glen, Jan. 13, 1882. 

The Ojai Saw Another Sight. — Free Press: 
The curious gyratory wind-storm prevailing 
here for the past three days seems to have 
found its vortex in the Upper and Lower Ojai 
valleys »n Thursday evening. At noon there 



earth solid at the bottom, an air-chamber 
is formed, thus leaving the bottom of the 
vine with no earth in contact with 
it — * place where it is so much needed. When 
the auger and spade are used, more earth is re- 
moved than is necessary, and it is such a slow 
way of doing the work that they are seldom re- 
sorted to. But those who have used it, assure us 
that by the use of the Stanley patent vine-setter 
and hole-digger all of the above objections are 
overcome. It is only necessary to see one at 
work to be convinced of its excellence. The 
rapidity that holes can be dug by this tool is 
almost incredible. By its use one man can dig 
from 800 to 1,500 holes per day, according to 
the nature of the soi'. It will work in any 
kind of soil. It is operated by forcing the 
blade into the ground with the foot, and then 
turning it around. There being a lip on the 
blade, when the tool is withdrawn, it re- 
moves the soil with it, leaving a hole 
about three inches in diameter, and the 
desired depth, leaving the ground thor- 
oughly loosened at the bottom, with plenty 
of room for the composite or fertilizer, that is 
almost indispensible in some kinds of soil. It 
is claimed for the Stanley patent that it will 
work in soil where a plow cannot be used; also, 
that holes can be dug with this tool suitable for 
bent cuttings, and in each case there is plenty 
of room left to tamp the cuttings air-tight with- 
out injury to the buds. The usefulness of the 
above patent does not end with the wine 
grower, but it is alike valuable to the gardener 
and the nurseryman. The blades are manufac- 
tured from the best saw steel, and the handles 
are of tubular iron. The device is secured by 
letters of patent. 

The Stanley vine-setter is being extensively 
used in the large vineyards now being planted 
around Mission San Jose, Alameda county. 
Further particulars about the invention may be 
found in the advertisement in another column. 



A New Source for Glucose. — A company 
has been formed in Philadelphia to manufacture 
glucose from cassava, the plant from which tap- 
ioca is derived. Taking the average yield of 
corn — from which glucose is now made — at 35 
buphels to the acre, the glucose product is only 
about 1,000 tt>3. to the acre, while the average 
product from cassava, which yields 10 tons to 
the acre, would give a return of more than 5 
tons of glucose. It is said that sometimes fully 
20 tons of cassava is obtained from an acre of 
ground in Florida, whicb would double the 
above named yield, or give the large amount of 
10 tons to th« acre. 



News in Briet 

Silver ore has been found near Sin Luis 
Rev, San Diego county. 

Emperor William is anxious for Germany to 
participate in Arctic exploration. 

Mr. Lop.ing, Commissioner of Agriculture 
intends visiting California in the early spring. 

Smallpox is very prevalent among the col- 
ored population of Virginia and the Carolinas. 

A bill has been introduced in the House for 
the admission of Washington Territory as a 
State. 

f he Cremation S >ciety of New York has se- 
cured half of the $25,000 required to erect a 
furnace. 

In the first of the three matches between Dr. 
Carver and Bingham, the former killed 126 and 
the latter 123. 

One hundred and fifty years ago London was 
famous for her roses, but to-day no ro3e will 
grow there. Cause, smoke. 

It is safe to say that the outward and inward 
tonnage of Puget sound for the year 1881 aggre- 
gated about 1,000,000 tons. 

It is stated that the De L9sseps Canal Co.'s 
second call of 25%, amounting to $15,000,000, 
has been paid in full at Paris. 

A Chico fruit-raiser has just leased 12 acres 
of orchard to Chinese for five years at a yearly 
rental of $800, or $66§ per acre. 

On Puget sound there are 42 steamers with 
an aggregate tonnage of 4,850 tons. These are 
all engaged in the Puget sound trade. 

The Mexican National railway has been com- 
pleted across Tamaulipas, and is being laid at 
the rate of a mile a day in Nuevo Leon. 

The taxable property of Oregon, as per as- 
sessment just completed, is $59,256,175; total 
tax, $325,908. Multnomah county bears one- 
fourth of the tax. 

Major Cathcart, one of the principal mem- 
bers of Gen. Fremont's expedition, which, in 
1848, made a winter journey across the plains 
to California, is dead. 

Dr. Draper's death elicits fresh recognition 
in Eagland of bis works, which are among the 
most enduring and admired American contribu- 
tions to the literature of science. 

A Marseilles correspondent mentions that 
intense cold weather prevails on the Sahara 
frontier, and hundreds of camels and many 
soldiers have died from the cold. 

A surveying party, with a complete outfit, 
under the charge of the Atlantic and Pacific rail- 
road, left Los Angeles last Sunday to run a new 
experimental line on the Mohave desert. 

The contempt proceedings in the Marysville 
courts against the Bloomfield and other mining 
companies, have been continued until February 
6th. This is the fourth continuance of the pro- 
ceedings. 

The next sailings of the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Co.'s steamers will be: City of Peking, 
for Yokohama and Hongkong, Feb. 11; Aus- 
tralia, Feb. 11, for Sydney and Auckland; for 
New York, via Panama, Feb. 4. 

Governor Safford is withdrawing his in- 
terests in Arizona Territory for the purpose of 
devoting himself entirely to the great Florida 
land reclamation soheme, in which he is largely 
interested. 

The exceedingly cold weather for the last 
few days has frozen ditches and flumes in Ne- 
vada county until mining has been somewhat 
suspended, owing to the water supply being 
choked off. 

Last Thursday of last week snow fell so 
deep in the San Gorgonio pass, on the border 
of the Colorado dessert, as to seriously hinder 
the trains of the Southern Pacific railroad, a 
circumstance never known before. 

The California Iron Company has recently 
purchased 4,600 acres of timber and mineral 
lands. The company now owns 7,620 acres 
near Hotaling. Clipper Gap made a successful 
run last year, producing 4,414 tons, and now 
takes its place as one of the permanent indus- 
tries of the State, and is in strong hands. 

A miner named Scoot has arrived in Tomb- 
stone, A. T., from the Sierra Madre mountains 
of Mexico, where he has been living for the past 
seven months. He states that the Apaches are 
on the warpath in that region, and that himself 
and two companions barely escaped with their 
lives. They had a running tight with 35 
Apaches. 

Turner has introduced in the House a joint 
resolution providing that Congress shall have 
no power to pass any act or resolution for the 
appropriation of any money or creation of any 
debt exceeding $10,000 at any one time, unless 
the same, on its final passage, shall be voted for 
by a majority of all members then elected to 
each branch, and the ayes and noes entered on 
the journal. 

The Supt. of the Senate folding room says he 
now has on hand, belonging to Senators, at least 
500,000 volumes that have been printed by or- 
der of Congress for distribution. Some Senators 
and Representatives are very indifferent about 
sending out documents, while others not only 
send all they are entitled to, but get from other 
members all they can and send them to their 
constituents. 

Depredations upon the Government timber 
lands in tho West have increased to such an 
extent that the Secretary of the Interior urges 
the Attorney- General to use all the means in 
his power to arrest and punish offenders. 
While they are about it, the idea would be a 
good one to arrest and punish offenders who 
commit depredations on Government funds in 
the East. That would make work at both ends 
of the lww. 



42 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 21, 1882 




Make Your House a Poem. 

(Written for tlie Rural Prbss, b.v E. E. 

Make your house a poem 

Fitting and complete. 
That your life may run in 

Metre pure ami sweet. 
Court the willing sunshine, 

Let its golden rays 
Illuminate and gladden 

All your household ways. 

Let your house he cleanly 

Ceiling unto sill: 
Poverty may tread there, 

But he cleanly still. 
Adorn it here and there 

With a plant or vine, 
Just as poet's figures 

In their verses tw ine. 

Brighten it with color: 

Woman's tasteful hand 
M iketh grace and beauty 

lilnssom ut command. 
Ferns and woodland mosses, 

Pebbles or a shell, 
Take from lonely moments 

Many a weary spell. 

Fill your hou3c with gl ldness, 

Flowing through the days, 
Like the inspiration 

Of a song of praise. 
Oive each room a duty, 

Every work a time, 
That the hours may flow In 

.Melody and rhyme. 

Make your house the haven 

Of a peaceful soul; 
Bringing storm-tossed fancies 

To an anchored whole. 
And your life's whole purpose, 

Count its verses true, 
Lest the palm of heaven 

Be denied to you. 



The Mountain. 

Through time's dim vista looking down, 

Perhaps frowning o'er some ancient sea, 
li.uk clouds then resting on thy crown, 

And all around thee mystery. 
Thou watchest the fiery craters flow, 

And mountains heaving at their birth, 
Amid the molten lava's glow; 

Before mankind had touched the earth. 

Still towering upward into space 

A landmark when the morning breaks, 
Yet men are delving at thy base. 

And heeding not thy darksome peaks. 
Time fades; yet ever rolling on 

Men come and go and ,aze on thee; 
Like fleeting shadows they are gone, 

But thou art for eternity. 

, , vf Until-*," in Mountain Meftat'nijt'i-. 



The Piece that was Lost. 

There was promise of a capital hay day; so 
Silas Rogers decided as he stood io, the back 
porch after milking, polishing his face with a 
coarse towel and noting the weather signs be- 
tween the rubs. 

A capital hay day; but a "spell of weather" 
might be expected soon; for did not the al- 
manac say "About this time look out for 
storms!" 

oo all hands were warned to be in readi- 
ness to mow the lower intervale in the morn- 
ing, and lose no time in getting at it, for the 
lower intervale was swampy after a rain. 

The chores were done, the supper eaten; Silas, 
with his chair tilted against the wall, was sleep- 
ing the sleep of the just, while his good wife 
pattered about the kitchen setting her sponge, 
beating up some "riz" griddle cakes for break- 
fast, grinding the ctllee, and, in a dozen provi- 
dent ways, squeezing out of the tired day a lit- 
tle help for the morrow. 

Reuben went to the store for a new scythe 
snath; Abner, the hired man, hung over the 
barnyard gate with the beloved pipe that tried 
the housewife's soul, and pretty Mistress Hetty 
wrinkled her forehead and pricked her lingers 
over the new dress she was trying to make in 
the few leisure minutes snatched from house- 
work. She made a charming picture in the 
frame of the vine-wreathed window, her sleeves 
still rolled above her plump elbows, the bright 
hair drawn back from the rosy face which was 
turned full to the lamp as she threaded her 
needle, or paused to flirt some deluded moth 
away from the dangerous dime that fascinated 
him. 

A charming picture, but no one to look at it; 
for the great Norway pine held up a screen of 
solid blackness between the window and the 
road, even if any belated traveler had chanced 
to walk that way, and only Hetty's white cat 
crept stealthily along the top of the garden fence 
with murderous designs upon an untimely 
brood of chirping birds in the currant bushes. 
Only this— ah, beware, Mistress Hetty I Evil 
eyes are looking at you; eyes from which a 
heathen mother would cover your face with her 
hands, and breathe a prayer to break the un- 
holy spell they might cast upon you— a woman's 
eyes peering from a thick jungle of lilacs and 
syringas, so near it seems as if Hetty must feel 
them. But Hetty feels nothing, sees nothing 
but the troublesome dress; and, as the perplex- 
ing rullbs are conquered one by one, her heart 



grows light, the little frown smooths away and 
Hetty begins to sing. What a sweet voice she 
has ! It reaches the tired mother and lightens 
her heart, too. It wakes her father, and then 
lulls him pleasantly to sleep again. Now Ab- 
ner hears it, and draws his hickory shirtsleeve 
across his eyes, and that watcher in the green 
tangle — who can guess what she thinks or feels 
as she sinks down with her chin upon her hands, 
and her face quite in the dark, and listens to 
the pathetic story cf "The Ninety and Nine ?" 
Hetty herself is not half conscious of the pathos 
with which she bewails the lost one, 

"Away on the mountains: bleak and bare, 
Away from the tender Shepherd's care, 

and goes on through the tender story to the 
final r< joicing when the Shepherd brings back 
his own She is still humming it fitfully over 
and over when her mother opens the door of 
the keeping room and bids her go to bed and 
not ruin her eyes with sewing by lamplight. 

"Just a minute, " says Hetty; "as soon as I 
finish this sleeve." 

And the minutes glide on and on, the sleeve 
is finished, held up and admired, and Mistress 
Hetty takes off her shoes and slips softly up 
stairs to bed. She does not even close the 
window. What should come into the house 
unbidden, save the cat and the cool night air ? 
Everything is silent. The mother bird broods 
h<-r iittle ones securely, unconscious of the 
cruel eyes near by, until Reuben comes whis- 
tling along the road and, boy like, stops to shy 
a stone at the tempting white mark on the gar- 
den fence. The prowler leaps away with lonj 
bounds over the wet grass, and a tragedy is 
averted with nothing to show for it but dirty 
tracks upon the piece of "factory" spread out 
to bleach. 

By and by there is a little stir in the lilac 
jungle; a woman comes cautiously out of her 
hiding place and steals away to the barn. 

The cows are lying here and there under the 
long shed, sleeping, perhaps, in a cow's uneasy 
fashion, but with a certain air of motherliness 
and content about them. They do not even 
wonder at the later comer as she threads her 
way among them, enters the barn, mount, the 
scaffold already well rilled with the sweet new 
hay, and is soon asleep, hearing now and then 
a broken twitter from the restless swallows 
under the eaves, or perchance a faint, sweet 
voice singing, with lingering pity in its tone, 
"Sick and wnunded, and ready to die." 
W ho can tell whfn the summer day begins 
One instant a dusky silence, cool, moist and 
fragrant, hanging over the hill, the next, a 
burst of song from some tree-top, caught up 
from a hundred green coverts, swelled and re- 
peated and prolonged in mad chorus that pres- 
ently settles again into silence. Then the slow 
stir of life awakening, the bustle among the 
poultry, the lowing of some impatient cow, or 
the sound of her companions nipping the short 
juicy grass, the unwilling creak of a rheumatic 
pump handle, and here and there the dull thud 
of an improvident ax prepaiing the kindlings 
for the kitchen tiro. 

The day was well under way in S.lis Rogers' 
household before a majority of his neighbors 
had reached this point. The cows were milked 
and turned into the green lane to make their 
own way to the pasture, the steady whirl of the 
grindstone, and the sharp ring of steel, told 
that the moments before breakfast were being 
made the most of, and even at the table there 
were few words spoken, and no useless linger- 
ing. But after breakfast Silas Rogers took 
down the leather- covered Bible that had been 
his old mother's daily companion for 80 years, 
and all the family sat reverently down to wor- 
ship. 

The golden moments might speed as they 
would, but no day in that household began 
without its portion from the Bible. It might 
have been a lingering recollection of Hetty's 
song, it might have been one of those celestial 
orovidences which we call chance, which led 
rim to read from the gospels the story of the 
wandering sheep and the lost piece of silver. 
It is doubtful if any of them were very deeply 
touched by it. It was a familiar story to the 
good wife, and she could not keep her thoughts 
from straying anxiously to the loaves rising 
perilously in the pans, while Hetty glanced at 
the clock and secretly hoped her father had not 
chanced upon a long chapter. The reading 
came abruptly to an end with the heavenly re- 
joicing over one sinner that repenteth, and with 
an earnest though homely prayer, the service 
was ended. 

Abner and Reuben almost stumbled over 
a woman sitting absorbed in the doorway. Si- 
las looked at her but did not stay to ques- 
tion, and when they were gone s!;e rose and 
said abruptly, "Will you give me some break- 
fast?" 

Mrs. Rogers looked at her. She was a tall 
and not uncomely woman of about 30, but with 
something indefinably evil about her face. The 
hard mouth, the bold, defiant eyes repelled her, 
yet seemed as if at any instant they might break 
into scornful tears. 

"Who are you?" asked the good wife, coming 
nearer with the pan of bread in her hand. 
Again the face lightened, grew hard, and then 
yielded with the sudden declaration: 
"I am the piece that was lost." 
Martha Rogers had not a particle of poetry 
in her nature, but she had the most profound 
reverence for the scripture, therefore the words 
both puzzled and shocked her. But she was a 
woman not to refuse bread to the hungry, so 
she placed food upon the table, and motioned 
the woman to a chair, with a brief ' Set up and 



All the time that the woman was eating, and I in the valley, seemed to come nearer and nearer 
she did not hasten, her eyes followed the mis- like the tramp of feet. Martha Rogers went 
tress and Hetty, until Martha Rogers grew ner- out to the milk-room, and stood for a moment 
vous and sent Hetty to "right up the cham- in the door, shading the flickering candle in her 

hand. She was only taking a housewifely ob- 
servation upon the gathering storm; but it 
seemed to the wanderer that she might well be 
the woman who hal lighted a candle to search 
for the lost piece of silver, and with a dim com- 
asked Mrs. Rogers again, prehension of love on earth and joy in heaven, 
she tried to pray, and fell asleep. 



bers.' 

As soon as Bhe was gone, the woman tamed 
abruptly from her breakfast. 

"Will you give me work to do? " she de 
manded, rather th in asked. 

"Who are you 
simply to gain time 



"I thought you knew. I am Moll Pritchett; I Silas Rogers listened to the day's story as he 
they have turned me out of my house; burned sat mending a bit of harness with clumsy tin- 
it over my head," and the eyes grew lurid with | gers. He may be forgiven if his thoughts some 



evil 

"What can you do?" asked Mrs. Rogers, 
feebly. 

"Anything that a woman can do, or a man. 
I can work in the field with the best of them; 
I have done it many a time; but I should like 
to do what — to be like other women." 

"Are you a good woman ? " 

The question came straight and strong, with- 
out any faltering. She had heard of this Moll 
l'ritchett, a woman who lived alone in an old 
tumble-down hut below the saw-mill, and won 



times wandered to the hay so fortunately secured 
from the Btorm, or ran over the grist to be sent to 
the mill in the morning if it proved a wet day, 
or speculated curiously on the superhuman 
knowledge of almanac men; but on the whole, 
he was tolerably attentive, and certainly grasped 
the idea that his wife had secured a valuable 
and much needed helper. 

"It seems a risk to run," said Martha, anx- 
iously ; "and I don't know but its presumptuous; 
there's Hetty, and there's Reuben — " 

"And there's the Lord," said Silas, stopping 



a meager living by weaving rag carpets, picking I to open his knife. 

berries for sale, and it was suspected in less "Ves," said Martha, with a little start, "and 
reputable ways, but Martha Rogers took no I can't quite get rid of what she said about the 
stock in idle rumors. If she had not divine | piece that was lost ; though to be sure, the 



compassion, she had something very like divine 
justice, which is altogether a sweeter thing in 
its remembering of our frame than the tender 

mercies of the wicked. 



woman that lost it ought to hunt for it." 

"She never does; folks are always losing 
things for somebody else to find; 'tain't many 
of 'em can say, 'those that thou hast given me 



The woman looked at her curiously. At have I kept,' right straight along. ' 



first with a mocking smile, then with a sullen, 
and at last with a defiant expression. 

"Is it likely ? " she said fiercely. "A good 
woman ? How should I be a good woman ? I 
tell you I'm 'the piece that was lost,' and no- 
body ever looked for me. If I was a good 
woman, do you suppose I should be where I be 
— only years old, well and hearty, and every 
door in the world shut in my face? I tell ye 
the man that wrote that story didn't know 



"But if you lose your own piece looking after 
other folks — " 

Silas cut off his waxed end and gave the har- 
ness an experimental pull before he answered. 
"Well, there's risks, as yon say, but I'd rather 
take a risk for the Lord than agin Him." 

Martha Rogers took the risk for the Lord, 
and he abundantly justified and rewarded her 
faith. For the piece that was lost becomes 
peace to the heart that finds it and lays it again 



women; they don't hunt for the piece that is in the Master's hand; and locking the story of 

lost; they just let it go. There's enough on 'em 'he wanderer in her own breast, it was only to 

that don't get lost." the angels that she said, "rejoice with me." 

Poor Martha Rogers was sorely perplexed, all And when, years afterward, the woman her 

the more that her way had lain so smooth and self said, before the committee of the church, 

plain before her that she might have walked in "I am » woman over whom there is great joy in 

it blindfolded. If this was a lost piece of silver heaven," there were not wanting those who 

it was not she who lost it; but what if it were thought she was presumptuously claiming to be 
the Master's, precious to his heart, and a care- I a saint. 



less haud had dropped it, and left it to lie in 
the dust? And what if he bade her seek it, ana 
find ii for him? Should she dare to refuse? On 
this very day, when she needed so sorely the 
help which she had looked for in vain, had not 



Death of the Old Wife. 



She had Iain all day in a stupor, breathing 
with heavily \abored breath, but as the sun 
this woman been sent to her very door, and was I sank to rest in the far-off western sky and the 
it not a plain leading of Providenct? It is a I red glow on the wall of the room faded into 
blessed thing for us that we are usually driven dense Bhadows, she awoke and called feebly to 
to act first and theorize afterward, even though I her aged partner who was sitting motionless by 
the afterthought sometimes brings repentance. I the bedside; he bent over his dying wife and 
The bread was ready for the oven and the wood- I took her wan, wrinkled hand in his. 
box was empty. "Is it night?" she asked in tremulous 

"You may fetch in some wood," said Martha tones, looking at him with eyes that saw not. 



Rogers; and the woman promptly obeyed, filling 
the box with one load of her sinewy arms, and 
then stood humbly waiting. Hetty came into 
the room and began to clear the table, but her 
mother took the dishes from her hands. 

"Go up stairs and fetch a big apron and one 



"Yes," he answered softly. "It is growing 
dark." 

"Where are the children f she queried; "are 
they all in ? ' 

Poor old man ! how could he answer her ? — 
the children who had slept for long years in the 
of your sweeping caps, and then you may get at I old churchyard — who had outlived childhood 
your sewing and see if you can finish up your land borne the heat and burden of the day, and 
dress. " growing old, had laid down the cross and gone 

Away went Hetty, her li>,ht heart bounding to wear the crown, before the old father and 
with unexpected release, and her mother turned I mother had finished their sojourn, 
to the woman, furnished her with a coarse I "The children are safe," answered the old 
towel and sent her to the wash-house for a I man, tremulously; "don't think of them Janet, 
thorough purification. Half an hour afterward, I think of yourself ; does the way seem dark? 1 



with her hair hidden in the muslin cap, her 
whole figure enveloped in the clean calico apron, 
a cjmely woman was silently engaged in the 
household tasks, doing her work with such 
rapid skill that the critical housewife drew a 
high of relief. 



There's a han'ful of towels and coarse I walk alone by sight. 



"My trust is in Thee; let me never be con- 
founded. What does it matter if the way is 
dark ? 

"I'd rather walk with God in the dark, than 
walk alone in the light. 

"I'd rather walk with Him by faith than 



eat 



clothes left from the ironing; you might put the 
iron on, Mary, and smooth 'em out." 

The woman turned a startled face upon her, 
and then went quickly for the clothes, but 
something — was it a tear? — roUed down the 
swarthy cheek, and mingled with the bright 
drops she sprinkljd over them. When had she 
ever been called Mary? When had she heard any 
name but Moll? Not since away among the hills of 
New Hampshire a pale woman had laid her hand 
upon the tangled curls of her little daugh- 
ter and prayed that from the strange world to 
which she was speeding, she might be allowed 
to watch over these wayward feet, lest they 
should go astray. Had she watched? Did she 
know? Moll hoped not; it made her shudder 
to think of it. What would heaven be worth if 
she could see and know? And yet, what did she 
hear about joy in heaven over one sinner that 
repenteth? If there was, it must be that they 
knew; or perhaps only good news was carried 
there. 



lohn, where's little Charlie?" she asked. 
Her mind was again in the past. The grave 
dust of 20 years had lain on Charlie's golden 
hair, but the mother had never forgotten him! 
The old man patted her cold hands, hands that 
labored so hard that they were seamed and 
wrinkled and calloused with years of toil, and 
the wedding ring was worn to a mere thread of 
gold — and then he pressed his thin lips to them 
and cried. She had encouraged and strength- 
ened him in every trial of life. Why, what • 
woman she had been! What a worker! What 
leader in Israel ! Always with the gift of 
prayer or service. They had stood at many a 
death-bed together — closed the eyes of loved 
ones, and then sat down with the Bible between 
them to read the promises. Now she was 
about to cross the dark river alone. 

And it was strange and sad to the old man, 
and the yellow-haired granddaughter left them, 
to hear her babble of walks in the woods, of 
gathering May flowers and strolling with John, 



That night Hetty sang again at her sewing by of petty household cares that she had always 
the lamp, and from the attic window far above put down with a strong resolute hand; of wed- 
her head, the wanderer leaned outinto the dark ding feasts and death-bed triumphs: and when, 
to listen. The little chamber was bare of orna- at midnight, she heard the bridegroom's voice, 
ment ; there was not a picture on the cleanly and the old man bending over her, cried piti- 
whitewaBhed walls, and the straight curtain was fully, and the young granddaughter kissed her 
for decency, not drapery; but it seemed to this pale brow, there was a solemn joy in her voice 
one a very chamber of peace. The great Nor- as she spoke the name of her children one by 
way pine almost brushed her cheek with its res- one, as if she saw them with immortal eyes, 
inous plumes, balmy with moist night air, and and with one glad smile put on immortality, 
a bird, hidden somewhere among its branches, They led the old man sobbing away, and when 
sent out a startled, half-awake cry, and then he saw her again the glad morning sun was 
dropped off to sleep again. There was a pale shining, the air jubilant with the song of birds, 
young moon low in the western sky, with black and she lay asleep on the couch under the north 
clouds scudding across it, and the dull, steady window where he had seen her so often lie down 
sound of the river pouring over the great dam I to rest while waiting for the Sabbath bell. And 



January 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



43 



she wore the same best blarik silk, and the 
string of gold beads about her thin neck, and 
the folds of white tulle. Only now the brooch 
with his miniature was wanting, and in its place 
was a white rose and a spray of cedar — she had 
loved cedar — she had loved to sing over her 
work: 

"Oh, may I in His courts be seen, 
Like a young cedar fresh and green " 

But what strange transformation was there! 
The wrinkles were gone. The traces of age, 
and pain, and weariness were all smoothed out; 
the face had grown strangely young, and a 
placid smile was laid on the pale lips. The old 
man was awed by this likeness to the bride of 
his youth. He kissed the unresponsive lips and 
said softly : 

"You've found Heaven first, Janet, but you'll 
come for me soon ! It's our first parting in more 
than 70 years, but it won't be for long — it won't 
•be for long!" 

And it was not. The winter snows have not 
fallen, and there is another grave, and to-day 
"would have been their diamond wedding ! We 
had planned much for it, and I wonder — I won- 
der — but not Where they are there is neither 
marriage nor giving in maTriage. — Detroit Free. 
Press. 



Chaff. 

"Mademoiselle," said a witty and gallant 
septuagenarian the other day, making his de- 
mand for the hand of a young lady still in her 
'teens: "I am 70 and you are 17. Will you 
do me the honor of becoming my widow ?" 

A young man proposed for the hand of a 
beautiful girl. As she hesitated about replying, 
he said: "I await your answer with bated 
breath." The girl, who is a good deal of a 
humorist, said: "Well, Mr. Man, you will 
have to bait your breath with something besides 
high wines and Limburgher cheese to catch your 
humble servant. Good evening." 

A young lady who graduated from a high 
school last July is teaching school up in New 
Hampshire. A bashful young gentleman vis- 
ited the school the other day, and was asked 
by the teacher to say a few words to the pu- 
pils. This was his speech: "Scholars, I hope 
you will always love your school and your 
teacher as much as I do." Tableau — giggling 
boys and girls and a blushing school ma'am. 

"What did you do with that letter that was 
•on my table?'' asked Gus De Smith of the col- 
ored boy who cleans up his room. "I tuck it 
to the postotl.ee, sab, and put it the hole." 
"What did you do that foi? Did you not see 
there was no address on the envelope?" "I 
saw dar was no writin' on de 'velope, but I 
'lowed yer did dat ar on purpose, so I couldn't 
tell who ye was a writin' to. I'se an edicated 
negro, I is." 

Life is Hard in Germany. — Hard alike to 
learned and simple, to those who labor in the 
fields or pent up in cities; but there are couso 
lations. All who live among German folks 
must be struck by the manly dignity and resig- 
nation with which these daily problems are 
met. Proudest perhaps of all European na- 
tions, they bear their burdens uncomplainingly, 
and set an example which at least two neigh- 
boring States might do well to imitate. How- 
ever much they may be apt to exaggerate the 
professional authority and arrogate for book 
learning beyond what is its due, they certainly 
exemplify in their lives a respect for things wor 
thy of respect and a contempt for mere material 
advantage. Germans love a pedigree, and are 
not insensible to a noble name. But before all 
things they consider the man the intellectual 
being, and if he is merely a possessor of wealth 
— a gold sack as they call it — then it is little 
consideration he will receive at their hands. 
Pall Mall Gazette. 



Science Club— No 1. 

Introduction. 

Our children say, "this is my own, my native 
land!" In wonder they linger over the beatf. 
ties of their indigenous flora and the varied 
soil from which it springs, wishing to learn 
something more of their names and uses. So 
we open this corner to the pen, pencil, plant, 
mineral and shell contributions of all the boys 
and girls on the Pacific coast, and larger peo- 
ple, if they wish ; for the more makes the mer- 

sr. 

We ask you to send papers rilled with leaves 
and flowers; small boxes of shells, rocks and 
fossils, all numbered and duplicated. We will 
submit them to some able specialists of botany 
and mineralogy, and report by letter, or by this 
paper. 

In this number we will write about our 
Shells. 

The lakes and rivers abound in shells, which 
are often accounted more choice by collectors, 
than those of the ocean. In fact, that little 
shell, termed the snail or Helix, is on account 
of the rarity of certain species most eagerly 
sought. What would you think of two collect- 
ors searching for three days, near the Marine 
hospital, in San Francisco, and only finding 
three to reward their toil. 

There are two great classes of shells, the bit 
valve and univalve. We will here speak of the 
bivalve. Taking it in our hands we notice it is 
composed of two pieces, fitted into each other 



How Our Busy Young Men Destroy 
Their Health. 

There was an inquest held the other day on 
the body of a city clerk which is instructive, in 
that it shows the madness of the railway speed 
at which too many live, and points to a new 
disease that completely baffles modern medical 
science. The disease, with its innumerable af- 
filiated branches, is commonly and inaccurately 
known as "overwork." It should, with more 
direct truth, be called the nineteenth century 
malady of fuss and flutter, and the almost in- 
curable fault of forgetting to live. Overwork 
does not, as a rule, kill any man; in fact, 
more men die from sheer idleness than from 
steady application; but what does kill men is 
the anxiety to get a good start and keep the 
lead, the nervous strain of pressing forward in 
the race of life, the extreme tension of the vi- 
tal power caused by worry and increased by 
noise, locomotion, restlessness, harshness and 
the occasional cruelty of the world. This city 
clerk was simply an exhausted machine. Not 
yet in the prime of life, he paid the penalty of 
high-pressure at the early age of 36. He 
worked his brains and he worked his hands, he 
neglected sleep and nourishment as well, he 
was forever exhausting the system and never 
supplying the deficit, and at last, without any 
apparent warning, nature closed the account, 
and the career of the city clerk was over. — 
Herald of Health. 




For the Preservation of Belts. — Wood 
and Iron gives its readers a recipe for the pres- 
ervation of belts: Resin oil and 10% of mica 
Besin oil will make a belt grip for a little while, 
and then put a glaze on it, making it necessary 
for another dose of oil, etc. If it is a leather 
belt, resin oil will make it stiff and harsh, and 
cause it to slip and crack. Besin oil is not 
" grease, " as stated by Wood ami Iron. It is 
more of a varnish. It is used to make cheap 
grades of printers' ink; being ground up with 
lamp-black in roller mills. Mica is recom- 
mended as a lubricant for heavy journals, and 
has no place on a belt. Wood and Iron says 
that a belt coated with resin oil and mica is not 
affected by " corrosion," whatever that is. Our 
Eastern belts never " corrode." Boilers some- 
times do. We have known belts to rot, but 
never to " corrode."— United States Miller. 

The Penetrating Power of Light in 
Water. — The limiting depth to which light 
penetrates in water was some time ago stated 
to be 40 meters for Lake Leman, by Prof. Forel, 
who used albumenized paper in his experiments. 
M. Asper has recently made similar experiments 
on the Lake of Zurich by a slightly different 
method. He nsed the photographic plates 
called emulskn plates (more sensitive than al- 
bumenized paper), and immersed them during 
the night of August 3d, to depths of 40, 50, GO, 
70, 80 and 90 meters. They were brought up 
after remaining 24 hours in the water, and 
treated with oxalate of iron. All the plates, 
without exception, were distinctly affected by 
the light. Thus the chemical rays penetrate in 
clear water to at least 90 meters deep. 



Bivalve She.]. 

at the top and locked together by means of 
small projections, called teeth. The valves 
open and shut during the life of the clam, mus- 
sel or oyster, here represented, simply by a 
backward or forward movement, like the swing- 
ing af a door, hence the line of teeth is termed 
the hinge line. Above the hinge on the outside 
of the shell is found a dark elastic substance, 
called the ligament. Each valve is raised and 
rounded somewhat into a beak, and these beaks 
are known as the umbones of the shell. The 
hinge line is called the dorsal side; the open 
side, the ventral. The beaks or umbones mark 
the starting points in the growth of the shell, 
and many concentric lines are generally plainly 
marked on the outside of bivalves, denoting its 
many stages of growth. The inside of the 
shell is everywhere covered with a thin, but 
very beautiful layer of pear). 

This layer is very smooth, with the exception 
of two or three places, which look like scars 
One scar is termed the anterior adductor im. 
pression; the other, the posterior adductor im 
pression. They represent the position of 
strong muscles used by the animal in closing its 
shell. Between these two impressions, or scars, 
is a wavy line parallel to the lower margin of 
the shell, called the pallial line. The teeth in 
the hinge line are of two kinds — the short, 
which are near the back, and long, which run 
the whole length of the ligament. The short 
ones are cardinal teetb, and the long ones 
lateral. In some shells we have a pedal mus- 
cular impression, because muscles are attached 
to them, moving the foot of the animal. A pe 
culiar heart-shaped depression found on some 
univalves, beneath and in front of the umbones, 
is called the lunule. 

In the illustration of a bivalve, in this col 
umn, u is the umbo; hi, luuule; a', a, adductor 
muscular impressions ; p, pallial line; p, s, pal 
lial sinus; I, t, lateral tooth; c, cardinal teeth; 
I, ligament. 

In our next we will study the univalve shell. 
Miss Ora Dibble, Berkeley, Cat., wishes to 
exchange named Californian sea-shells for min 
erals and beetles. 

All letters, specimens, etc., must be addressed 
' Rural Press Science Club," Berkeley, Cal. 



ESpC ELC@ 



Warm Bed Clothing for Children. — It is 
fully as important that children should be 
warmly clad at night as during the day. Nor 
is it sufficient that the bed-clothing should be 
warm. Indeed, we are apt to err in using too 
many blankets rather than too few. Then the 
restless child kicks off the cover, and from a 
warm perspiration becomes chilled through, and 
a severe cold is the consequence. Delicate chil- 
dren should sleep in flannel, while for more ro- 
bust constitutions Canton flannel in the lighter 
grades is heavy enough. Night-drawers are to 
be preferred to night-gowns, and the legs of the 
drawers should be long enough to reach the feet. 
Indeed, the style which covers the foot also, 
like a stocking, is an excellent one for children 
who are restless sleepers. Night-gowns for 
babies should be long enough to come down well 
over the feet, and flannels should be worn in cold 
weather, the pinning blankets which are fur- 
nished with all layettes. In every household 
where there is a baby, there should be at least 
one open fire where its feet may be occasionally 
toasted. No one can sleep healthily when cold, 
and the baby will rest much better if laid to 
sleep upon a warm blanket than between cold 
sheets. 

Prescribing by Telephone. — A few even- 
ings ago a physician of North Adams, Massa- 
chusetts, was called by telephone about one 
o'clock at night. The call came from Briggs 
ville, about two miles away. A child was there 
suffering with the croup and in a critical con- 
dition. The night was dark and stormy, and 
the doctor found nothing pleasant in the con 
templation of the trip which he was asked to 
make. When preparing to go out into the 
darkness and rain, his mind conceived a bright 
thought, which was immediately followed by 
acts. . He called the Briggsville house in which 
the little sufferer lay, and requested the parents 
to bring it to the telephone transmitter. This 
was done. The child coughed its croupy cough, 
and the doctor listened intently to every sound 
which came from his patient. He prescribed a 
remedy, and one of the members of the family 
prepared and administered it. The relief was 
immediate and the recovery rapid. The doctor 
waited at the telephone until he heard of the 
favorable results of his prescription, and then 
sought again the repose of his couch, pronounc- 
ing blessings on the inventor of telephones. — 
Hartford Post. 

A Hard Struggle. — There are many men 
who kill themselves in their attempts to keep 
themselves alive. They work because they 
must eat. With their tasks come worry, over- 
work, death. In these days it is difficult to 
live — that is, for some men. They are handi- 
capped in their struggle. A portion of society 
has become possessed of the wealth that should 
be in the hands of their fellows. A glance 
around forces home to one's mind with power 
the fact that the man who haB knowledge of 
himself — who knows how to maintain health of 
body, mind and morals, possesses a great advant- 
age over other men in the struggle for life. 



SroNGE Pudding.— Rub six ounces of but- 
ter or beef dripping into a pound of dry flour, 
in which a level dessert-spoonful of ground 
ginger and six ounces of brown sugar have been 
mixed; dissolve two level teaspoonfuls of car- 
bonate of soda in half a pint of milk, mixing 
it smooth and free from lumps before adding to 
the flour. Beat all together into a soft batter, 
and pour into a buttered basin. Allow the 
pudding plenty of room to swell in the cloth, 
which it does considerably; plunge into very 
fast boiling water and keep boiling two hours 
and a half. Turn it out, and serve with wine 
sauce; some prefer to eat it dry. 

Canvas-Back Ducks.— Select young, fat 
ducks; pick them nicely; singe and draw them 
carefully without washing them, so as to pre- 
serve the blood and consequently the full flavor 
of the bird; then truss it and place it on the 
spit before a brisk fire, or in a pan in a hot 
oven for at least fifteen or twenty minutes; 
then serve it hot with its own gravy, which is 
formed by its own blood and juices, on a hot 
dish. It may also be a little less cooked, and 
then carved and placed on a chafing-dish with 
red currant jelly, port wine and a little butter. 

Cider Jelly. — Soak two ounces of gelatins 
in a quart of cold water for an hour; than add 
to it a stick of cinnamon, broken into pieces, a 
blade of mace and a few cloves, also the juice 
of a lemon, the beaten white of an egs, one 
pound of white sugar and a quart and a pint of 
cider. Let it come slowly to a boil, and boil 
15 minutes. Pass through a jelly bag into 
molds which you have rubbed with butter. 
You may put in only one quart of cider, and 
not boil it at all, but strain it after you have 
let it stand for half an hour in a warm room. 



Almond Cake.— One pound of sugar, half 
pound of flour, ten eggs, ounce of bitter al- 
monds, a glass of kase water; beat the yolks 
till they are quite a batter, then add the sugar 
and beat it well; having previously pounded the 
almonds fine in the kase water, add them to the 
yolks; the whites must be beaten very light and 
then add the flbur just stirred into the other in- 
gredients. Bike an hour and ten minutes in 
rather a quick oven. 



Almond Jumbles.— Beat half a pound of 
butter to a cream, with half a pound of loaf su- 
gar, pounded tine; mix with a pound of flour, 
and a quarter of a pound of almonds, blanched 
and shred fine, or beaten to a paste with the 
juice of a lemon; work it well together, roll it 
out, then cut it into small round cakes, and 
bake them in a quick oven. 

Cleaning Paint. — Frequent scrubbing with 
soap and water will invariably destroy the 
freshness and brilliancy of paint. Whiting 
will remove spots and clean paint much better 
than soap, and with no injury to the most deli- 
cate colors. Make a paste of whiting and hot 
water, rub it on well with a HaQnel cloth and 
rinse off with tepid water and a clean flannel. 

Cocoanut Cake. — Take the whites of eight 
eggs beaten to a stiff froth, one-half cup of butter 
stirred to a cream, half cup sugar, half cud sweet 
milk, two and a half cups sifted Hour, teaspoon- 
ful cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda. 
Make of this three flat cakes, bake on pie tins, 
and while warm, spread with icing, and grate 
on cocoanut between each cake. 



Puz/.les. — One of our young readers, who 
signs himself "Good Templar," sends us some 
puzzles, but sends no answers. We cannot do 
anything with puzzles unless the answers are 
sent, so that we can judge whether it is a fair 
puzzle or not. 

"Mamma, do you know how I get into bed 
so quickly ?" "No, my darling. How do you?" 
"Why, I put oi e foot on the bed, and then 
holler 'Rats I' and scare myself right in." 



A Quaker's advice to his son on his wedding 
day: "When thee went a courting, I told thee 
to keep thy eyes wide open. Now that thee is 
married, I tell thee to keep them half shut," 



To Make a Good Cologne. — Take alcohol 
05 ', 1 quart; oil of cedrat, 9 drams; oil of 
thyme, 2 drams; oils of bcrgamot and lemon, 
(i drams; oil of Portugal, 4 drams; oils of 
ne roll, vervain and rosemary, 2 drams; oil of 
mint, 2i drams; eau de melisse, 2 drams; tinc- 
ture of musk, 24 drops. Mix, and after stand- 
ing 24 hours, filter till clear. 



Removal of Strong Odors. — It is said that 
ground mustard is an excellent agent for cleans- 
ing the hands after handling odorous substances, 
such as cod-liver oil, musk, valerianic acid and 
its salts. Scale pans and vessp'.a of various kinds, 
may also be readily freed from odor by the 
same substance. 



Chocolate Cake. — Take the yolks of 10 
eggs, and use just the same quantity of every- 
thing as you did for the cocoanut cake, gratiDg 
the chocolate upon the icing between each cake. 
The whites of two eggs beaten till they will not 
slide from the plate, and enough pulverized 
white sugar to make it very thick, will make 
enough icing for one cake. 

Cider Cake. — Rub to a cream a scant cup- 
ful of butter and two cupfuls of sugar; add to 
this one cupful of cider, three cupfuls of flour 
and four eggs, with two cupfuls of raisins and 
currants, mixed. The raisins you may buy 
seedless, but the currants must be rubbed in 
Indian meal to clean them. 



Gingerbread — Three cups of flour, one of 
sugar, one of butter, and one of molasses; three 
eggs beaten light, one tablespoonful of ginger, 
one teaspoonful of pearl-ash and some cloves. 
Beat the butter in sugar as for pound cake, then 
add the other ingredients, putting in the pearl- 
ash last. Bake them in cake tins. 



Soft Gingerbread. — Six cups of flour, two 
of sugar, two of butter, two of molasses, two of 
milk, four eggs, a tablespoonful of ginger and a 
little allspice; beat the butter, sugar and eggs 
light; then stir in the other ingredients. Add 
a teaspoonful of pearl-ash dissolved in vinegar. 

English Buns. — One pound of flour, half 
pound of sugar, quarter pound butter, same of 
cinnamon, half piut of raisins; rub them all to- 
gether and mix with milk and four or five drops 
of pearl-ash. Wash them after they are baked 
with sugar and water. 

Rock Cake. — The whites of four eggs beaten 
very light, one pound of loaf sugar added to 
them, three-fourths of a pound of sweet almonds 
slightly bruised. Bake on paper in tins, 



44 



THE PACIFIC BUR AL PRESS. 



[January ax, 1882 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. KWEB. 

Office, 252 Market St., S. E. Cor. Front St., S. F. 
tS-Tttlcc the Elevator, Xo. 12 Front St. Xt 

Akvual Subscriptions, $4; six mouths, ?2; three 
months. $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deductod. No NRW names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by rcgis- 
tored letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
ADViRTisi.va Katrs. 1 week. 1 month. S mos. 12 roos 

Per lino 26 .80 82.20 $ 6.00 

Half inch (1 square).. 81.60 84.00 10.00 24.00 
One Inch.. 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisemeints, notices appearing 
on extraordinary type or in particular partB of the ]>apcr 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month 

Addrrss editorial and business letters to the firm. In 
dlviduals are liable to be absent 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 



Entered at San Francisco P. O. as second-class matter 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



A. T. DRW1T. 



w. b. im 



8. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 21, 1882 



Double Sheet— 20 Pages. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITORIALS- Situation and 8ur" 
rounding* of Portland; Birds and Worms, 37- Stanley's 
Vine-Setter, 41. The Week; Removing the Barriers 
Preparations for Drouth; National Agricultural Exhi 
bition, 44. Horse Power for Pumping; Evaporation 
and Seepage, 45. Naturalists Directory; Our Alaska 
Territory; What Readers sav of Us; Immigration Bu 
reau, 49. Patents and Inventions, 52 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — View of Portland, 37. The 
Stanley Patent Vine-Setter and Dole Digger, 41. Tne 
Beebce Horse Power and Rotary Pump, 45. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL —The Ant and the Aphis; The 
Wold - 'Bug;" Bug Smellers; Lye; What I Know About 
Bugs, 45. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— The Filbert Weavfl 

and !• illicit Grafting, " 6 
CORRESPONDENCE.— Fresno Notes; Letsons of a 

Dry Year, 38. 

THE VINEYARD — A Portuguese System of Long 

Pruning; Grape Cuttings, 38 
THE HELD.— Irrigation Ditches in Colorado; Blue 

stoning S^ed Grain, bQ. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY- Grange Eke- 

tious; A Day at Haywanls; Installations at Placcrville 
¥ Grange, 40. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES, from the various 

Counties of California 40-41. 
NEWS IN BRIEF on page 41, and other pages. 
HOME CIRCLE - Make Your bouse a Poem; The 

Mountain (poetry); The Piece that was Lost; Dcith of 

the Old Wife, 43. Chaff; Life is Hard in Germany, 42 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.- Sc once Club, 43 
GOOD HEALTH— H'.w Our Busy Young Men De 

stroy their Health; Warm Bed Clothing for Children; 

Prescribing by Telephone; A Hard Struggle. 43. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Sponge Puddirg; Can 

vas-Back Ducks; Cider Jelly; Almond Cake; Almond 

Jumbles; Cleaning Paint, Coeoanut Cake, 43- 
SHEEP AND WOOL. -The Boston W.ml Market 

Wool Trade of lS-tl ; Calif jrnia Wools in Boston. 46 

Mechanic's Capital, 49. 
PDBL1C LAUDS.- How to Make Known Our Va 

cant Lauds, 47 
HORTICULTURE. Killing the Pests; Answer to 

the "Other side." 49. 
MISCELLANEOUS — Ebonized Wood; While Lead 

The French Wheat Crop, 46. Wind Pressures; The 

Business Announcements. 

Apricot and Peach Pits For Sale, J. Rock, San Jose, Cal. 
Plains, Trees, Etc., J. Rock's Nurseries, San Jose. Cal. 
Seeds, InnUfallcn Greenhouses, Springfield, Ohio. 
John Berastrom, Organ Builder, 8. F. 
Kai-in Vine Cuttings For Sate, California Raisin Co. 
Orange and Lemon Trees, T. J. Swayne, National Citv.Cal. 
Fence Treatise. Seeds, Kt<\, W. F. Brown. Oxford, O. 
Pooltry, T D. Morris, Sonoma, Cal. 



The Week. 



We have had another seven days of meteorn 
logical wonders with but little water, excepting 
the heavy downpour of nearly four inches in 
San Diego. This rain was well placed, and the 
San Diego river ran as it only decs after a pro- 
longed rain. Just above, in the country guarded 
by old Mt. San Bernardino, there was a sight 

fit to bring amazement to the dwellers there 

a heavy snowfall reaching to a depth of 10 
inches; the white masses clustering in the 
branches of the orange-laden trees, making a 
sight of great beauty, and transforming the 
face of the country into a portrait of the Arc- 
tic. Snowballs, sleigh rides and slush in the 
garden of llesperides! It is not an unusual 
thing for an orange region of the south 
of Europe to be taken into the account, 
but the compara'ively short history of Cali'- 
fornia records nothing of the kind prior to 
1SS2. Flurries there have been. Snow-cov- 
ered mountains are among the regular dclightB 
of a southern California winter, but never a 
Bleigh bell or a snow ball before. Fortunately, 
the snow was rather a warm article and the air 
temperate, so that injuries are reported exceed- 
ingly slight. 

And the regions which had not the snow or 



the rain had a roaring wind. AndtheOjai! 
We had a lovely poem about the Ojai last 
week. For further particulars, see Ventura 
county, on page 41 of this issue. And Btill we 
look for rain. Signs are thick for it as we 
write, but a wicked and perverse generation has 
not made much from them thus far. 

Removing the Barriers. 

Many who have fenced in government lands 
in California have profited by the bullock's- 
hide style of measurement of anoient history. 
They have enclosed all which their own selections 
surrounded, and thus have gained an apparent 
right to inlying tracts of good land which 
should be left open for the use of settlers, un 
der the different laws. Sometimes these land- 
si.rrounders get into trouble from the fact that 
some of their laborers who have an inside view 
of their operations, make a bold turn and get 
the grabbers into a corner. We heard the 
other day of a large firm of land-encirclers in 
San Joaquin valley who desired to die 
charge a carpenter who was in their 
employ. The carpenter disliked his treatment 
so he hired teams, bought lumber and hauled 
it into the interior of the princely domain of the 
firm aforesaid and began the erection of a house 
announcing that he proposed to acquire the 
land from the government. When the firm 
heard of his operation, and knowing that he 
had them upon the hip, so to speak, they had a 
parley with him, which resulted in their paying 
him a bonus of 8300.. and restoring him to his 
old place on the pay-roll as carpenter, but with 
increased wages. The firm knew very well that 
they had no title to the land they had corralled 
with their fences, and as they did not wish to lose 
the use of it, they paid Aleck for his smartness, 
and thus retained their occupancy. 

There are other land fencers who do not have 
such tribulation as this, but who are holding land 
which does not belong to them. This would not 
matter were it not for the fact that those who de 
sire the land, and have a right to it, are kept away 
by the semblance of proprietorship which the 
enclosing fence carries. Of course, by looking 
up the records of the land office, it would ap- 
pear that the land was still open; but such ex- 
aminations are not easy to make, except by ex- 
perts, and so the land lies in the possession of 
the fencer indefinitely. 

It is very desirable that the shutting of good 
land from entry by this method of operation 
should be broken up. As it is, the holders resist 
occupancy by others, and sometimes resort to 
mote audacious means to repel intruders than 
by firing coin at them. Those who have studied 
our land questions have long been aware of the 
evil of excessive inclosure, and have proposed 
methods to overcome it. The Surveyor- 
General of the State mentions it in his last 
report, and proposes a new enactment by Con- 
gress to restrain the present occupants from con- 
trolling more than the areas to which they have 
a legal right. The Board of Immigration re- 
cently organized in this city, finds that their 
placing of immigrants on public lands will be 
interfered with by the fact that such large areas 
are locked up by illegal enclosure, and they pro- 
pose to gain access to such lands. At the meet- 
ing of the Board last week, a report was made 
on this subject by Capt. Blanding, which was 
printed in last week's Tress. On Tuesday of 
this week, the matter was carried farther by 
the submission of a draft of a proposed law on 
the subject, as follows: 

An Act to prevent the unlawful occupation of the pub- 
lic lands. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America, in Congress 

assembled: 

/'ir»f -The occupation or enclosure of any tract of the 
surveyed or unsurveyed public lands, in larger quantities 
than authorized by law, shaU not prevent the entry there- 
on by any one duly qualified and intending in good faith 
to acquire title under the pre-emption or homestead laws. 
But where such tract has been enclosed or is occupied for 
the purpose of acquiring title thereto, under any of the 
laws of the United States, the occupation shall be held 
valid for such lesser quantity as the occupant is author- 
ized by 1 ,w to acquire title to. 

Provided, That the occupant or scl eral occupants, If 
more than one, shall, within ten days after written de 
mand, designate the metes and bounds of such lesser 
quantity by wtll-dcflned marks. In case of neglect or re- 
fusal to do so, such occupant or occupants shall be 
deemed trespassers, and the whole tract may be entered 
on by persons duly qualified and intending in good faith 
to acquire title under the pre-emption or homestead laws, 
and such demand and netr'ect or rofusal shall be held to 
bar a recovery in any action brought against any person 
so entering. 

Scvoiu'— Any person who by force or threats th ill pre- 
vent any entry on such enclosed tract after such demand 
and neglect or refusal, shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and be punished by a fine of not more than isSOO, 
or by imprisonment of not more than six months, or by 
both Hutii line and imprisonment. 

This bill is to be forwarded to the California 
delegation at Washington, with tbe request 
that it be enacted by Congess. As we have re- 
marked above, it is not just that an occupier 
should hold parts of the public domain which 
are in excess of his right. If he can make use 
of land which is not called for, it will do, for 

t will add to his comfort and that of his family 
and will increase the productions and wealth of 
the State, by turning to account that which 
would go to waste. But such occupation as 
thiB is not like that which aims to create an 

dea of ownership, and holds it by menace or 
threat to anyone who comes to exercise his 

ight of homestead or pre emption. The bar- 
riers to the occupancy of li n 1 by those who 
have a legal right to it should be swept away. 



Preparations for Drouth. 

Our friends in the doubtful parts of the State 
are doing a great deal of thinking, and not a lit- 
tle in the way of deeds, in preparation for the 
drouth which threatens, but may yet be averted. 
The first to feel the pinch of the long dead sea- 
son are the animals, which, before this time of 
the year, are usually cropping the new, rich 
growth of alfillerilla and the clovers. In the 
lower counties, the wintry storms came upon 
flocks which had already been weakened by 
short rations, and there has been some loss and 
much Buffering. There is now a movement to 
take the sheep out of the country, and the way 
seems opening for them all along the new rail- 
way, from Arizona to Texas. It is reported that 
the railway will give special rates favoring ship- 
pers, and thuB facilitate the carriage of the ani- 
mals to fields where they can obtain pasturage. 
If the present weather continuesjfor af.-w days, 
the sheep census of the lower count es will be 
considerably reduced, and it will be reasonable 
to expect good wool rates in spring, because of 
tbe reduced production. 

There is much being dene toward the utili- 
zation of all land which can be brought under 
ditch or which is naturally moist. In this way 
there can be considerable amounts of proeluce 
gathered, and the year can be worried over 
it tit 1 a better one comes. H. M. Johnson 
sketches a plan for Los Angeles county as fol- 
lows: 

The sheep having been disposed of, if every farmer 
owning irrigable or moist land will immediately sow it to 
small irrain, either for grain or hay, and after harvesting 
put it into corn, every cow, horse and hog in tbe county 
will go through the season in good plight, and we will 
have a surplus of both grain and hay to sell to our neigh- 
bors, thereby showing to our Eastern friends that a 
drouth in Los Angeles county has none of the terrors it 
has in any other country, and that one acre of irrigable 
I mi i - easily worth double what it can be bought, for at 
present. 

1 be teve that if everybody will recognize the fact that 
we are in the midst of the worst drouth ever known 
Southern California, and act accordingly; >. e., go to work 
and irrigate and plant every available piece of land an " 
let dry lands alone this > ear, that we will make such 
showing that all our lands will dfruble their present value 
by next spring. It is safe to say we can raise a crop of 
small grain on our dry land five times out of six. I doubt 
whether the best farmi'd lands east of the Rocky moun 
ains can make as fafe a showing. When our drouth 
comes, all we have to do is to irr gate in winter as well as 
summer, raise a crop of hay and harvest it; in May 
Juue irrigite the same 1 .nd again, seed it to corn and 
pumpkins, and we have a douule crop, reimbursing us to 
a great ex'ent for the failure of the grass and small grain 

Much the same practice can be employed in 
many other parts ol the State than Los Angeles, 
county, though to a less extent, for Los Angeles 
has wonderful water resources in streams and 
artesian wells. But there are many parts 
where a thorough soaking of some amount of 
land can bs had this winter, even if it only be 
such an area as can be reached from a well 
Land thus thoroughly soaked and then mel 
lowed on the top to retain the moisture will 
prove productive even if the rain is wanting 
and by planting crops on it which will minister 
directly to the support of the farm stock and 
for household use, the family will be well pre 
(.ared to pass the year comfortably, and not 
draw very heavily upon the storekeeper for the 
year's support. 

The State certainly was never in better con- 
dition for a dry year than at present. The irri 
gable area has baen constantly increasing in all 
parts of the State, and the old sad picture of 
wide sear wastes during a dry year 
n California will not be seen again. The great 
San Joaquin valley, which used to be a yellow 
ocean of barrenness when the rains failed, will 
now be a patchwork of yellow and green, for 
the irrigated fields will show a delightful verd- 
ure. The counties below have also made won 
derful progress in irrigation enterprises, and are 
to a certain extent independent of the 
elements, so long as the snow reservoirs of the 
mountains are filled. 

Another reason why a dry year would now 
work but little of its old-time havoc is because 
of the progress which our farmers have made dur 
iog the last two or three years in clearing their 
lands of incumbrances and the wiping out of 
the interest fiend, who is a|merciless monster in 
a dry year. Tbe agricultural producers of the 
State have done comfortably well for several 
years; they have made good nse of their sav 
ings; their credit is good, and they can take a 
year's rest, if they cannot help it, with better 
grace than they could in former years. The 
greatest pinch promises to come upon tbe newly 
planted trees and vines, and it is to be deeply 
regretted that an unfavorable year will to some 
degree arrest the notable progress of horticult- 
ure which it has beed expected the year would 
show. 

But, whatever comes, there must be no loss 
of heart or courage. All writers are pointing 
to the disadvantages of other lands, and show 
ing that California's misfortuues are lighter. It 
is doubtless true. Why then should one grow 
restless and lose what he has already gained by 
forced movement and sacrifice of property? A 
season of economy and of effort to meet depriv- 
ations with courage, will enable nearly all to 
hold on and enjoy the benefits which no doubt 
another year will bring. 



Mr. J. F. Osborne, who has been success- 
fully connected with the business of this clfice 
during the past two and a half years, will here- 
after act as assistant business manager, and we 
bespeak for him the favorable attention of our 
many friends and patrons. 



A National Agricultural Exhibition. 

At the July meeting of the B3ard of Direct- 
ors of the American Agricultural Association, 
a resolution was unanimously adopted in faver 
of holding a National Agricultural Fair durin g 
the year 1882 at some central point in the 
United States. 

Prior to the war, the United States Society 
held large and successful fairs in the principal 
cities of the country, From that time until 
the Centennial Exhibition nothing was done in 
this direction more than through State and 
inter-State fairs. The Agricultural Depart- 
ment of the Centennial was, however, one of 
the most attractive and interesting features of 
the enterprise, but even thore, agriculture did 
not do full credit to itself on account of the 
division of interest. Since then, nothing has 
been done towards a national display of agri- 
cultural products, except at the Atlanta Cotton 
exposition of the present year. 

That a national show of agricultural prod- 
ucts should be held annually, or at least bienni- 
ally, scarcely needs statement. The import- 
ance of the industry to every other interest of 
the country and the increasing attention that 
must be given it to meet the new dem«nds that 
will be made upon it, require that those most val- 
uable of all practical educators, competitive ex- 
hibitions, should be properly considered. If agri- 
culture has advanced to the high condition in 
this country which it now occupies without 
these agencies, what will be its position and 
tbe position of the farmers when these fairs 
are held ? Then, indeed, will England and the 
nations of Europe have reason to fear competi- 
tion from American farmers; then will agri- 
culture be recjgnized and respected in the 
United States as it is in England and France, 
and then will the best results be obtained more 
generally by our farmers, their profits increased 
and their care and labor lessened. This conn- 
try stands already in the fore-front in agricul- 
tural productions, raising the largest quantity 
of corn, wheat, cotton, butter, cheese and 
pork, and producing the finest grades of cattle 
and the best stock in general, employing the 
best class of agricultural machinery. 

Periodical agricultural exhibitions in the 
leading cities of the United States would be the 
most interesting and instructive institutions for 
the general good that could be organized. They 
would attract such an attendance as no gathei- 
ing of their kind, outside of the Centennial, has 
secured since 1S6U. They would afford an op- 
portunity for the display of stock such as the 
country has never enjoyed, not exceptiog the 
Centennial, where the facilities in this direction 
were inferior. What would be of greater inter- 
est than herds of Jersey, Short Horn, Ayrshire, 
Holstein, Hereford and other breeds of cattle, 
thoroughbred horses, sheep, swine, and poul- 
try, dairy products, cereals, cotton, wool, 
woods, agricultural machinery and implements, 
and the vast wealth of this gieat industry? The 
railroad facilities of the present time would ena- 
ble the safe shipment of stock from all sections 
of the country as it could never be done before. 
Such an exhibition would attract a million visit- 
ors, and not only accomplish vast good for the 
agriculturalists of the country, but prove of tie 
greatest benefit to the city in which it was 
held. 

The Royal Agricultural Syciety of Eugland 
holds annual fairs at different points, and they 
are recognized as the most interesting and val- 
uable of her public enterprises. The St. Louis 
fair in this country is largely patronized. On 
one day last year over 100,000 people were in 
attendance. The fair is held annually. The 
American Agricultural Association is now wait- 
ing to ascertain which city will do the most for 
the encouragement of a fair. Philadelphia, 
Baltimore, Cincinnati, Chicago and New York 
are each of them desirous of having it held 
within their limits. Thus far, Baltimore has 
e fibred the best inducements. New York is 
suggested because of its connections with the Old 
World. At this point the representatives of all 
nations would witness it. Tnere is an opportu- 
nity for the establishment of a permanent fair 
here. Wherever it is held, 8100,000 in premi- 
ums will probably be offered, thus insuring the 
largest and best agricultural and stock exhibition 
ever held. The Committee on Exhibitions, of 
which ex-Gov. George A. Crawford of Kausas, 
who was instrumental in tbe superior representa- 
tion of Kansas and Colorado at the Centennial, 
is Chairman, is ready for immediate action. 
The other members are Capt. Burnett Landretb, 
who was Chief of the Agricultural Department 
at the Centennial; Hun. Thos. A. Gait, of U- 
linois, a leading manufacturer of agricultural 
implements; ex Gov. Smythe, of New H»mp- 
hire, Col. El ward Richardson, of Mississippi, 
the largest cotton planter in the United States, 
and Col. Robt. Beverly, one of the largest 
stock men and representative agriculturists «f 
Virginia. 

An auxiliary committee will be formed of the 
representatives of the different industries con- 
cerned, and of the place in which the fair may 
be held. 

Col. Lawson, Agent for the Mission Indians, 
is furnishing the Indians in thenoithern part of 
San Diego county with tools for farming. He 
lately sent out a large stock of plows, harness, 
hoes and other agricultural implements to the 
Indians at San Jacinto and Warner's ranob, 
and they are preparing to put in a large area of 
grain. 



January 21, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FB1SS. 



45 




The Ant and the Aphis. 

Editors Press: — I take a binful satisfaction 
in reading the Bible. I generally go after it in 
King James' version; though once in awhile I 
take a dive into the Douay. There is a good 
deal about bugs and things in the Bible, trans- 
late how you will. Moses was hefty on grass- 
hoppers, crickets, etc., while he was just old 
lightening on lice, locusts and frogs. Solomon, 
also, beside being a good judge of women, was 
the most profound buggist of his era. What 
pious person has not read his beautiful apostro- 
phetic remarks on the ant, where he opens on 
you by sayiDg: "Go to the ant, etc." 

Well, I took his order and went to the ant. 
I was in Nevada at that time; in which coun- 
try you do not have to go far, when you go to the 
ant. In fact, all that vast area of sage-brush 
country that leads from the highlands of Mex- 
ico to the hyperborean solitudes, aud spreads 
from Laramie to Los Angeles, is one swarm of 
ants. In all that country, save where the 
alkali flat shimmers in the noonday heat, or 
the perpetual snows glitter, ghost-light, along 
the moon-lit horizon, there is not a tree, bush, 
stone or clod, crag, crack, cranny or crevice 
but has been surveyed, a thousand times, by 
the nimble-footed forager upon whose indus- 
trious ancestors Solomon gazed with philo- 
sophic admiration 2890 years ago; nay, even 
478 years earlier than that, when Moses beheld 
a vision in the burning bush, the ants, no doubt, 
Bcurried out of the bush to keep from getting 
scorched in the fire. Oh, the ant is an old 
settler. 

Well! As I said, I went to the ant. I staid 
with him and I studied him, and gave to the 
public my observations on his ways and works 
through the columns of the San Francisco Ar- 
gonaut, the California Horticulturist, and other 
media less renowned. In the Horlkulturiit I 
ventured to guess that the woolly aphis (or "ap- 
ple-tree louse") wintered in the ground in the 
louses of the ants. That the ants protected 
and nursed the aphides in the ground, as we do 
cows in the stables, in order to milk them. The 
idea of the ant as a milker of the aphis is old; 
but my guess as to the ant wintering and hous- 
ing the aphis I thought was new and original. 
Imagine my disapointment when I read in the 
Albany, N. Y., newspaper, dated March, 1844, 
the following from the pen of Mr. Noyes Dar- 
ling, of New Haven, Conn., to wit: 

"It is quite probable that the aphis, (of the cherry tree 
in particular) is domiciled wi'h the ants in the winter, 
and, in the spring, as soon as the leaves are unfolded, is 
carried by the ants to the trees, where it finds its pastures 
in the summer. I have not, by any direct observation of 
my own, been able to verify this fact. Mrs. Darling, on 
one occasion, had the good fortune, on raisingaflat stone, 
in the spring, to see the ants pick up and carry off the 
aphides which had been housed for the winter in the same 
habitation." 

So much for the Darlings on ants and aphides. 
My own observation is, that the aphis is found 
around the roots of apple trees in the holes made 
by the ants. I have found the aphis and the 
ant together in the holes bored by the 
ants around the tree roots — found them so 
many a time. Now, I know that an ant can 
bore a hole in the ground, but I have little rea- 
son to think that the aphis can. Yet, have 
grubbed out old apple trees and found the aphis 
on the roots thereof, as far down as there were 
any roots. If the aphis is not a dirt-worker, 
how does it get down so deep into the earth? 
Echo answers "how ?" If you want any other 
answer take Solomon's advice and "go to the 
ant, thou sluggard!" 

I bequeath this matter to my fellow country- 
men, of the apple-sass variety. If it shall be 
fonnd, by general inspection, that the ant and 
the aphis are in cahoots, then the way to cure 
the aphis will be to stop the ant ere he climbs 
the tree. And, my dear brethren, (likewise 
sisters), I can tell you beforehand, that stop- 
ping ants is diligent business. AVnen I reflect on 
the ways of the ant I feel free to say that Solo- 
mon was no slouch as a bug inspector. 

Mr. Shinn is reported to have said that the 
woolly aphis docs not work in sandy land. I 
differ with him on this matter, and have been 
differing with him on it for several years. It 
would be easier to get clearer ideas in the case 
if we knew exactly what that word "sandy" is 
meant to mean. If it means pure sand — pure 
silicious grit, or disintegrated free-stone — then, 
of course, the aphis would not live in it; neither 
would the tree. But if it means what we com- 
mon clod-hoppers call "sandy land, " then I grieve 
to say that I can show the whole State Hor- 
ticultural Society plenty of woolly aphides on ap- 
ple trees in sandy land in full pursuit of their 
constitutional rights, including the "unaliena- 
ble," "life, liberty, and the pursuit of hap- 
piness." I am of the opinion, on information 
and belief, that, in a humid atmosphere of the 
temperate climes, a woolly aphis will work on 
an apple tree wherever there are ants. 

The Word "Bug." 

In the British Empire, outside of the Canadas, 
the word "bug" is not an elegant expression, 
as it is there confined to that vulgar cimex, the 
chinch of the bed-chamber; but in the free 
United States of America, anything with more 
than four legs, which is not a bee, a wasp, a 
hornet, a fly, or a five legged dining table, is 
liable to be a bug. There are known to be 
several hundred species of bug in our world; 
with the Jeannette voyage, yet to hear from. If 



there are any wooly aphid* s or scale bugs on the 
north pole, they are not yet classified. 

When Shakespeare makes one of his characters 
say — 

" Sir, spare your threats; the bug that you would fright 
me with, I seek. 

He must not be understood as referring to an 
insect so much as to that Celtic monster, the 
"bug-a-boo," which is a full cousin to the "bug- 
bear," all of which belong to the Anglo-Saxon 
family of "hobgoblins." This is an interesting 
family, particularly to children, but has no en- 
tomological significance. The humbug belongs 
to the family of shoo fly, being indigenous to 
the United States, and is an authochthon of the 
political arena. 

[Note. — A portion of this is scientific infor- 
mation, which you will not get anywhere but 
right here. ] 

Bug Smellers. 
Bugs have the sense of smell accutely devel- 
oped, or implanted. Flies, ants, roaches, bees 
and nearly all insects, like Job's war-horse, 
smell "the battle afar off." Ants, guided by 
the faint odor of wheat, will make long jour- 
neys, in single file, to pack it home. Multitudes 
of insects journey across fields, following the 
odor of blossoms and flowers. This sense of 
smell is perhaps keenest in orchard insects, 
about the time the trees begin to blossom; 
therefore, if some, to them, poisonous odor 
can be fed to their sensitive noses at blossoming 
time it is liable to prove discouraging and de- 
pressing in their case. With this idea in view 
I have smoked my blossoming Winter Nelis 



solemn can put this, about goggles, down as a 
sole in n fact. 

Every printer kuows,) 

I suppose, 

That an eye 

Full of lye 
Is very nearly — well 
It hurls for a spell; 
And printer's lj e is not 

Near as hot 
As the stuff the farmer throws, 

Through his hose. 

On the trees. 

J. W. Gall v. 

Watsonville, Cal. 

What I Know About Bujre. 

Eds. Press: — All the fruit men are writing on 
bugology, so we will give you a chapter. To 
begin with, I have been humbugged lor about 
twenty years by writers who created bugbears 
to frighten the fruit growers. First, came the 
lady-bug. Some wise Dr. about Oakland or 
Alameda wrote terrifying descriptions of its rav- 
ages, and made us all believe that it and the 
spider would ultimately eat all the fruit in the 
country and smother the trees. But the years 
came and went and so did the lady-bugs and 
spiders, until we learned not to fear them. 

Then came the woolly aphis scare. The ar- 
ticles written we.-e learned and able. I had a 
nursery of apple trees. I saw the dreaded 
pest on a few of the trees. I obeyed 
the injunction of the writers and 
dug up my nursery and burned the trees, 
rather than run the risk of spreading the 
pest. A friend persuaded me to let him take 
a few of the trees to Los Angeles county. I 




THE BEEBEB HORSE POWER AND ROTARY PUMP. 



posing that the fruit interests of the State ai 
to be destroyed. W. W. Brier. 

Centerville, Cal. 



pear trees with the heavy smoke of coal tar or 
asphalt. When trees are smoked with coal tar 
on a clear, still day in blossom time, the winged 
insects can be seen getting out in a hurry. The 
heavy tar smoke, beside driving out the winged 
insects, perhaps leaves some slight condensed 
sulphuric soot, or other matter, on the cool 
twigs and branches as a poisonous benefit for 
the wingless bugs. Under this smoke treat 
ment my Winter Nelis pears were this year 
comparatively clear of that bug, blight, com- 
monly called "mildew." I used no other treat- 
ment to the pears, yet the Sclavonians who 
bought largely of such fruits pronounced my 
Nelis the cleanest in the valley. I am 
not yet prepared to swear that the 
tar smoke cleaned the pears, but I 
do aver that I know of no other cleansing 
cause. The experiment is not costly. Coal 
tar, or liquid asphalt can be had at the "tar- 
springs" for the asking. Mix it with dry ma- 
nure or old straw; place it where it will roll 
smoke into the tree-top; fire it, and let it 
smudge. I offer this coal tar racket, not as a 
complete success, but as an easy and, as I find 
it, safe experiment to try. If it will work, its 
application is far easier and cheaper than 
Lye. 

To spray large trees with concentrated lye, 
one pound to one gallon or one gallon and a half 
of water, is no child's play. On our large apple 
and pear trees, in Pajaro, the lye business is a 
disagreeable job; though when such lye is well 
and wisely applied it will, no doubt, kill the 
scale bugs and clean off the mosses. 

To apply lye of the above strength 
to an orchard, you want a wagon, span 
pf horses, big barrel, brass force-pump 
with other than leather valves, 30 ft. of rubber 
hose, a spray-nozzle and two men. The men 
must be gloved and masked, or else welTgreased 
with "axle-greese" or some other heavy "dope;" 
the horses must be draped to the ground with 
barley-sacking or other fabric, and nose-bagged; 
otherwise the men will be scalded and the 
horses will "raise Cain." Also, goggles are in- 
dispensible to a man who squirts lye up a tree. 
Those of my readers who like something 



put them in strong vinegar, and then into con 
centrated lye. My friend has told me that no 
woolly aphis has ever appeared on those trees, 
although they are large and bearing abundant 
crops. Soon I found that the woolly terror had 
spread all over my orchard, and I settled down 
into a desponding condition, and consoled my- 
self with the melancholy language of the poet — 
"I've seen my fondest hopes decay; I never 
loved a tree or flower, but 'twas the first to fade 
,away." 

One day I discovered the spiders and lady- 
bugs feasting on the woolly aphis, and I reflected 
on the wise provisions of nature and providence, 
and was consoled. 

For a long time I have had great com- 
posure of mind. Not until this legalized 
bug boom has come up, have I been 
in the least disturbed. But Matthew Cook's 
treatise, the Sacramento convention and the Bug 
commissioners, flitting about like moths over 
the country, at last roused me up to look into 
this matter. I began to think, perhaps, the 
fruit business will yet be ruined by the codlin 
moth, the scale bug, the red spider, which have 
ruined the orchards at San Jose. So I went to 
John Itock, a man of great experience both in 
Germany and California, a thoroughly educated 
nurseryman. I said, "what is this about all 
the orchards in your country having been ru- 
ined by scale bug, red spider, codlin moth, and 
all these new pests?" "New," said he, "why I 
was working for old man Lick 1!) years ago, and 
he had some sickly trees which were covered 
with the scale. He wound straw around the 
trees and set tire to it, saying, 'I'll de- 
stroy the rascals;' it is not new." Mr. 
Rock went on to say that some orchards round 
San Jose had been bought up by real estate 
speculators and laid off into town lots. The 
land had been rented out, and the ground sown 
to grain for hay, and the trees rendered sickly, 
hence these pests. He said the codlin moth 
was the worst, but it could be killed out by 
destroying the drop fruit promptly. Now, Mr. 
Editor, I see that I must write another chapter 
in order to set forth the moonshine of this bug 
commission business, and the absurdity of sup- 



Horse Power for Pumping. 

We give an engraving on this page of a re- 
cent California invention, patented through 
Dewey & Co., by K. M. Beebee, of Gridley, 
Butte Co. It is a horse power which may be 
used for pumping or other light work, and is 
very simple in design, light and portable, and 
has been used with satisfaction by farmers in 
Butte county. 

The king post is mounted on a firm bed and 
is made stationary, not being intended to re- 
volve. The master wheel has a cylindrical base, 
to which it is connected by means of arms, this 
base slipping over the king post, and revolving 
around it as the wheel revolves. In a journal 
at the top of the king, post is placed the hori- 
zontal driving shaft; a brace carrying a journal 
bearing, for the outer end of said shaft, so that 
it will be properly supported and the pinion 
held down, as shown. On the outer end of this 
shaft is a pinion or toothed wheel which en- 
gages with the teeth perforations in the edge of 
the master wheel. On the under end of this 
shaft is a driving wheel from which runs a 
chain to the pulley on the shaft of the rotarv 
pump mounted upon the top of the power as 
shown in the engraving. 

It is an important point that all the bearing 
and wearing parts of this power are in sight. It 
will also be seen that the driving shaft with its 
bearings, crank, pulley and pinion are all inside 
the circumference of the master wheel so that 
the power is very compact. By extending the 
arms of the master wheels upward from the ro- 
tating base the face of the wheel is raised up 
to the proper level to engage with the pinion, 
and all the working parts are inside. There 
are, therefore, no tumbling rods or shafts to 
form obstructions for the horse in walking 
around his circle, and he passes under the chain 
and beam. The whole power with its driving 
apparatus is in a very compact form and both 
light and strong. 

This arrangement will, we are told, raise from 
1 , 800 to 2, 000 gallons of water per hour with very 
little labor for the horse. It throws a constant 
stream without jerk or jar. It is up out of the 
dirt, not liable to get out of repair — can be set 
in operation in a few minutes. It is quite port- 
able as it only weighs about 600 lbs. It has 
been used fastened to a sled, and moved from 
one well to another. As compared with pump- 
ing with windmills it may be said that the 
horse power does not stand idle when water is 
most wanted, cannot blow down, etc., and in its 
use it is not necessary to have such large tanks 
to store up water for a time when there is no 
wind. The rotary pump, as shown in the engrav- 
ing, will draw water from a depth of 30 ft., but 
will force it any reasonable distance above the 
pump. The inventor is now having his appar- 
atus arranged to pump water out of deep wells. 
The Beebee pump was shown only at the Stock- 
ton fair, and there it took a premium. 

Evaporation and Seepage. 

These two somewhat intangible consumers of 
moisture are of the greatest importance to the 
irrigator, and all matters tending to throw light 
upon the amounts of water they use up under 
stated conditions are of interest. The Ana- 
heim Gazette recently secured a statement from 
Mr. Griffin, a civil engineer, which, although 
it does not give fixed formulas for determining 
seepage and evaporation, which indeed would be 
impossible, it does present considerations which 
should be generally understood. Mr. Griffin 
shows that the data on evaporation and leakage 
and filtration (seepage) are necessarily slight 
and imperfect. As evaporation occurs only at 
the surface of a fluid, it of course depends to a 
great extent on the area of that surface exposed. 
Still, it is greater in shallow water than in deep 
water, for the sun's heat also affects the water in 
the bottom of a shallow pool. It also varies 
with the state of the atmosphere, and with the 
seasons, being affected with greater rapidity in 
dry weather — even when the temperature be 
low. So it is more rapid also during the preva- 
lence of a wind than in a calm. It is less in 
stagnant than in running water. Evaporation 
from reservoirs of like dimensions and construc- 
tion would be greater in Anaheim than at Ba- 
kersfield, and greater on the Mohave than at 
Anaheim — because of the different degrees of 
humidity at these places. 

At Medellin, a place 5,200 ft. above the level 
of the sea and in latitude 5° north, in the dry 
season — the mean temperature being above 60° 
and the humidity very slight — I found that the 
evaporation, filtration and leakage (these two 
factors being small because the reservoir was 
almost a natural one), in a deep, narrow reser- 
voir in the hills, amounted to 0.12 inches daily 
during a period of 72 days. At Cartagena (in 
the same country), Mr. Trautwine noted 2 inches 
in 16 days, the thermometer rising daily to 120" 
in the sun, the dews being heavy and the at- 
mosphere highly charged with moisture. An- 
nual evaporation in Great Britain is from 22 to 
38 inohes; at Paris 34 inches; at Boston, U. S., 
32 inches; at various points in U. S. from 30 to 
36 inches. In the usual calculations for reser- 
voirs, filtration, leakage (these make "seepage") 
and evaporation are treated together. Leakage 



46 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



is not always very apparent; filtration (the sink 
ing of water into the earth) never— nor is it 
easy to calculate it, for different soils have dif- 
ferent powers of absorption. There may be 
crevices in rock near the surface of the earth, 
embankments may be improperly constructed, 
and the like. This undetected )oia is not infre- 
quently greater than that caused by evaporation 
and leakage combined. Evaporation alone is 
sometimes greater than rainfall — in a given dis- 
trict, or country — sometimes less. In new res- 
ervoirs the loss is apt to be greater than in old, 
for in the former case embankments have not 
had time to settle, nor to become as water tight 
as they will be later. Actual experiment in 
every caie Is the only m/'e method of determin- 
ing loss by evaporation, leakage and filtration 



Et\IES \m Replies. 



The Filbert Weevil and Filbert Grafting, 

Editors Press: — Sometime ago I gave your 
readers a somewhat detailed article on the 
"Filbert and its Culture;" but it seems that my 
paper was not so complete as I imagined it was, 
for since its publication in the PRESS two en 
quirieB have come already; one from Los An 
geles county addressed to you, the other from 
Santa Cruz directed to me. 

Your correspondent from Los Angeh b writes 
as follows: 

have nearly 100 filbert bushes from S to 12 ft. in night 
and as far as I have been able to ascertain, they are the 
only ones in this locality, with one exception. Some of 
the filbert bushes 1 have allowed to grow as they liked, 
while others I have deprived of all but from six to ten of 
the central shoots. Last year the bushes bloomed about 
the first of March, and in August had quite a quantity of 
full-sized nuts, or rather nut shells, for upon cracking the 
shells nothing wa« found within except a pulpy substance. 
I would be very glad if Mr. Gillet would state how thiB 
defect in the formation of the nut may be overcome. 
After April of each year the bushes have been irrigated 
about ouce in six weeks. They are planted between rows 
of eleven-year-old orange trees and get but little sun. 
Could thev be transplanted, and, if Bo, when should the 
transplanting be done?" 

The Filbert Weevil, 
Or Curculio nucum, is very likely the cause of 
the trouble with your correspondent from Los 
Angeles, and I expect that this enemy of the 
filbert, if I guess right in your correspondent's 
case, will prove another nut to crack for the 
Horticultural Board of that county, and our 
chief executive Horticultural Officer. In Eu- 
rope the fruit of the filbert is attacked by 
three kinds of insects, viz: 

First, the Curculio nucum or filbert's weevil, 
a coleopterous inBect of the size of a good-sized 
fly, with a long snout that permits him to pur c- 
ture filberts, hazels and walnuts, when green 
and tender. 

Second, the Corylus Alttlabus, another beetle, 
but four times as large as the Curculio nucum : 
armed, too, with a long snout. This kind, 
however, is found more on the wild hazel than 
the filberts of our gardens. 

Third, Mites, a class of insects that belong 
to the genus acarus, and which do some damage 
to the young fruit. 

The nuts that have been punctured by the 
Curcul'o nucum or Cnrylus Attelabus, are very 
easy t) recognix ; for, though they keep on 
growiug almost to a full size, still they drop ofl 
prematurely, and with their husks, to which 
they hold fast, so much so, that it is sometimes 
very hard to take the husk off, while all good 
filberts c< me < S easy from the husk. All such 
affected nuts are always n j cted when gathering 
in the crop. On my o»c place, I have had 
such nuts eveiy jetr, so punctured by the 
Curculio nucum : but they have always been so 
few, that I never paid any attention to it, and 
never looked after those little weevils either. 

Your correspondent does not eay whether the 
nuts drop oil' with their hu-ks on, which is a 
certain sign of having been attacked by the 
weevils, though in breaking the shells nothing 
is found within, except a pulpy substance. I 
would infer that this curculio is the cause of 
the truble, if not mites. Anyhow, the 
first thing your correspondent has to do 
is to ascertain whether I am right 
in my supposition. When that is found out, I 
would then advise him to try solutions — codlin 
moth, tobacco, or even poisonous solutions — 
which he might apply on his bushes at the time 
the nuts are getting formed, as a spray, by 
meaDB of a pump and nozzle, as is used nowa- 
days for such purposes. 

Air and sun, as I stated in my fotmer article 
on the filbert, are as beneficial to the filbert as 
to any other class of trees that we are cultivat- 
ing for their fruit; butyour correspondent, from 
the fact that he has his trees planted between 
rows of eleven-year-old orange trees, therefore 
getting little air and sun, thinks that may be 
the cause why his nuts have nothing inside. I 
will say that this has nothing to do with the 
trouble he complains of, and I would not advise 
him, anyhow, to transplant such heavy bushes. 

In the course of his letter, your correspond- 
ent says : '"Last year, the bushes bloomed 
about the first of March," etc. I believe he is 
mistaken ab mt that, as filberts usually get in 
bloom right in the middle of winter. Right 
now, for instance, I have the Grosse of Pied- 
mont and the Avelinein full bloom, and that ; n 
despite of the severe freezing every night — an 
inch of ice in my tanks; and to convince your 
correspondent, should he doubt my statement, 
I send you by mail, a twig or two of filberts 
with catkins or staminate blossoms in full 
bloom, and pistillate blossoms fully out; the pis- 
tils are those little bunohes of minute, hair-like 



on the top of some leaf buds, and of a beauti 
ful crimson color. 

Filbert Grafting. 

Now about that other query from your Santa 
Cruz subscriber. Says he: 

"I am a reader of the Prkss; I noticed in the last num 
her a statement from you in regard 10 filbert culture, 
is natural for hazel to irrow wild in this locality; so 
thought it would be well for me to try your advhc, to 
graft on the hazel. How close to the ground would you 
graft, and how many would you graft as a bunch '•. Could 
1 transplant haztl and graft right on it ! The idea was 
entirely new to me, until reading your remarks in the 
last number of the Pkkss. Accordingly, I will be gov- 
erned by your advice." 

I will tell your corres pondent from Santa 
Cruz that the best way to bud or graft filberts 
on hazel stock is to plaut the latter in nursery 
row, grafting in thespring or budding in the fall 
annular budding would, I should think, be prefer 
able in all respects;(for that mode of budding, see 
back numbers of the Press). The grafting or 
budding should be done a foot above the ground 
and be allowed to grow five to fight shoots; the 
suckeis or shoots below the grafting or budding 
being removed as fast as they shoot up. This 
taking off of suckers is absolutely necessary for 
the first two or three years, so as to give the 
graft a good start. It may be well in budding 
by the acnuh a- m:thod, to use a ring of bark 
with at least two buds on, since it is desirable 
to have more than one shoot to grow from the 
bud. But I will here state again, that when- 
ever suckers or layers can be obtained, nothing 
precisely is gained by grafting filberts on hazel 
stock. 

Any of your readers that have young filberts 
from which they desire to procure suckers, I 
will tell them how to make their bushes grow 
more suckers. In the middle of summer, take 
off all side branches of the main shoot or shoots 
and give your bushes a good soaking. This will 
force out lots of suckers right below the collar 
of the root, and which will attain a good size 
before the winter sets in. This method of get 
ting three or four times as many suckers as the 
bushes would otherwise give has very well suc- 
ceeded with me. — Felix Gillet, Nevada City, 
Cal. 



SrjEEf ^KD WQQL. 



The Boston Wool Trade of 1881. 

As the wool trade of last year was peculiar, 
in many respects, and as all matters pertaining 
thereto are of interest, we take the following 
concerning the Boston trade for the year, from 
Walter Brown & Co.'s annual wool circular: 

In reviewing the course of the wool market 
during the past year, it is necessary for us to go 
back a little farther, and call the attention of 
our readers to a few points which characterized 
the closing months of 1S80. Immediately after 
the last presidential election, in November of 
that year, it seemed as though a fresh impetus 
was given to all branches of trade. The move 
mt nt in woolen goods increased, with a feeling 
of confidence on the part of manufacturers that 
there would be a ready disposition of their pro- 
duction. Wool, which had been drooping al- 
most continually since the previous spring, was 
not slow to join in the improvement and an act- 
ive demand sprung up for the raw material, ac- 
companied by a slight advance in values. This 
favorable turn was very acceptable to specula- 
tors in wool, most of whom had been operating 
for several months at a loss, and many took ad- 
vantage of the opportunity to dispose of their 
unprofitable stockr. There were others, how- 
ever, probably the msj irity, who argued, (and 
perhaps "the wish was lather to the thought"), 
that with the new year, a further improvement 
must come, and a rise in prices that would ena- 
ble thtm to recover from the losses that had 
seemed inevitable. Hence a large amount of 
wool was carried over which might have been 
closed out during the activity early in Decem- 
ber, and the -ok on hand in Boston, as re- 
ported Dec. 31st, of both domestic and foreign 
wools, was almost 25,000,000 ft?., or 7,000,000 
lbs. more than at any similar time for 10 years 
previous. 

The year opened with a strong feeling among 
those interested in the staple, although they 
were somewhat staggered by the large amount 
on hand; however, they held on tenaciously, 
hoping against hope. The woolen goods mar- 
ket was more quiet than was expected, and 
manufacturers showing a disposition to act cau- 
tiously, would only purchase as their necessities 
required, which resulted in a much smaller ag- 
gregate of sales during the first quarter of the 
year than was commensurate with the large 
supply of wool and the near approach of a new 
clip. 

In March, this state of affairs was too much 
for the patience of the wool trade, and to re- 
lieve themselves of the burden, a break was 
made in prices, which by the first of May, 
showed n decline from the beginning of the year 
of eight cents per pound on Ohio tine washed 
fleeces, or 16§%. 

The backward spring had much to do with 
the slow movement of woolens during the early 
part of the year, transportation throughout the 
West and Northwest was almost impracticable, 
and the accumulation of goods in the hands of 
mill agents was very great. At the points of 
consumption, the supplies of clothing were 
much reduced, hence by the approach of warmer 
weather, and the opening of the channels of 
distribution, new life was given to this branch 
of industry, and manufacturers, encouraged by 



large orders on their latest productions, could 
look forward with considerable satisfaction to 
the prospect of a safe and reasonably profitable 
business during the summer and fall months. 
As a natural sequence, they became more libe- 
ral in their purchases of the raw material and 
holders being desirous to close out their old 
stocks before the new wools appeared on the 
markets, met the views of buyers, although a 
slight hardening in values was noticeable to- 
ward the end of the month of May. 

Before the first week in June bad passed the 
improved state of trade, with the hardening 
prices, was heralded throughout the wool-grow- 
ing district?; wool dealers, hoping to recover 
some of their recent losses, promptly Bent their 
buyers into the field, each endeavoring to be the 
first to secure wools at the low figure which 
wool growers were prepared to accept. Local 
operators immediately joined issnes with them, 
and the competition, which seems to be inev- 
itable under such circumstauces, rapidly forced 
prices in the interior to a point that made 
profits a question of speculation in the future 
value of the staple. Manufacturers would buy 
freely at previous rates, but they had taken 
large orders for goods, based upon the quota- 
tions of a month previous, with only a small 
margin for remuneration, and tbey were slow in 
paying any advance. This course had a salu- 
tary influence, checking the excitement which 
prevailed in the country, and many dealers 
fearing to overload themselves at high cost, re- 
called their buyers, preferring to await the 
course of future events before stocking up for 
the BeasoD. 

During July and August, the transactions 
were large, amounting to over 20,000,000 lb'., 
of which, however, but 3,000,000 lb?, were fine 
washed clothing fleeces. This was a source of 
much disappointment to dealers, whose lofts 
had become crowded with wool during that 
period, and, toward the end of the latter month, 
a desire to sell induced many of them to make 
concessions. At the same time there was a 
strong undercurrent in the general opinion, that 
wools could not decline very materially, based 
upon the healthy condition of almost every 
branch of industry, particularly that of woolen 
goods; also upon the high values that prevailed 
abroad for all classes of wool, precluding the 
possibility of any heavy importations during 
the present season. The correctness of this 
theory was clearly demonstrated early in the 
following month, when a period of almost un- 
precedented activity suddenly sprang upon the 
market, bringing the values of these neglect- 
ed wools back to the highest range since 
June 1st, and showing an aggregate of 
sales for September equal to that of 
the two previous months and fully 0,000,000 
ft?, more than for any one month during the 
past two years. The large purchases naturally 
furnished manufacturers with ample supplies 
for several weeks, and the last quarter of the 
year has been noticeable for a quiet market, but 
generally steady and firm, in the belief that 
consumers will be obliged to depend mainly 
upon our home-grown staple for their supplies, 
and that all the wools will be wanted before an- 
other clip is available. The closing fortnight 
has developed renewed activity, and the old 
year goes out leaving a hopeful aspect for the 
future in strong contrast to the preceding one 
The transactions for the past week are large for 
the holiday season, and are evidence of the opin- 
ion among consumers, that wool is not likely to 
be any lower during the next two monthp. 

One prominent characteristic throughout the 
entire season, has been the comparative con- 
sumption of the finer grades of wool. In our 
weekly reports we have frequently alluded to 
this subject, and have called attention to the 
different demand for medium and low wools. 
This is probably, in a great measure, due to the 
generally prosperous condition of the country, 
which has created 'a call for a better class of 
clothing among the masses than they could af- 
ford a few years ago, when all were suffering 
"rom a long period of disaster and depression. 
Coarse wools have for a long time past been al- 
most entirely neglected for clothing purposes, 
and we would advise the growers of such wools 
to take prompt action toward improving the 
grade of their Hocks, if they would look to any 
profit accuring from the production of the 
fleece. 




satisfied my wool would have to stand the ill fa- 
vor attached to southern fall wool; so, without 
delay, I got Mr. Wentscher, of San Diego, to 
ship it to Dewey, Rice & Co., Boston, and in a 
few weeks I was informed that my fall wool 
was sold at 22$ cents per pooni. I have always 
contended that our sheep men would find it to 
th eir advantage to put up their wool with care. 
There is, I think, poor economy in shearing 
in the fall. One good clip is better and 
more satisfactory than two short ones. The 
only difference is, perhaps, that there is less 
trouble in keeping the sheep clear of the scab 
by fall shearing, and but a little more labor and 
more cleanliness. With a good sized field for 
night folds instead of narrow and unclean cor- 
rals [where each animal is compelled to come in 
close contact with its neighbor and breathe an 
unhealthy atmosphere largely deprived of its 
oxygen by five or six thousand pairs of lungs, 
which is nearly always the case], there would 
be no scab and there would be clean fleeces. 
The fibtr of the merino will never degenerate in 
our California climate. As far as this is con- 
cerned, the manufacturer is well satisfied with 
it, and he only objects to the shrinkage, and he 
will only pay for wool and not for dirt. 



California Wools in Boston. 

Ex-Gov. Downey, who is one of the largest 
wool growers of San Diego county, writes a let- 
ter to the Los Angeles Exprcs* as follows: In your 
article on the comparative prices ruling in Bos- 
ton wool at this particular juncture, you draw 
rather desponding conclusions as regards our 
California wool. Now, the truth is, there is 
hardly any California wool in the Boston mar- 
ket save the fall clip. This is dignified with 
the term wool, when, in fact, it appears more 
like the sweepings of a well-conducted shearing 
floor. The staple is so short that you cannot 
keep it together in distinctive fleeces. It is full 
of seed, burrs, dust and alkali, and I am certain 
that the Boston manufacturer is paying for it 
all it is worth. I sent my spring clip to Boston 
and I sold it at 20 cents per pound. This 
i unwashed fleece, not entirely free 
from seed and burr. There was no delay, 
I got my returns at once, and the charges 
were moderate. In the fall I sheared only my 
lambs, I had, as a matter of necessity, to go to 
San Francisco, and some of the warehouses were 
filled with what was called fall wool and I felt 



Ebonized Woon. — A very simple process for 
ebonizing wood is given in the A rt Interchange, 
as follows: "The wood is first stained with a 
decoction of logwood, which may be purchased 
from any druggist. It is dissolved in warm 
water until all has been taken up that the water 
will hold. Application to the wood is made 
freely with a large, soft bristle brush, and the 
surface is rubbed with a cloth to prevent the 
formation of a gummy coat thereon. After the 
article has been left to dry for a few hours, the 
second application, which consists of vinegar in 
which a quantity of nails or clean filings have 
been soaked for several da\s, is also freely laid 
on with a brush. The moment the vinegar 
touches the wood it combines with the logwood 
solution in the pores, making an ink which is a 
permanent jet black stain. The influence of the 
iron in the vinegar is all-important. If any 
tendency to grayness is noticed, a second treat- 
ment is necessary; but this seldoms happens. 
When perfectly dry, the article is varnished 
and rubbed down, or finished with furniture oil 
well rubbed in. Cherry is considered the best 
wood for ebonizing. Whitewood, maple and 
beech are used with good tffecr. Any close 
grained, dense wood will answer — ash, chestnut 
and oak are not suitable. This process, it is 
said, is used for fine ebony and gold furniture." 



White Lead.— Mr. G. J. Lewis, of Phil*, 
delphia, proposes to obtain white lead by heat- 
ing the fumes of lead resulting from smelting 
processes, and then passing it into a cooling re- 
tort. Finely powdered sulphuret of lead (gal- 
ena) is introduced into a funnel, whence it is 
forced by a bellows into the retort. This re- 
tort is heated to a red heat, which causes the 
sulphuret of lead to sublime and to depo«it it- 
self on the cooler surfaces. The fumes of lead 
then pass into a cooling chamber, and finally 
into a reservoir where the product is collected. 
Another method of obtaining white lead is to 
introduce sheet lead into a chamber containing 
jars of acetic acid, the atmosphere being heated 
by steam to a temperatnre of from 30° to 50°, 
besides being strongly impregnated with car- 
bonic acid. 



The Fre-nch Wheat Croi\ — So France will 
also want more wheat before she can get another 
crop. The official estimate of the yield of 
wheat was published in the Journal Official Dec. 
15tb. It appears that the area under wheat 
was 355, 680 acres more than in 1880, but the 
return was 14,750,000 bnsbels less, being 263,- 
000,000, as against 277,750,000. The yield per 
acre was on the average, 15 bushels, as compared 
with l' : bushels, and the weight per hectoliter, 
76$ kilos, as against 77? kilos. From all points 
of view, therefore, and with a considerable in- 
crease in the acreage, the harvest of 1881 is in- 
ferior to that of 1880. And it must be remem- 
bered, that in 1880 France took a great deal of 
American wheat, some cargoes going directly 
from San Francisco. 



The Belgian Geographical Prize for 1885. 
The King of Belgium has decreed a prize, to be 
offered in 1885, for the best system of populariz- 
ing the study of geography. The competition 
for the prize is to be international. Competit- 
ors may send their works, either printed or in 
manuscript, and either in the French, Flemish, 
English, German, Italian, or Spanish language, 
to the Minister of the Interior, at Brussels, be- 
fore January 11, 1885. It is necessary that the 
pri/3 manuscript shall be published in the 
course of the year following that in which the 
prize shall have been awarded. 



Inocculation fob Phylloxera. — Dr. Man- 
don, Professor at the Medical School, at Lim- 
oges, claims to have discovered an effectual rem- 
edy for the phylloxera, his plan being to inoccu- 
late the stocks of the vines with a solution of 
carbolic acid, applied by means of a funnel in- 
serted in an incision made for the purpose. 
This, he states, poisons the insect and destroys 
the eggs. This method has been put into prac- 
tice at Argenton. 



January 21, 1882.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



4. 



BL1C 



How to Make Known Our Vacant Lands. 

Hod. B. B. Redding has in the January Cali- 
fornian a very valuable article on "Immigration, 
and How to Promote It." It is a straightfor- 
ward letter of advice from one who has had al- 
most a score of years' experience in public land 
matters in this State, as to the way to give 
practical aid to new comers who are in search 
of lands for homes. We are obliged to content 
ourselves with extracts from the article, having 
chosen them with an idea of showing our readers 
the steps which are necessary to take to find 
out what land is still open for settlement in any 
part of the State which they may wish to ex- 
amine. We quote from the Calif ornian as fol- 
lows: 

The man who comes to find a piece of public 
land for a farm, that he can pre-empt or home- 
stead, wants definite information. He wants 
to know where he can find, at first cost, a piece 
of land of 80 or 160 acres, upon which he 
can raise wheat, grapes, or other crops, and 
thereby support himself and family. Any 
bureau of immigration that fails to furnish 
this information has no reason for living; is 
not worthy of support, and should die. It is 
popularly supposed that this kind of informa- 
tion can be obtained at the United States or 
State land offices. This is only true in a 
general senso. The basis of the information 
is to be found there; but it is distributed 
through perhaps 50 volumes of 400 pages 
each; and the United Stites dots not find 
clerks to collate and cla?sify this information. 
It surveys the land, furnishes a record of 
the quality of so much of it as is passed over 
by the surveyor — whetler level, timbered 
or rocky — and opens thesi books to public 
inspection, and says, caveat emptor. If the 
immigrant goes to the land office, and says 
he desires to pre-empt a piece of land, the 
clerk immediately answers, where ? It is 
not the clerk's business to find him the land, 
or to direct him to land he, the clerk, has 
never seen. The clerk will show him the 
books and maps, and allow him to make a 
selection; but, unless more than ordinarily 
intelligent, Can only answer gcre rally as to 
the climate, rainfal 1 , or productions of the 
region in which the immigrant proposes to 
make a selection. If California was similar 
to Kansas and Nebraska, with thousands of 
square miles of prairie of almost uniform 
character and climate, the clerk could hardly 
direct the immigrant amiss; but California 
is peculiar. Generally, the most valuable 
agricultural portion of it may be described 
as a series of large valleys, running north- 
west and southeast, between two ranges of 
mountains. Some places at the north end 
receive nearly 100 inches of rain annually; 
other places in the same valley, not to ex- 
ceed five inches. There is also a great dif- 
ference in the rainfall between the east and 
west sides of the valleys, at the same eleva- 
tion. There are also local differences; as 
for illustration: There are vacant Govern- 
ment lands in the San Francisco land dis- 
trict, in township four south, of ranges three 
and five east. If the immigrant selected his 
pre-emption in four south, three east, his 
land would receive au annual average of 18 
inches of rain. If he selected it 15 miles 
farther east, in four south, and five east, his 
farm would receive not to exceed eight inches, 
and his crops of wheat would be failures four 
years out of five. He would find, by prac- 
tical experience, that the Mt. Diablo range 
of hills, lying west of his farm, stripped the 
moisture from the clouds before they passed 
over his land. It is not the business of the 
clerks in the Government land offices to devote 
their evenings to the study of the meteorology 
of the State; nor to expend their salaries of 
$100 a month in examining lands, and estimat- 
ing their agricultural possibilities, for the bene- 
fit of immigrants or the public. This is the 
work of the State, through a geological survey; 
and is not, in new States, usually undertaken 
and completed until public schools and univer- 
sities have not only been planted, but have 
grown and borne fruit. 

All the information necessary for the immi- 
grant or settler can be procured, and can be ex- 
hibited to him, with such certainty and clear- 
ness, that, if he has positive ideas as to the 
kind of agriculture in which he proposes to 
engage, he can be directed to particular town- 
ships, containing public lands from which to 
make his selection. The business of obtaining 
and collating this class of information is in the 
hands of men who, from natural aptitude and 
opportunity, have been compelled to make the 
subject a study. A very excellent clerk or 
book-keeper might make a very poor searcher 
of records. 

The gathering and publication of this infor- 
mation, as the only practical means of promot- 
ing a healthy immigration of agriculturists, 
should be under the direction of a bureau cre- 
ated by the State. This bureau should act un- 
der authority of law, not because the State, as 
a rule, does work as well or as economically as 
individuals, but because what is published by 
the State goes out as official, and has a weight 
and ^questioned (.influence in the oountries 



from whence our immigrants come that are not 
accorded to the publications of individuals or 
corporations. 

To direct and aid this class of immigrants, 
the Board of Trade of San Francisco has ap- 
pointed a committee of gentlemen, who, with- 
out doubt, are unselfish, sincere, and earnest. 
It is very desirable that the work of this com- 
mittee should result in fruition. Many of the 
members have possibly no more than a general 
knowledge of the laws of the United States 
and the rules and regulations of the United States 
Land Department, governing the survey and 
disposal of the public lands. It is not there- 
fore, improper to show plainly what is neces- 
sary or requisite before this or any other com- 
mittee or bureau could do effective and practical 
work in directing the farming immigrant where 
he may find desirable public land on which to 
make a homr . It may also be added, that the 
system here proposed is not theoretical, but 
founded upon practical experience during the 
past 18 years. 

The public lands of the United States are 
first surveyed into blocks six miles square; 
these are called townships. These townships 
are numbered north, south, east, and west, 
from some prominent central point. In the 
northern part of the State this point is the sum- 



vated the land, when he is allowed to pay for 
it, at the rate ot $1.25 per acre, if outside of the 
limits of the grant of odd-numbered sections 
made by the Government to aid in building a 
railroad; or $2.50 cents per acre, if within those 
limits. After this is done, the Government 
issues to him a patent for the land. If the set- 
tler so elects, he may file a homestead for 160 
acres. The fees in this case, if without the lim- 
its of a grant to a railroad company, are $16; or 
$22, if within such limits. Toe settler in this 
case is required to reside upon and cultivate the 
land for at least five years, after which he can ap- 
pear, at any time within twoyears thereafter, with 
two witnesses, before the laud office, and prove 
the facts of his residence aud cultivation, when 
the United States Government will give him a 
patent without further cost, except an addi- 
tional fee of $6, if the land is beyond railroad 
limits; or $12, if within such limits. There are 
other means of obtaining lands from the Gov- 
ernment, such as State selections, university lo- 
cations, etc. ; but these do not interest the im- 
migrant bureau, or the intending settler. 

All of the land in the township not thus ap- 
propriated by the settlers who were living upon 
it at the time of the survey is subject to pre- 
emption and homestead, in 160 acre tracts, by 
the first settler who will occupy i*, file upon it 



Tovmswp /Yo. 3 North /?a nge Afo.3 £ast Mt Diabl o Msr/o/aa/. 




X l/ws subject /DflttiMfv/iM SiMMisp/iaNw.H ISSi. sLa/ibs .run saUsy the Jt.R.Co.Nov 14.18$/, mMwi^il^TDS 



mit of Mt. Diablo. The city of Sacramento is 
in township eight north, of range four east, 
therefore, it is in that particular township which 
is 48 miles north, and 24 miles east, of Mt. Di- 
ablo. These townships are subdivided into 36 
sections, each a mile square, and systematically 
numbered. Each section again into quarter- 
sections of 160 acres each; and theoretically, 
these again into 40-acre tracts, which is practi- 
cally the smallest subdivision with which the 
Government deals. This system is definite, and 
avoids any confusion. It enables the intending 
settler to find a given piece of land, and assures 
positiveness and clearness of description in pat- 
ents and deeds. A conveyance of the southeast 
quarter of the northeast quarter of section 17, 
township 10 north, of range eight east, Mt. Di- 
ablo base and meridian, gives a clear and posi- 
tive description of a certain and particular 40 
acres of the earth's surface, which cannot be 
made to apply to any other 40 acres on this 
planet. 

When a township is surveyed and subdivided, 
a map of it is made, and filed in the local 
United States land office. Any settler who may 
be living on the lnnd in this township has now 
the preferred right, for 90 days, to file, in this 
land office, his claims of pre-emption or home- 
stead for 160 acres, which must embrace the 
land where his house and other improvements 
are situated. The cost of filing a pre-emption 
claim is $3. The Government requires the set 
tier to occupy and improve the land, and gives 
him a credit of two years and nine months 
within which to make his payment. He should, 
before the expiration of this period, appear at 
the land office, with two witnesses, and prove 
to the officers that he has lived on and culti- 



in the land office, and put it to use. If the 
township is within the limits of a grant to a 
railroad company, then only the vacant quarter- 
sections of even numbered sections are thus 
subject to pre-emption and homestead. The 
odd numbered sections can only be obtained by 
purchase from the railroad company. 

The practical business of a bureau of commit- 
tee on immigration is: First, to obtain the in- 
formation where, in this State, may be found 
public land of the Government, of average 
quality, that is subject to pre-emption and 
homestead. Second, to have this information 
put upon maps, and kept in charge of an intel- 
ligent clerk, who has a sufficient knowledge of 
the State, its climate, and productions, to ena- 
ble him to explain to an immigrant how it may 
be found and examined; and generally, the pro- 
ductions, climate, rainfall, and market facilities 
of each particular region. Third, the publica- 
tion and distribution of a pamphlet, giving the 
obtainable statistics of the productions of the 
State, and its exports; the character of coun- 
try; its peculiarities of climate; its rivers and 
railroad system; its common school system; and 
generally, such other facts as would give a 
stranger a correct view of California and its 
people. The publication should also state 
that there remained, of public lands, on the 
day of the publication of the pamphlet, as 
many millions of acres as may be found; 
that these lands are unappropriated, and are 
subject to pre-emption and homestead, in tracts 
of 160 acres, by any immigrant who desires 
them. It should further state that the immi- 
grant bureau will have on exhibition maps 
showing these lands, and \ person in daily at- 
tendance to explain to the immigrant how they 



may be found; and further, that no fee will be 
charged for giving this information. If pos- 
sible, the correctness of the facts stated in the 
pamphlet should be indorsed by the British, 
German, Swedish, Norwegian, and other Con- 
suls, as well as by the Governor of the State. 
If these three things were done, in a very short 
time the question of immigration would be 
solved. We need but show the members of 
the desirable classes of the Eist and Kurope 
where they can obtain fair lands, at Govern- 
ment prices, or practically without cost, and 
they will find the way to come and take them. 

If the bureau obtains this information, and 
simply gives public notice that it will, without 
cost, direct agricultural immigiants where they 
may find public land suitable for cultivation, 
and supply skeleton maps, showing these lands 
in a given township in detail, it may, in my 
opinion, cease further work or expenditure. 
The various transportation companies will, in 
their own interest, take the necessary measures 
to bring people to the State. To illustrate how 
simply and easily this information can be gath- 
ered by the bureau, and with what clearness 
and directness it can be exhibited to the immi- 
gri it, I have selected a township at random — 
uownship 9 north, of range 9 east, Mt. Diablo 
base and meridian; that is, that township which 
is 54 miles north and 54 miles east of Mt. 
Diab'o. A map of the State shows it to be 
in the Sacramento United States land dis- 
trict, a part within and a part without the 
limits of the grant to the Central Pacific 
Railroad company; and that all of it is in 
the "foothills" of the Sierra, and within the 
county of El Dorado. The State map also 
shows that the Sacramento and Placerville 
railroad pa ses through it. A letter to the 
land office at Sacramento, sskirg what 
lands had been filed on by settlers, or dis- 
posed of by the United States in this town- 
ship, and an inquiry at the railroad land of- 
fice as to the patented aid unsold lands be- 
longing to the company in the same town- 
ship, were both promptly answered. From 
these answers, the accompanying map has 
been constructed, showing all of the land in 
this township subject to homestead and pre- 
emption on the 14th of November, 1881; 
and also showing the lands which the rail- 
road company, in the same township, had 
for sale on the same day. 

This map shows that there are, to-day, in 
this township 2,120 acres of United States 
land undisposed of, and subject to pre-emp- 
tion and homestead; and also, 1,320 acres 
belonging to the railroad company and for 
sale. To ascertain the general quality of 
this land, the office of the U. S. Surveyor- 
General was visited, and from the field notes 
of the United States deputy surveyor \ 
made the following extract: 

"The land in this township is generally hilly; it is 
intersected by several streams, toward the heads of 
which are fertile valleys. There are several vinejards 
in different parts of the townthip, which produce a 
good quality of wine. Toward the northern part are 
hills, destitute of timber and covered with chemisal 
and manzanita brush, which are capable of being con- 
vtrted into good vineyards. This township former- 
ly contained rich deposits of gold; and the numerous 
creeks and ravines have been thoroughly mined. At 
present, there are, with few exceptions, i o mines 
whuh are remunerative to white labor. Copper has 
been sought after in different parts of this township, 
but with no eucouraging resulls. The Boston Copper 
M. Co. has worded for three years, and has sunk tev- 
eral shafts in the center of the township, but vithout 
much success. In the southwest quarter of section 
eight, and northwest quarter of section seventeen, are 
limekilns and marble quarries, from which a good 
quality of lime and marble are procured. The tim- 
ber is general^ white and live oak, and pine, with 
undergrowth of chaparal, chemisal, liveoak, manzan- 
ita, and buc keye. The township is well walen d, and 
has good facilities for communication afforded I y 
the differtnt toll roads and the Sairameuto and 
Placerville railroad." 

The survey of the Sacramento and Placer- 
ville railroad shows that the land in this town- 
ship has an elevation above the sea of an av- 
erage of nine hundred fei t. The lowest por- 
tion ot the township, over which the rail- 
road passes, is 453 ft.; and the highest, 1,425 ft. 
It is, therefore, within what is known as the 
warm belt of the "foothills." The meteorologi- 
cal records kept by the Central Pacific railroad 
company show that for the past seven years this 
township has received an annual average rain- 
fall of 32.61 inches. 

With a copy of this map, and the information 
here detailed, an immigrant could have no 
trouble in visiting this township, and making 
an examination of the vacant lands. He would, 
without doubt, find many tracts within the in- 
closure of people who, having exhausted their 
own free pre-emption and homestead rights, are 
desirous of retaining the use of adjoining valu- 
able public land as long as possible; buc they 
will generally yield possession when a filing is 
made in the United States land office. 

From personal knowledge and cursory exam- 
ination of the records, I am convinced there are, 
on the plains east of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin rivers, and in the "foothills" of the Si- 
erra, below an elevation of 2,000 ft., more than 
2,000,000 acres of wheat, orchard and vineyard 
land subject to pre-emption and homestead. 

In taking this township to use for the pur- 
pose of illustrating how the vacant lands are to 
be found and exhibited to the immigrant, I 
happened upon one quite thickly settled, where 
there are schools and places of worship, wheat 
farms, orchards and vineyards — in fact, one of 
the most noted vineyards in the State is in this 
township. If I had taken, for purpose of illus- 
tration, a township farther away from a rail- 
road, it would have disclosed larger bodies of 
publio land. 



43 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 2 1, 1882 



VOCAL ECHOES. 

(Jl 00). A new collection of three-part gongs 'or female 
voicea By W. O. I'kskins. New and fine mutic; 142 
octavo pages. Piano accompaniment. Valuable book for 
Seminaries and Female Colleges. Music by Smart, lUt- 
ton, Cherubini, Glover and others 

PARKER'S CHURCH COMPOSITIONS. 

($2.00) By J. C. I). Parker. Of the beat quality. For 
Quartet or Chorus Choirs. 

TUC UCUI HP ED AC Arc in constant and 
I nC ntll UrttlHO large demand, as tlicy 
contain nearly all the popular airs of the day. Send 81 
and receive by return mail vocal scores of •'Patience," 
"Pirates," "Sorcerer," "Musketeers," or"lnfanta - 8 Dolls." 
Send 60 cts. for "Olivette," "Mascot," or "Pinafore." Or 
send 50 cts. for Instrumental arrangement of "Mascot," 
"Olivette," "Ilillee Taylor," "Patience" or "Pirates." 

THE HOLIDAY MUSIC BOOKS 

Of DITSON &■ CO. are standard and \aluablc throughout 
the year. Every lover of really good music should pos- 
sess a copy of BEAUTIES OK SACRED SONG («2), or 
Norway Music Album (J2.50)." 

Send 12.00, and rec-ive for a whole year the weekly 
Musical Rbcord, with sr>0 pages of music, besides all the 
news. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON. 

O. H. Dltson & Co.. 843 Broadway, N. Y. 




THE MOST SUCCESSFUL REMEDY ever discovered, 
as it is certain in its effects and does not Mister READ 
PROOF BELOW. Also excellent for human flesh. 
Prom a Prominent Physician. 

WAsn I koton vi i.i.E, Ohio, June 17th, 18S0. 
Vr B J A'txi/uf/ .{:('» : (!euts: Reading jour advertise- 
ment in Turf, Fi.Ul mul Farm, of your Kew'all's Spavin 
Cure, and having a valuable and speedy horse which bad been 
lame from spavin for c ighteen months, I Bent to you for a 
bottle by express, which in six wee ks removed a'l lameness 
and enlargement and a large splint Irom another horse, and 
both horses are to day as sound as colts. The one bottle was 
worth to me one humlrid dollars Respectfully yours, 

H. A Bertoi ett, M. D. 
Send for illustrated circular giving positive proof. Pi ice, SI. 
All druggists have it or tan get it fer you. Dr. B. J. Ken- 
dall & Co., Proprietors, Enoslmrgh Falls, Vt. 

SOLD BY ALL DKUGGlSTo. 

1,000,000 GRAPE CUTTINGS 

(KOOTED VINES). 
CM 150 varieties of Grape Vines, for sale at 

Eiscn Vineyard., 

FRESNO, CAL. 
M. COOKS R. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Pront and M Streets, Sacramento. 

ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 
MT Communications Promptly Attended to. "Vs. 
COOKE St SONS, Successors to Cooks & Grkjort 



Nash Bros.'s Pulverizing Harrow 
and Clod Crusher. 

The Best Implement for Pulverizing, Harrowing, Cul- 
tivating; using steel curved teeth, and can be regulated 
to any depth. 

GARDINER'S HAY ELEVATOR AND CARRIER. 
This is Automatic and Stlf-regulating, raisirg hay or 
straw to any bight, and carries to any desired point. It 
will pay for itself in one season. L. D. BURGESS, 
Agent, Rio Vista, CaL 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse 

San Francisco, CaL 
05, COO tons capacity. Storage at lowest rate 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 8. 

JOHN JENNINGS, 
ir's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., a F. 

First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the O P 
R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



Hoope 



E. MAIN, 315 Folsom Street, 

Makes to order Gents' Fine French Calf Boots from 86 to 
110; Gaiters from $3 to *6; Alexis from 83.50 to $5- Mens' 
Heavy Kip Boots, «6; Oxford Ties. French Calf, #4- Cali- 
fornia Leather, $3.60; Men's Working Shoes from ■ 50 to 
$3; Children's Shoes made to order. Persons in the coun- 
try ordering to the amount of $12. I pay the express 
charges. 1 sell nothing but my own manufacture. 



Silos, Reservoirs, Head Gates Etc. 

K . Lu KANSOJIE, 402 Montgomery St., & F. 
ARTIFICIAL STONK. Send for Circular 



Duroc, or Red Hogs. 




The undersigned are making a specialty of raising this cele- 
brated breed of hugs for fateMlng proposes. 'J hey we gentle, 
thrifty and of v* ry rapid growth, ami better adapt d to lUi 
climate than any oth» r » reed of DORS. We have hogs of this 
l.rttd now upMii nurtawh. U months < Id, weighing ever 400 
Ihs. each N. W. Kpaulding, V. S. tub-Treasurer, Pan Fran- 
cisco, killed one of these hoxs Dec. 14, 1851, at (he age of 16 
months, that weigh* d 83 Ihs. gross, and 584 lbs. dres«ed. 

On Dec. 22, 1881, Messrs Zimmerman, IStrouse & f-o., of 
the Bay City ma- ket, S. F , killed one weighing l'd8 Ihs. net 
when dressed. 3 years and 3 mont 1 s old. We are prepared 
now to ship to anv | art of this State lhf»se pigs C to U weeks 
of age. For pricts and circulars address, 

HINCKLEY & GETCHELL. 

Laurelles Ranch, Monterey, Cal. 




For 1888 i> >■ Elegaul Hook of ISA Pages, a Col- 
on-it Frontispiece si llonrrs, uml IIHtu Illustra- 
tion* of the chuictKt Flowers, Plants an>l Vegetables, and 
Oire tions for grow ng. It is handsome enough for the Cen- 
ter Tahle or a Holiday Preseut. Stndon your name and 
Post Office addreflS with 10 cenfs. an t I will send vou a cony, 
postage i>aid. Thi-* is not a quarter of its cost. It is printed 
in both English and German. If you afterwards order seeds 
lad act tr.e 10 cents. 

TICK'S SEfcHS are the beet in the world The Floral 
t.t' IDE will tell how to get and grow them. 

tick's Flower ami Tecetable «. aril en. !*.'> 
PlUti'S. C Colore! Plates, 500 Kng-avings. Fit 50 rents in 
I'.U'er i overs; $1.00 in eh gsnt cloth. In German or Kngl sb. 

Vlek'a lllBstratted Monthly Magazine— J2 Pages, 

a Colored Plate in every number and many tine Engravings. 
Price $1.25 a year; F.ve o inieB for $\0J. Specimen Numbers 
sent for 10 cents; 3 trial copi- s fer 25 cents. . 
Address, JAMES V1CK, Rochester, N. Y. ' 



THE DINGEE & CONARD CO'S 

BE \r 1 M I I. IVKIMSI.OOMIXO 




The or.ly entail ishment making a SPECIAL 
B'JSINESSOF ROSES. 50 LARCE HOUSES 
for ROSES alone. We deliver Strong; Pot Plants, 
suitable for immediate bloom, safely by mail, postpaid. 
5 splendid varieties, your choice, all labeled, forSI; 
l2forS2; l9forS3: 20forS4; 35forS5: 75for 
CIO; 100 for 813. We CIVE AWAY, in Pre- 
miums atnl Extras, more ROSES than most es- 
tablishments (.tow. Our NEW CUIDE, a complete 
Trtatiie on l/it K'Me,'0\i\i.tleijanthi illwilralrit — f rcc to alt 

THE DINCEE & CONARD CO. 
Rose Growers, West Grove, Chester Co., Pa. 



Manufacturers & Ranchmen. 




HEADER WAGON ATTACHMENT, 

Which keeps the load level and over the center of gravity 
at all times. Patent Kiirht for sale, or contract [riven for 
its manufacture on royalty. Send or call on TAYNTONdi 
DKRRICKSON, Clayton. Contra Costa County, Cal., or 
Jackson & Truman, 625 Sixth St., S. F. 



JOSEPH F. HILL, 

" ' • " t I'l BR OP FIRST-CLASS 

Buggies, Farm & Freight Wagons, 

OP ALL, DESCRIPTIONS, 

Cor. Thirteenth and J Sts , Sacramento, Cal. 

Iy R . ring promptly attended to."SJ 



HARFORD'S ADJUSTABLE 

SINGLETREE CLIP. 

THE FINEST ARTICLE OF THE AGE. 
Warranted of First-Class Malleable Iron. 



Territory in County or State rieht for sale, apply to T. 
M. Lash, agent for the Pacific Coast, 601 N St., Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 



COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLER'S GUIDE, 

A Popular Exposition of our Public Land 
System. 

PRICE— On fine paper and in substantial cloth bind- 
ing, u. 

Send to the office of this paper and get a copy of this 

popular book. 



OATS 



RUSSIAN WHITE 

Best In cultivation. 100 bu. 
per acre. Barely, prolific, 
rust-proof. 1 lb., postpaid, 
50c. ; Slbs., postpaid, $1.00; 



M bu. by freight or express, not 'prepaid,' 11. SS 
1 ba.,not prepaid, |2 00. New bags Be. each, extra' 
Ask your merchant for circular. Address, 

D. Ml. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



SEMI ANNUAL STATEMENT 

OF THE 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

JANUARY, 1882. 

Amount of Capital Actually Paid in U. S. 
Gold Coin, Surplus Paid Up and Re- 
serve Fund - - $534,101.99 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco. 
John Lewclling and A. Montpellier being duly sworn, 
severally depose and say that they are respectively the 
Vice-President and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of Cali- 
fornia above mentioned, and that the foregoing statement 
H true. 

(Signed) JOHN' LEWELLISG, Vice-President. 

(Sinned) A. MONTPELLIER, Cashier. 
Subscribed and swum to before me this 4th day of Jan- 
uary. 18S2. 

(Signed) GEO. T. KNOX, Notary Public. 

ASSETS: 
Loans on Wheat, Real Estate and other secu- 
rities 81,681,259 69 

Due from Bank! and Hankers 21,082 68 

Real E-tate— (Bank's interest in Grangers' 

building) 77 200.00 

Other Real Estate 27.772.94 

Office furniture, fixtures and safe 3,000.09 

Interest accrued 23,830 90 

Cash ->u band 83,430.76 

Total $1,917,677.00 

And the said assetB are situated in the following coun- 
ties, to-wit: Alameda, Butte, Contra Costa, Colusa, 
Fresno, Merced, Monterey, Inyo, Kern, Placer, Stanis- 
laus, Sutter, Solano, Souoma, San Francisco, Tehama, 
Tulare and Yolo. 

LIABILITIES: 

Capital Stock paid in gold coin $ 500,000.00 

Surplus paid up, and reserve fund 34.101.99 

Due Depositors— Banks and Bankers 1,282,806.31 

Bills payable— Mor.g'e assumed on real estate 40.000 00 
Undivided net profit (1881) 60,678.96 

Total 81,917,677.06 

State of California, City and County of San Francisco. 
John Lewellingand A. Montpellier being each duly swum, 
severally depose and fay that they are respectively the 
Vice-President and Cashier of the Grangers' Bank of Cali- 
fornia above mentioned, and the foregoing statement is 
true. 

(Signed) JOHN LKWELLING, Vice-President. 

, (Signed) A MONTPELLIER, Cashier 

Subscribed and Bworn to before me, this 4th day of 
January, 1882. 
(Signed) - GEO. T. KNOX, Notary. 

POULTRY- 

Hogs & Cattle. 



Langshans, Brahmas, Cochins. Leg- 
horns, Houdans. Plymouth Rocks, W. 
F. Black Spanish, Guinea Fowls. Aylesbury, Rouen 
and Pekin Ducks. Bronze and White Holland Turkeys. 
Peacocks, Etc. Also, Eggs for Hatching. 

Dish-Faced Berkshire Pips, Poland China 
Pigs, Jersey Cattle, etc 

PACIFIC COAST POULTRY AND 
STOCK BOOK. 

New Edition, over 100 pages, Handsomely Illustrated- 
Price by mail, 60 cents. 

Stock or Eggs for Hatching guaranteed true to name, 
and to arrive safely. For further information please 
write, enclosing stamp. Circular and price list sent on 
application. Address 

WILLIAM NILES. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 




BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the- 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit cane 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 
18th and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal 



BROWN LEGHORN HENS 

FOR SALE. 

Parties desiring to obtain stock from this wonderful 
breed can do so by addressing the undersigned. I have 
about 

Sixty Fine Hens 

That I am willing to sell either as a whole or in small lots 

— AT — 

TWO DOLLARS EACH. 

They have finished moulting and are in excellent 
condition. Address 

WILLIAM H. JORDAN, 

Oakland, Cal. 



DCIYEY k co- 
scientific Press 

American and Foreign 

PATENT AGENCY 



50 



Varieties French Chromo Satin, Pearl Finished Etc 
cards, name in gold, 10c Card Mills, NcrthfordCt 




NEW OFFICES, 1882: 



252 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front 

San Francisco. 



Branch Offices In all Foreign Countries. 



CiBt'LLARS of Information fou Iw kn t«»k« rent fhkk 
■ in APPLICATION 



Geo. H. Strong. W. B. Ewer. 



A. T. Dewey 



J. T STOI*I.'S 

OPEN TOP 

IMPROVED HORSE COLLAR 




Patented Jan 18th, 1881. 



It saves lour horse's neck. 
It is the best Collar in use. 
It wn be adjusted to any shape 
or any animal's neck. ' 

£-:•'".-'• 1. 1 for sample. "VI 

JOHN T. ST0LL, 

Harness and Saddle 
Manufacturer, 

NO. 610 K ST., SACRAMENTO. 



PIANOS 



"For beauty of tone, touch and action, I have never 
seen their equal. C'-mi Louine Kellogg. 

" THE KNABB" is absolutely the 
Best Piano made. 

A. L. BANCROFT & CO., 

m Market Street, San Francisco., 

Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast 




ITALIAN SHEEP WASH. 

EXTRACT OF TOBACCO. 

Free from Poison. Prepared by 
the Italian Government Co. 
Cures thoroughly tht 

SCAB OF THE SHEEP. 

The BEST and CHEAPEST rem- eUSi 
c4y known. Reliable testimonials st our office. 

Has been Applied in Destroying the 
Phylloxera and Garden Bugs 
with Success. 

For particulars apply to CHAS. DUISENBERO A CO., 
Sole Agents, 314 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 

SMITH & JOHNSON, 

(Successors to J. 8. Davis), 
MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

Davis Gain Twist Regulating Windmill. 

Tanks, Troughs, Etc. 

Jobbing: of all kinds promptly attended to. 
No. 183 Commerce Street. Stockton, Cal. 



(.OLD MEDAL AWARDED 

ths Author. A new and great Medi 
cal Work, warranted the best and 
cheapest. Indispensable to every 
man, entitled the "Science of Life or 
Self Preaerration bound in finest 
French muslin, embossed, full gilt.. 
300 pp. Contains beautiful steel en- 
graringft; 125 prescriptions. Price,, 
only $1.25, sent by mail; illustrated 
sample. 6 cents. Send nsw. Addrea* 
t fi Feabody Medical Institute or Dr W 
KNOW THYSELE H. PARKER. Ko.4BulJinchsUe€t 
Boston. 




YOUR NAME Wo^ iO? 

. »J. _ I... k. — r ant* 



7\ r - |^ ■ B.v*l-B4f Car*. U>»«1 P'^« '« *Vg* 

Si ■tenia IOO ••<•"»>•"* SB» ^" , """» 
a<£u»» TfcSHK BROS., Boi n, Nortalua. 



January 21, 1882. j 



THE PACIFIC 



III PRESS 



49 



Killing the Pests. 

Editors Press:— Having lately spent a day 
in anil about San Jose, observing the opera- 
tions of orcbardists and others in their fight 
with scale insects, I can but wish that others 
should know of the good work that is going 
forward. Dr. S. F. Chapin and Mr. D. C. Ves- 
tal, whose careful experiments with insecticides 
have attracted so much attention throughout 
the State' are showiog that they have faith in 
their own recommendations. The former is 
the fortunate owner of a young and vigorous 
orchaid, A few trees last year showed the 
presence of scale insects, but they were exter- 
minated by the use of lye, so that no trace of 
them can now t> ; found. 

No harm was done to dormant deciduous 
trees by spraying all over with one lb. of con- 
centrated commercial lye to the gallon of wa- 
ter. The potash in the lye seemed to act as a 
fertilizer to the trees. The doctor is so con- 
vinced that he can completely control the 
pests that he is setting out a large addition to 
his orchard. He is decidedly in lavor of lye as 
compared with kerosene. The latter has no 
fertilizing qualities, and he fears that it may 
eventually injure the trees. 

Mr. Vebtal, on the other hand, after trying 
kerosene last year, feels safe in its use, if of 
sufficient purity, say from 115° to 150° fire test. 
His large orchard has suffered much from scale 
insects, but will probably recover during the 
next year, as he was linishing the work of spray- 
ing it from one end to the other. He has also 
cut back the tall poplars which were found to 
harbor the scale Aspidiotus perniciosus. 

Mr. Rutherford has also done admirable work 
in spraying his large orchard. In some cases he 
had tried two lbs. of lye to the gallon, without 
apparent injury to the trees. In most cases he 
used one and quarter lbs. to the gallon, giviDg a 
solution registering about 16° by a common hy- 
drometer. This is full strong. Not a live scale 
insect or red spider could be found on the trees 
treated, although in many cases they had con- 
cealed the bark by their numbers before. Sev- 
eral large apple trees were shown as melan- 
choly monuments to an experiment last year 
with crude petroleum, which had destroyed 
them. The impure oil does not evaporate, but 
soaks into the bark. 

Visiting John Pock's nursery, we found him 
complying with the quarantine rules, in disin- 
fecting the large quantities of fruit trees which 
he is shipping, altnough we saw no scale insects 
upon them. 

The work is done in a long tank containing 
the lye solution. After dippiDg, they are 
placed on a sloping platform, and more of the 
liquid is poured over them from a dipper. 

The spraying of orchards has certainly been 
reduced to a science. I thought that I knew 
something of that kind of work years ago, when 
fighting the curculio in western New York, but 
I never before saw such perfect apparatus as is 
turned out at San Jose. The Merigot force 
pump, throwing two streams, to supply tbe 
"bug-3prays," and Chapin's light bamboo ex- 
tension m zzle, of any length up to 15 ft., make 
the slaughter of insec'.s easy and economical to 
a degree which must be seen to be appreciated 

It now looks as though the neighborhood of 
San Jose would soon be noted as a clean place 
in which to set out an orchard. It will be, if 
her citizens appreciate the importance of disin 
fecting all infested trees — the ornamental ai 
well as useful. C. H. Dwinelle. 

Berkeley, Jan. 16 th, 1882. 



to disappointment" who thinks he can get rich 
at selling apricots and peaches for two cents 
per pound. I have been in the fruit business 
and have made it pay, and think two cents for 
peaches is good enough. Let us see: A medium- 
sized peach tree will bear 200 lbs. I plant 
160 trees on an acre; thus we have 32,000 lbs. at 
two cents, equal to §640 per acre. A man can 
take care of 10 acres of peach trees and not 
work much either. While the trees are grow- 
ing he can raise corn and beans on the ground. 
I encourage tree planting and do not fear com- 
petition, although I have just bought 310 acres 
of land for tree culture. Let all tire boys plant 
trees, for the youngest will not live to see the 
culmination of this business in California. We 
are going to have cheap freights before the trees 
your are planting begin to bear. Even now our 
' ome market would not take all, but the world 
opens its mouth to taste California fruit. If H. 

is discouraged up at Winters, tell him to 
come over to me in Alameda Co. , and I will 
show him land where trees will pay and no bugs 
near it. The land is for sale near what I have 
bought. W. W. Brier. 

Center ville, Alameda Co., Cal. 



Answer to "The Other Side; 



Editors Press: — H. P., of Winters, would 
have us believe that the fruit business is going 
to the dogs in 2 or 3 years. He reminds me of 
the old man in the "Hoosier School Master,' 
who ended up every conversation with "We'll 
all have the fever, and the Injuns are coming.' 
Now, Mr. Editor, it is not because I wish to 
sell those peach trees I advertise in the Rural, 
for they will sell as did the pear and apricot 
trees, because I advertise in your extensively 
read paper, but for the sake of truth, that I an 
swer H. P., and to encourage new beginners in 
the fruit business. 

More than 10 years ago I predicted that the 
time would come when the fruit crop of Cali 
fornia would pay more than all the wheat and 
gold mines combined. Now I believe the time 
is at hand, when my prediction will be fulfilled 
In 1853, I sent to Rochester for fruit trees, 
which cost me 50 cents each, and they were 
not a foot long. I borrowed money at 3% per 
month to pay for them. I had faith in trees 
have been in the business ever since, and have 
moie faith than ever before. I sold §630 worth 
of peaches from each acre of six-year-old trees 
last year. It strengthens a man's faith to do 
this. The year before, I sold $24.40 worth of 
apricots from each one of those trees I planted 
in 1853; was East when the last crop was bar 
vested. 

But, says "H. P.," the bugs are coming.and the 
fruit men are going to be sick; the man is "doomed 



Naturalists' Directory. 

Collectors in the various departments of nat- 
ural history find that they can aid each other 
greatly by exchange of material. One who is 
interested in the work, asks the Press to copy 
from Casino's Directory a list of the names of 
California collectors, not claiming that it is com- 
plete, but stating that those mentioned are wili- 
ng to correspond and exchange material with 
others in the same line of study. We publish 
the list to facilitate correspondence and ex- 
change, and thus serve our readers who have 
leaning toward studies in natural history: 
California Collectors Who Will Exchansre. 

Geo. \V. Warren, Ferndale, Humboldt Co.. botany, ferns, 
etc. 

Mary E. P. Ames, Auburn, botany. 

Rev. F. H. Wales, Dutch FUt, l*lacer Co., mineralogy. 

Charles L. Anderson, M. D., Santa Cruz, botany, a'gse. 

Melville At .vood, Sauce lit ■, geology. Special broncn, in- 
closing, or waJl rocks of n-eialhtei-ous veins. ExcLanges in 
specia.ty. 

Mrs. K. F. Bingham, Santa Barbara, bota-y. 
Frank K. Blaisdeli. Foway, San Diego Co , entomology 
(loi al). Excl auges in oology and coleoptera. 
Mrs. S. G. Blaisdeli, Poway, San Die^o Co , ferns. 
S. Bluthner, Loik.furd, Sau Joaquin i o., coleoptera. 
8. D. Bia9tow, care Wells, Fargo u Co., S. F., paleontol- 
;y, mineralogy. 

KllBha Brooks, 1725 Sutter St, S. F., ferns. 

Mri. A. E. Bush. Curatur S ate Normal School Museum, 
San Jose, conchotomy, mi eralugy. algie. 

Miss Jennie R. Bush, San Jose, entumo'ogy. 

George D. Butler, Fort Junes, Siskiyou Co., botany. 

J. W. Calkins, Santa Barbara, concho ogy, alg;e 

A. W. Crawford, Oakland, botany, palecntoh gy, geology, 
mioeralogy. 

Andrew T. McCreery, 519 .Tones St., S. F., coleoptfra. 

Koscoe P Cnandler, Kiver ide, San Ber aniino Co., oology. 

Misi Kate O. ce sions, 142 j 7th Ave., East Oakland, ferns, 
mineralogy, entomology, molliisks. 

Daniel cieve'aud, S*D Diego, bo'atiy, ferns, marine alga?. 

Mr*. El wood Coopt-r, Santa Barbara, botany. 

J. A. Edinan, Meadow Valley, Plumas Co., geology, min- 
eralogy, meteorites. 

liustay Eisen, Fresno, annelida, oligochieta. Exchan 
typ.sof oliguchaita. 

William O. Fliut, 210 SanBome St., S. F., mineralogy, 
shells, oini hology, oology. Exchanges in oology. 

H. C. Ford, Santa barbara, feins, algai, paleontology, 
archeology, conchology 

F G. Hail, Greenville, Plumas Co., chemistry, mineralogy, 
geol gy. 

D W. Hambly, Spanish Ranch, Pluma3 Co., geology, min 
eralogy, meteorite 3 , general biology. 

Laura J. F. Hecox, Santa Cruz, conchology. Californ'a 
shells in exchange for land and fresh-water shells, fossils, etc. 

K. Hill, Brownsville, Yuba Co., bo:auy, oruithulogy, 
entomology. 

A. W Jackson, University of California, Berkeley, min 
eralogy, microscopy, litbology. 

G. Walter Johnston, Sacramento, botany, glumaceous 
plants, fungi. 

Pi of. Josiah Keep, Alameda, conchology. Fine Pacific in 
exchange for Atlantic and foreign shells. 

Prof. George R. Kleeberger, San Diego, botany, zoology, 
embryology, arachnida. 
Edgar L. Rieksecker, P. O. box 2211, S. F.. coleoptera. 
S. B P. Knox, A M., M D.. Santa Barbara, algte, micros 
copy, entomology. 
Miss H len Lennebacker, Santa Cruz, alga). 
George W. Michael, Jr., Moro Bay, San Luis Obiapo, geol- 
ogy, mineral gy. 

Ei. M. Mouser, M. D,, 235 Kearny St., S. F., microscopy, 
general botany, vertebrate embryo. ogy. 
William Mi rris, 516 California St., S. F., microscopy. 
Mary E. B. Norton, San Jose, botany. 
Carrie A. Wheelan, 311 Fourth St., Oakland, coleoptera. 
John H. Orcutt, can Diego, concho.'ogy, oology. 
Geerge H. Peck, El Monte, Los Angelas * o., lepidoptera. 
Miss Emily O. Pelton, Brownsville, phtenogamic botany, 
fe us. 

W. S. Phelps, Ferndale. Humboldt Co., bota y. 
J. B. Pownall, Berkeley, coleoptera. 
George H. Ready. Sania Cruz, oology. 
J. Edward Reed, Wiight's Station, Santa Clara Co., min 
eralogy, mound builders and InUian relics. 

O. N. Sanfoid, San Diego, general natural history (local) 
Exchauges in coleoptera and celichology (general). 

Frank M. 'Stone, 210 Sansomo St., S. F., shells, ornithology, 
oology. 

F. L. Button, 8511 Broadway, Oakland, conchology, mollusks. 
James A. Hall, Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co , general ex 
change. 

Ferdinand McCann, Santa Cruz, oology. Exchanges eggs 
in sets. 

Miss Emma Swain, 1354 8th Ave., East Oakland, minerals 
mollusks. 

Miss Cornel-'A Walker, San Jose, marino zoology. 
Misi Mary E. Wilson, ferns, algte. 

Chas. T. Winslow, S. F , conchology, ornithology, oology 
Exchanges shell', birds, skins, nests and eggs. 
MrB. Lizzie Wright, Monterey, ferns. 
W. G Wright. San Bernardino, botany, palms, cacti, ferns, 
seeds, etc. Exchanges for rare ferns. 

Dr. Lorenzo G. Yates, Centervil e, Alameda Co , conchol 
ogy, geology, mineralogy. Many specimens for exchange. 
Send list. 

Luc ion A. Blochman, San Diego, conchology, algru. Of 
fers all tpcclmens fouud in Han Diego. 

Philip Sidney Carlton, corner 19th and Brush Sts , Oak 
lantC coleoptera. 

Lauia G. Feely, Patobeny Santa Olara Co., shells and curi 
osities. 

Moses L Frick, San Diego, conchology. 
Prof. Milo H. Gates, Green Valley, El Dorado Co.. botany 
John H Ru sell, ban Joso, Santa Clara Co., exchange 
Pacific coast shells for those from any part of the world. 

James E. Wadham, San Diego, conchology, algat. Offe 
all apcclmens found in San Diego or northern part of Lowe 
California. 

Jf. V. Hopkins, M. D., East Lake, Lake Co., mineralogy, 
geology 

Lewis Locke, 926 Jackson St., S. F., ornithology. 



What Readers Think of the Rural. 

A subscriber in Santa Clara oounty writes: 
I proposed to my wife to stop the Rural, as 
money was scarce, but she said, "No; I will sell 
eggs enough to pay for it," so I send you the 
cash for the subscription. 

Another reader in Stanislaus county writes: 
The Rural Press is appreciated by the peo- 
ple in this section. It is never spoken of but 
with praise, and now on New Year's, I will 
wish both the paper and its publishers many 
happy returns of the day." 

Still another in Ventura county writes, "that 
the prosperity of the Rural may be wide and 
lasting, is my sincere wish. " 

Kind words, showing the appreciation of our 
work, are most encouraging and have contrib- 
ted greatly to our progress hitherto. We are 
uly thankful for such expressions of confi- 
dence. 

Our Alaska Territory. — Paymaster King 
and Master Hames, of the United States Navy, 
published in the Washington Post an artie'e 
taking issue with Prof. Elliott, of the Smith- 
sonian Institute, in regard to the population and 
resources of Alaska. They say they have been 
stationed in Alaska for 26 months ending last 
August, and have personally traversed the 
whole of the southeastern section, and instead 
f the total number of white inhabitants of 
Alaska being only 392, as Elliott asserts, they 
confidently declare that there are about 500 
whites at Harrisburg, 250 at Wrangel, 200 more 
at Sitka, not including tbe 250 Russians Creoles 
there who are entitled to be classed as whites, 
and numbers of others at more than half a dozen 
smaller settlements where whites are found in 
companies ranging from 3 to 4 up to 15 and 20. 
They also say it is the greatest mistake to asseit 
that nothing of value in minerals has been dis- 
covered in southeastern Alaska, and add that 
from Harrisburg settlement, not yet a year old, 
over §50,000 in gold dust has been sent below, 
and tales of quartz veins have been made at 
high figures, with a view of working them next 
season. Enough has been done to show the 
great value of the placer ground and exceeding 
richness of mining of the ledges, and it is cer- 
tain there will be a large addition to the pop- 
ulation next spring. They add: "Further, we 
know that the agricultural prosperity of that 
section is rapidly developing, and that the cli- 
matic difficulties in the way of it are far from 
insuperable. Further still, there are now 
measures on foot to develop the timber interests 
in one kind, of which the yellow cedar is so val- 
uable and so abundant in Alaska. Neither 
Washington Ter., Oregon nor Brit.sh Columbia 
can compete with Alaska." 




ISCELL^flEOl/s. 



Immigration Bureau. — The first monthly 
meeting of the Immigration Bureau was held 
Tuesday, Jan. 17th, when the monthly reports 
of the Secretary and the Land Officer were read 
and filed. The report of the Secretary shows 
that 89 persons have called at the office in re 
gard to land; that $272 50 have been collected 
from subscribers, and §250 borrowed from the 
Boird of Trade, making the total receipts 
$522.50, against which there had been drawn 
§371.55, leaving a balance of §150.95, against 
which there are debts amounting to §294.18 
Che report of the Land Officer states that 142 
townships, containing 350,000 acres of unappro 
priated lands, have been examined and platted; 
that nine townships, containing 150,000 acres, 
have been examined for character and desig 
nated, and that during the month 14 person 
have been sent to look at land. The report of 
Capt. Blanding, in regard to the pre-emption ol 
lands, made at a previous meeting, was read 
Capt. Blanding then stated that, since making 
the report, he had seen the bill prepared by 
State Surveyor-General Shanklin, and spoken 
of it in his repoit, but that it did not meet the 
case. He had prepared a bill, and would sug- 
gest that it be engrossed and forwarded to the 
California delegation at Washington. The bill 
will be found in another column. 



Joiin Rock's Nurseries. — Tree- planters and 
tree-growers will be interested in the adver 
tisementsof John Rock, of San Jose, in this issue 
of the Press. He makes a special announce 
ment of apicot and peach pits and Birtlet pear 
in dormant bud. Mr. Rock's general catalogue 
of trees, shrubs and plants, should be cousulted 
by all planters and gardeners. 



In some parts of Yorkshire, Eng., hundreds 
of farmers' laborers are out of work, many of 
whom will trjbaUy emigrate in the »priug. 



Filbert Blossoms. — We receive from Mr, 
Gillet some staminate and pistillate blossoms of 
the filbert, plucked from his trees in Nevad 
City. They are courageous blooms to come out 
in tbe present cold spell and in the face of sue 
a northeast wind as has prevailed this month 
An interesting article on filbert-growing will 
be found in another column of this issue. 

Why Grass Will Not Grow under Trees, 
M. Paul Bert has shown that green light hin 
dors the development of plants. Plants in 
closed in a green glass frame wither and die as 
though they were in darkness. M. Regnard 
finds that plants specially require the red rays. 
If sunlight is deprived of the red rays, V 
plants soon cease to thrive. 



Wind Pressures. 

The wind pressures experienced in India are 
remarkable. On October 5th, 1864, on the 
Eistern Bengal railway, two trains were upset 
during a violent storm. One of these was a 
train of eight passenger vehicles, and was up- 
set near Eihapore. The other was a train of 
twelve passenger vehicles, and was upset near 
Arrunghatta. In both cases all the passenger 
vehicles were blown over on their sides. Ba- 
des these carriages, four wagons were blown 
from a siding at Buggoolalo, and capsized about 
alf a mile north of that station on the same 
day, from collisions caused by wagons which 
were started from sidings from the force of the 
wind. On Sept. 21, 1878, a long train of wag- 
ons traveling at about eight miles an hour, on 
the Eastern Bengal railway, was brought to a 
standstill by a heavy storm, and was then 
forced back about a mile with full steam and 
brake against it; 18 wagons were then detached, 
but even with half the train it was found difficult 
to continue the journey. On Nov. 20, 1880, at 
Negapatano, on the South Indian railway, an 
mpty covered goods wagon was upset by the 
wind while standing at rest in a siding. Nu- 
merous instances have occurred on the Indian 
ail ways of trains being stopped, or nearly so, 
by the force of the wind. 

The wind pressures above alluded to are cer- 
tainly very remarkable for continuous pressures; 
' ut in the exceptional cases of tornadoes, such 
as those which passed over portions of Kansas 
and other States in that vicinity during the two 
last seasons, the prefsures were far in excess of 
anything related <jf India. If the accounts are 
reliable large animals, such a3 horses, were lifted 
completely from the ground and carried long 
'istances in the air; human beings were lifted in 
the same way and dashed to death. Houses 
were utterly destroyed to their foundations and 
their timbers and boards scattered far and wide 
over the adjacent fields. Electricity doubtless 
as much to do with the violence of such tor- 
nadoes. 

The Mechanic's Capital. 

The mechanic is sometimes looked upon, says 
the American Machinist, as a man without capi- 
tal. Sometimes he looks upon himself in this 
light. This is all a mistake. The man who 
earns §1,000 a year has not only capital, but in 
these times of low interest he has considerable 
capital. 

The manufacturer and tbe merchant aim to 
Dcrease their capital by a judicious handling of 
present means. The mechanic does, or should 
try to, increase his in the same way. Knowl- 
edge to the mechanic is capital, because it ena- 
bles him to command more for his services. If 
he possesses simply the skill of the workman, he 
can make that skid earn him a certain sum per 
year, which sum is the exponent of the capital 
he has invested in his busin<ss. If to the t- k ill 
of the workman he adds the knowledge of the 
man who thinks beyond present purpose?, he 
earns more, or, in other word?, he iccieases bis 
capital. The young machinist, for instance, 
who learns machine drawing, is morally certain 
at some time to find use for it where it will 
tand exactly to him as the money of the capi- 
talist stands to its possessor, although this is 
hardly a fair statement, because he will at 
once find use for it. When the man who 
earned §1 000 a year, by virtue of his skill as a 
workman, adds such a knowledge of his busi- 
ness as to earn §2,000 a year, he has as surely 
doubled his capital as the man who has twice as 
much money to invest in his business as he 
formerly had. 

It is earnestly advised that every apprentice 
to the machine business shall do a little calcu- 
lation for himself on this subj ct, always re- 
membering that capital, which is the result of 
Bkill and knowledge, is seldom at a discount 
and never lost. It is just at this time in their 
lives when habits are formed that, to a great 
extent, determine the working capital with 
which they are io go through life. 

Separate Sounds on One Wire. — M. 
Maiche has found by experiment that sounds of 
different characters produced from two separate 
sources can be sent simultaneously on one wire 
and received separately. He used at the receiv- 
ing fetation two telephones of different resist- 
ances, and at the transmitting station caused a 
musical box to be set LOtug on a microphone of 
small resistance, while an induction telephone 
transmitter was spoken into at the same time. 
The musical sounds were reproduced in the tele- 
phone which had the least resistance, and the 
vocal sounds in the other, so that with the two 
telephones to the ears the music could be heard 
by one ear and the speech by the other. 



A Green Meteor.— The Gr.ffin, Geo., News, 
of a late issue, taye: "Some evenings since we 
saw one of the most wonderful meteors that 
ever brightened the surrounding hills. It was 
some time between the hours of 11 and 12 
o'clock; we were quietly meandering home from 
the sanctum, when suddenly a bright rosy light 
loomed up directly from the southern horizon, 
and shot with a flash toward the northeast, at 
an angle of about 70°. When about midway of 
the heavens the color suddenly changed to a 
rich green. " 



50 



f HE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



6b 



a mx/rE" 

PULVERIZING HARROW, CLOD CRUSHER AND LEVELER. 



•a 



C5 



O 

a> 



U. 

The 
Lifting, 
Imraens 
adapted 
light soil 




3 

•a 



Jim a> 

"ACME" subjects the soil to the action of a Crusher and Levelcr, and at the same time to the Cutting 
I urning precess of double rows of STEEL COULTERS, the peculiar shape and arrangement of which give 
e Cutting Power. The entire absence of Spikes or Spring Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially 
I.. III voted sod, hard clay and "slough land" where other Harrow* utterly fail, and also works perfectly on 

If ASH tfc BRO., Sole Manufacturers, 

22 College Place, New York. City. 

SOLD IN CALIFORNIA BY: G. B Adams & Son, San Gat. pel; Oliver Holden, San Jose, Jonn 

Tuohy, Visalia. 



C. 1 HUTCHINSON. 



H. R. MANN. 



HUTCHINSON & MANN, 



INSURANCE AGENCY 

322 and 324 California St., and 302 and 304 Sansome St., 

N. E. Corner of Ca'ifornia and Sansome Sts , SAN FRANCISCO 



W. L. CHALMERS, Z. P. CLARK, J. C. STAPLES, ) 
Special Agents and Ao jusleis. ( 



I CAPT. A M. BURNS, Marine Surveyor. 
"( F. T. HOVT, City Himeyor. 



HUTCHINSON & MANN, Agents for Pacific Coast. 

Cash Assets Represented, $23,610,723. 



Ciraril IiiNiir:iii<'< - foMWHQF KM Philadelphia), 
Ansctn. July L 1:81, W, 155,809. 

St. i' hi lasnraart Ctnii'V (of St Paul), 

Assets, Jul)' 1. 1331. S8S4.305. 
M'afcrlo" ii Fire insurance Coaapail] (Of s \ ,) 
Assets, July 1, 1331. 1895,137. 
New Orleans In*. «ssoeiulli.ii ("f New Orlean ), 
Asseis, July 1, 1881, S573.216. 
Peoples' liisur.iin'o C'oim ]l.in3 [Of tfowarkl 
Assets July 1. 1331, it! .978. 
Tcnloniii Insurance Com mm hi [Of New < irleans), 
Assets, July 1, lSsl, 9375.291. 



Dwelllac House I mlcrM ritei s (Oi Men iforkl 
Assets, July 1. 1881. #2,358.068. 
La ConJlanoe Insurance Companj (Of Paris), 

As-et>, .laniiary 1, 1381, $6.fflQ.rt'»S. 

I'lre Insurance Association inf London), 
Assets, January 1, 1881, s 1,349.943. 

Loniloii Provincial Marine Ins. Co. (Of London, 

Capital and Assets, Jan. 1, 1381. J6.278.362. 

La Fonclere Marine insurance « ». Pai 

Aswts, January 1. 1831. ••32.U90.4 8. 



Proprietor of the Globe Foundry and Machine Shop, and 
Stockton Improved Gang Plow Man'f g Works. 



AGENT FOR 

Studebaker Farm and Spring 
Wagons, Header Trucks with wide 
and narrow tins, Rakes, Derricks, Belt- 
ing, Cordage, Oil", Forks, Hardware, etc. 

t3T Steam Engines, and general re- 
pairirg, witli large assortment of extras 
for Agricultural Implements, and the 
STOCKTON (JANG Plows, Reversible 
Uolcbj and Land Sides. Address 

JOHN CAINE, Stockton, Cal. 

GLOBE IRON WORKS. 

P. 0. Box, 95. 




W.R. ALLEN & CO., 




IMPORTERS OP 

Iron Pipe and Fittings, 
Lift and Force Pumps, 
Brass Cocks and Valves 

For Steam, Water and (ius, 

Suet Zinc, Iron Sinks, 
Plumber*.' Goods, 



Nos. 327 and 329 Market Street, Cor. Fremont, S. F. 




BOIES. 



M. J PAILLARD & CO., 

Manufacturers and Importers of all Kinds of 

MUSICAL BOXES 

Of Standard Reputation. The largest and finest assortment in the city. Musical 
Boxes with changeable cylinders always on haudat low figures. The latest style 
patented, "THE INTERCHANGEABLE," patented February 11, 1879. 

Repairing Musical Boxes and Furnishing Material a Specially. 

. 23 DUPONT STREET. SAN FRANCISCO. 

E. JUILLERAT, Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. (Branch House of 680 Broadway, N. Y 



IMPERIAL EGG FOOD. 




Will mike your Hens Lay, koep 
them in the best possible condition and 
ward off disease. When ted acoor 
ding to directions, sick and 
i drooping fowls are never 
seen. It furnishes the 
needed material for 



formingbone t mus 
cle ana 
ers, and 




Invaluable for Young 1 Chicks and Moulting 

Fowl3. It comes packed in various sized packages, 
>nd being a powder, is easily mixed with the cus. 
bomarj ' ee< '- Oive it a trial Send Stamp for 
.'ire 1 1 r and Te umonials. 

Price.— Single pound, 60 celts; Two 
ir.d a half pound*, Sl.On; Six pounds, ^j-*'"' 

i i I ke; 80.26. Add: ess, >^ 

G. G WICKS0N, S***, * e tth. 

.i nerd i 1 .. Ic i oasl Agt >->^^ sxwiil portion of 

19 Market St., Z< the libor and rtek. 

J'Vaiicisco .X^^V^^^^ Thu "KrLirsK M is the 
<SZA V>^^ only entire ly self-regulating in- 
cubatorkuown; istheonly one that 
will bear investigating, 60 it la the only 
V^S* safe <<ne to purchase. Send stamp for Cir- 
cular of California Testimonials (not Kastern.) 



-The- 

Eel i pee Bell' 
Regulating Incu 
bators are now In act - 
ual use In most parts of 
this State, and giving genera I 
satisfaction. They are asucccs', 
and being such are Invaluable to all 
who attempt to raise chickens; are easy to 
manage, and oost merely a trifle to keep In op. 
eratinn. and will do milcb b ttrwnik thau can be 




Th.o Eclipse Self-B.Qgula.ting Incubator 



The Merigot Pump and Spraying Nozzle. 

Largely used for Applying Insecticides in Orchards around San Jose. 

FAVORABLY MENTIONED AS SERVICEABLE AND REASONABLE IN PRICE BY THE 
SPEAKERS AT THE SACRAMENTO CONVENTION. 

<-SThe Merigot Spray-Tip Nozzle is the best known. — Dr. Chapin's Address. 

The pump Is Well Made uilh Melal Valves. Price, US. 

WESLEY FANNING, Co-Operative Workshop. 

277 to 281 St. John Street. San Joee, Cal. 



CHEAPEST. 



BEST. 



BOOTH'S SURE DEATH 




To Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, 
Mice, Etc. 

OTE.i.l.iraeil by the Grange and all others who have 
used it, 

INFALLIBLE SQUIRREL and GOPHER 
EXTERMINATOR. 

STRENGTH INCREASED. PRICE REDUCED. 

Put up in 1 It. , G lb,, and 6 gallon tins. Manufactured by 



A. R BC0TH, Eagle Drug Store 



San Lula Obispo, Cal. 
FOB SALE BY ALL WHOLESALE AND BETAIL DEALEBS. 




Tubbs Hotel, 

OAKLAND, CALIFOBNIA. 

An elegant family residence in charming grounds. Two 
hundred rooms. Near steam and street care. Forty 
minutes to or from San Fiancioco. Trains every hall 
hour. Five-cent fare. Table d'Hote or Restaurant. 
Splendid suite* of sunny apartments or single rooms with 
or without bathrooms. The most HEALTHY and agree- 
able location on the Pacific Coast. Mian yearly tempera- 
ture 56' Sun unobscured from March to November. 
A HOME for touri«t or invalid. Good cuisine under a 
celebrated Chef. Prices more reasonable than any hotel 
of its character in California. Livery stable, laundry, 
billiard room, telegraphic communication, etc., In con- 
nection with the hotel. Special terms made. All appli- 
cations answered. 

SHELDON I. KELLOGG Jr., Prop'r. 



PURE B RED P OULTRY. 

Langshans, Cochins Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Dorkings, Pekin and Rouen Ducks, Bronze Turkeys, Etc. 

I have a large stock of the above varieties for Sale Chop, considering the quality of stock. For further inf. .rum- 
ination, tend 3 cent stamp for new circular and price list to R. C. HEAD, Napa, Cal. 






WINDMILLS! HORSE POWERS! 

TANKS AND ALL KINDS OF PUMPING MACHIN- 
ERY BUILT TO ORDER. 

No. 51 Beale Street, fc>. F. 

Send for Circulars. 

F. W. KROGH «fc CO. 

(Successors to W. L Tustis.) 

STENCIL PLATES cut by EDWIN 
MOHKIG, Rubber Stamps, Burning 
Brands, Stencil Brushes, Inks, Cups, 
Etc. Removed to No. 262 Market 
Street, Sin Francisco. Use the 
elevator at No. 12 Front Street. 



STAMPS 



STENCILS 




SEEDS mBS 



PLANTS. 

Beautiful Illustrated Catalope Free. 

The beat IUt of new. Fare and beautiful 
flower* ever lent oat. New liladlclw, Tube- 
rose*, A ■ i r i i . i . RoMt, Csrmhou, 100 varir. 
tin of Llli**, choice Flower and Vegelabi* 
! P*-edt of Houee Plants, Ae. All teedi 
•icepl rareklndaareioldln FivaCBNTft'APtft!*. 
Everything warranted true to name. See 
< ' v L.'.vue ; price* ere low. The following *eni 
bv mail poetpsid. lOGladlolnt, 10 Mill named 
60c. IJ Pearl Tubtrotei, 85c. lo Llliee. W tan* 
named, f 1^0. AH line rarta and large bulb*. 
Remit currency or pottage atari) p*. My goodt 
have'an eitabliiihed reputation and eo to all pans or the world. 

J. LEWIS C1IILDS, Ql KENS, N. Y. 

THE NEW IMPROVED VANELESS 

ALTH0USE WINDMILL AGENCY. 

S. H. Kiler, of San Rafael, has the Agency for all 
Counties North of the Bay. Having them In stock orders 
for any size can be filled at onoe. 



January 2t, i882 tJ 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



51 



Six lines or less in this Directory at 50 cts a line per month. 

CATTLE. ==Z 

COL. C. YOUNGEB. Forest Home Herd, San Jose, 
Cal. Breeder of Short-Horn Durhams, and pure bred 
Cotswold Sheep. Young Bulls and Bucks always for 
sale. Herd took Gold Medal, 1881. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and Breeders for past eleven years. Berkshires, 
"Jerseys," "Short Horns," and all varieties of Sheep, 
and their grades. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
era of Short Hom« ™d Spanish Merino Sheep 

MRS M. B. BRAOuEY, San Jose, Cal. Breeder 
of recorded thorough ired Short Horn cattle and 
Berkshire hogs. A choice lot of young stock for 
sale. 

R. J. MERKELEY, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of 
Short-Horn Durhams and Norina n-l'ercheron horses. 

ROBT. BECK, San Franusco. Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Jersey cattle. Herd took Six Premiums of the 
eleven offered at- State Fair, 1881. 

GEO. BE ME NT, Red wood City, San Mateo Co., Cal. 
Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle. Several fine young Bulls, 
Yearl ings anil Calves For Sale. 

R. NOELL, Grass Valley, Nevada Co., Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Thoroughbred Jerseys. 

R. McENESPY, Chico, Butte Co., Cal. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Uevons. 

HENRY PIERCE, 128 Montgomery Street, S. F. 
Breeder of Jersey, Guernsey and Ayrshire Cattle. Has 
them for sale. 



HORSES. 



JAS. A. PERRY, of River View Stock Farm, Wil- 
mington, HI., has in Petaluma, Sonoma county, several 
fine Norman Stallions of his last importation direct from 
France. Catalogues on application to Jas. A. Perry, 
Fashion SUbles, Petal uma, Cal. 

P. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Marin Co., Cal. Breeder of 
choice Jerseys, bred from butter strains. Hambletoninn 
horses by the Silver Gray Stalliou, "Rustic," remark- 
able for size, speed, and kind disposition. 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co.. Cal. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Devons, roadster horses and Percheron 
draft horses. 



E. A. SACK RIDER, 325 Eleventh St., Oakland, 
Cal Importer of Norman-Percheron horses. Horses 
on hand and for sale at reasonable terms. 

WM. PARRINGTON, Santa C.ara, Cal. Breeder 
of Norman norses; owner of the horse "Cunard," of 
stock of Perry's importat ion. 

W. A MUNNION, Dixon, Solano Co., Cal. Owner 
and Breeder of the celebrated Jack, "John Henry." 
Took Firot Premium State Fair, 1881, also Percheron 
Half-breeds. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, CaL Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co , Cal. Breeder 
and Importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes 
for sale. Also, cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 

E. W. WOOLSEY <Ss SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and Breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
St., S F. 



POULTRY. 



H. S SARGENT, Stockton, Cal. Importer, Breeder 
and Shipper of Poland Uhina Pigs, and Bronzj Turkeys. 



MRS- L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A O RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MBS. M. E. NBWHi LL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown and White Ltghorns, Plymouth Rock, 
Pekin Ducks. 

J. M. HALSTED'S NEW INCUBATOR. Price, 
830. No. 1011 Broadway, Oakland. Send for circular. 



L. C. BYCE, Petaluma, Cal. Breeder of Thorough- 
bred Poultry. Illustrated circular free. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. WAITE, Brighton, Sacramento Co. Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Berkshire Hogs and choice Imported 
Poultry. Took Premium State Fair, 1880 and 1881 
of Leghorns (brown and white), Speckled Hamburgs, 
Plymouth Rocks and Pekin Ducks. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hoga are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Cal., Breeder of Poland 
China Swine. Stock recorded in American Poland 
China Record- Are descendants of the celebrated Mc- 
Crary-Bismarck, bred by D. M. Magie, Oxford, Ohio. 
Took five First Premiums at State Fair in 1880. 



TYLER BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of thor- 
oughbred Berkshires of stock imported by Gov. Stanford 



BEES. 



J. D. ENAS. Sunnyside, Napa, Cal , Breeds Pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Comb Foundation. 

The American Driven 
WELL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

FOR MINING, IRRIGATION, MECHANICAL 
DOMESTIC & MUNICIPAL PURPOSES 
Send for Circulars. 
B/VBCOCK, HOWARD A CO, 
40 Merchants 1 Exchange San Francisco, Cal, 



The i^resno Colony, 

On the line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and adjoining Fresno City and the Central Colony- 
Has the most favoroble location of any Colony, as well as other superior advantages. Abun- 
dant water secured. Land unsurpassed for Vine Raising and Fruit Culture. Send for Map and 
Circular, or come and examine. Address 

THOMAS E. HUGHES & SONS, Fresno City. Cal. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

«-Free Coach to the House. O. F. BECKER. Proprietor 



JOS. FREDERICKS & CO., 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

CARPETS, FURNITURE, BEDDING, 

Rugs Mats, Linoleum, Oilcloths, Upholstery Goods, Etc. 

Lace Curtains, Window Shades and Draperies, 

649 and 651 Market St., Opposite Kearny, S. P. 



IMPORTANT!!! 

That the public should know that for the past ELEVEN year* our SOLE BUSINESS has been, and now is. importing 
(OVER 100 CARLOADS) and breeding improved Liv« Stock Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrsliires and Jerseys (or 
Aldevneysl and their grades-, also ALL TH It VARIETIES of breeding Sheep and Hogs We an supply any and all good 
animals that may he wanted, and at VERY REASONABhE PRIOF8 and on CONVENIENT TERMS. Write or call on 
us. LICK HOUSE, San Francisco, Cal., October 22, 1881 PETER SAXE & HOMER P. SAXE. 

PETER SAXE & SON 



THE MYERS PLOWS. 

All extras for Patent 

Slip-share Gang Plows, 
SIDE-HILL, SUB-SO L 

AND 

SINGLE PLOWS, 

Constantly on hand and for sale at 

RICE'S EHttlNE WORKS, 

SOLK AOKNCT, 

Nos. 52, 54, 50 and 60 Bluxome St., S. F , Cal. 



S. STEACEY, 

Lockeford, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 



MANUFACTURKK OK ALL KINDS OF 



FARMERS' WAGONS, 

Backboards, Family Buggies 

Of all kinds and sizes. 



Keeps a good supply of well seasoned wood on hand. 
Blacksmithing and painting; departments in connection. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, Id 
the best parts of the State. 

MCAFEE BROTHERS, 

328 Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal 



SANTA CRUZCOUNTY 



Goods Crops every Season without Irrigation 

Farms, Stock Ranches, Dairy Farms, Fruit Farms, 
Vineyards, Chicken Ranches and homesteads of every 
cbiss and description in this and adjoining counties for 
sale or rent on reasonable terms. State requirements 
and obtain suitable particulars from the Real Estate 

EXCHANGE & MART, 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 



Fruit Farm For Sale. 

Containing 24 acres fronting on Davis Avenue, one mile 
noth of tlx- flourishing' town of Los (iatos. Good bouse, 
barn, chicken house ami yard. A good well of soft water; 
j 1,000 fruit trees, assorted, and 550 grape vines, all net out 
lastwnter. About, 50 oak trees, large and small, adds to 
the beauty of the place. This beautiful, healthy place, situ- 
ated iu the charming warm belt climate of the foothills, in 
sold for the want of health and means to carry it on. 
Price, $2,700. Address U W. MoGREW, Los Gatos, Cal 
Reference— Dewey & Co , Rural Press. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

8AN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of SlOO each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $500,000. 

Reserve Fund and Paid ap Stock, 35,760. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLINO Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLLER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS 

JOHN LEWELLING, President Napa Co 

J. H. GARDINER 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. O. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. Mt IrA i: I ! .* Y„io Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

DANIEL RHOADS Mussel Slough, Tulare Co 

O J. CRESSEY Merced Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and oonduoted in the 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS (JN WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER denosifs receiveu 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on de 
mand. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
EoUdinK i/ a per annum if left for 3 months; 5% per annum If 
left for 6 months: 6/ per annum if left for 12 months. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States hought 
and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLLER 
Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1881. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.80 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply u. FALKNER, BELL & CO., 

Sole Agents. 430 California Street, S. F. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH. 

$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is uso- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON. 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



n Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Cards.name 
In gold and jet, 10c. Clinton Brop., Clintonville, Co 



52 



CHOICE FRUIT FARM FOR SALE. 



Located about ij of a mile north of Los Gatos, fronting 
onthecounty road. Containing 12 acres— 20 of which is 
planted to fruit and 10 acres to grapes. All planted out 
last winter and having made a splendid growth. The 
orchard consists of the best varieties of apple, pear, peach 
plum, prune, cherry, apricot and about SO or.insre trees 
Good bouse, barn, chicken and outhouses; 2 wells of 
water. All improvements new. Pnre, 8f),200. 

Address J. B. BIBBEE 



YOSEMITE HOUSE. 

MAIN ST., STOCKTON, CAL. FIRST-CLASS HOUSE 

JAMES CAVIN, Proprietor. 



This House is the Leading Hotel of the City, containing 
al' the modern improvements. Geneial Ticket Office fo 
the Big Trees, Yosemito Valley, Bodic, and General Stage 
OtHi e for all the Southern Moiv.lain Towns. The Yo 
seroitd Coach will convey guests from the boats and ull 
t ains, free of charge 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous "Enterm-ise," 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Hills and Primps are 
reliable and always give a,v 
lsfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings fort hs crank 
to work in, all turned 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mllla Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infer 
■nation 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, 3ICB 

& CO.. 323 & 325 Market Street. 




MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match in 
Stockton in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the buainesB aud know what is required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It Is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and moat desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
doue in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 



Holstein Cattle. 

CLYDESDALE AND HAMBLET0NIAN 

HORSES. 

The largest and deepest milking herd of 
Holsteina In tbe world. 225 head, pure bred, 
mostly imported, males and females of dif- 
ferent ages. 

A Large and elegant stud of imported 
Clydesdale Stallions and Mares of all ages 

Hamhletonhm Stallions and Mares of superior breeding 
Personal inspection invited. Separate catalogues of each 
class, and milk records of cows mailed free on application. 
All inquiries promptly answered. State that you saw 
this advertisement in the Pacific Kuhal Pricks. 

SMITHS &. POWELL, 

Lakeside Stock Farm, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Hunter's Eccentric Patent Coupling. 

For carriages, pumps and whifnetrees and other coup- 
lings. No bolts, no rattling and no unhitchintr. State 
and County rights for tale. Address HUNTER & 
FRANCIS, Merced, Cal. 



52 



J HE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



est fQ? 

wf A TENTS AND INVENTIONS 



List of U. S. 



Patents for Paciflo Coast 
Inventors. 



From the official lint of U. 8. Patents in DeWev «. 
Co. 'a Scientific Press Patent Aoescy, No. 252 Market 
St, S. W. 

For the Week Esdino January 3, 18S2. 
251,819 — Srlf-Closino Stoptkr for Bottles— David 
Berry, Bolinas, Cal. 

I 251,819.— Hydro-Carbon Bi-rnrr— E. A. Edwards, San 
Buenaventura, i al. 

251.857.— S'otk Pipb— A. Flohr, Sacramento, Cal. 

251,715 — Hand Lever Attachment for Steam Pcmps— 
Wm. D Hooker, Oakland, Cal. 

251,902. — kottlb Coolrr — C. H. Laufketter, Sac'mento 

251 909.— Soldering Apparati'8 — Albert Lusk, S. ¥. 

261,780. — Basin Pli-o- J. C. Luding. S. F. 

251,799.— Self-Feeder for Threshers— John Scholl, 
Elk Grove, Cal. 

261 966.— Ticket Holder— Jas. 0. Tait. Stockton, Cal. 

251,984.— Grain Cleaner— Wm. Williamson, Rio Vista. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwisel at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 'a Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Shackle. — James T. Rogers, Westport, Men- 
docino county, Cal. No. 251,464. Dated Dec, 
27, 1881. This invention relates to a new and 
useful device for uniting cables; and it consists 
of an open link, the shanks of which are perfo 
rated, and have extended slots connecting there 
with, through which a bolt passes, said bolt 
bearing a tug or projection at the end opposite 
the head and a rib to Lit between the shanks at 
the link. The bolt passes through the adjacent 
closed link, so that the bolt after being intro- 
duced through it, will be turned by it so that 
its tug and rib will turn away from the slots in 
the shanks of the open link, whereby it will be 
locked in place and retained. The object is to 
provide a convenient and easy connection for 
chains or cables which are fastened to buoys. 
In the ordinary method the bolt is fastened with 
a key, which is separate therefrom and is liable 
to be lost or misplaced at a critical moment. In 
this invention this is obviated by having the bolt 
fastened by the extended rib, which, being con- 
nected therewith, cannot be lost and is operated 
by the cable itself. 

Hydrocarbon Burners. — Evan A. Edwards, 
Sin Buenaventura, Ventura Co., Cal. Dated, 
Jan. 3J, 1882. No. 251,849. This hydrocarbon 
burner is in the class adapted to burn liquid 
fuels and to be attached to steam boilers. It 
consists in a peculiar and novel construction o 
parts, whereby the steam, oil and air open out 
separately from the end of the burner. The 
steam is conducted in a separate passage 
around the oil passage, and allowed to mix with 
and atomize the oil only after said oil has 
passed its valve and is beyond the end of the 
burner — a point of advantage being herein con- 
sidered. Toe air is drawn in through a passage 
made through the valve stem, so that the oil, 
steam and air come together beyond the mouth 
of the burner, and within the combustion 
chamber of the furnace. 

Self closing Stopper for Bottles.— David 
Berry, Bolinas, Marin Co. , Cal. Dated Jan. 3, 
1881. No. 251,819. This invention relates to 
a novel means for closing the mouths of bottles 
without the use of corks or other stoppers; and 
it consists in the employment of a supplemen- 
tal cap, which may be fitted to the mouth or 
neck of any bottle by suitable means, and is 
provided with transversely moving slides, which 
close across the mouth and are operated by clos- 
ing springs and levers, by which they may be 
opened. The device may easily be placed upon 
any bottle or transferred from one bottle to an- 
other. 

Grain Cleaner. — Wm. Williamson, Rio 
Vista, Solano Co., Cal. Dated Jan. 3, 1882. 
No. 251,994. This invention relates to that 
class of agricultural implements known as 
grain cleaners, in which the grain is received 
upon shaking screens and subjected to the 
action of a blast of air from a revolving fan. It 
consists in such a construction of the scretn- 
containing shoe and the means for operating 
it as will impart to the screen a peculiar move- 
ment, very tflective for the purpose. 

Box Fastener. — Charles Martell, Vacaville. 
Dated Dec. 27, 1881. No. 251, 449. The ob- 
ject of this box fastener is to make an easy and 
secure fastening for the lid. It consists in pro- 
viding the ends of the lid with bent clips, 
which fit down in grooves or notches, in the 
ends of the box, and are secured therein by a 
strap and the action of a spring clip. The in- 
vention, though applicable to every form of box, 
is especially lutended for fruit boxes, as com- 
merce demands in that case an easy means for 
securing or removing the lid. 



Amounts of Grain on Hand. 

We give below statements of the amounts of 
grain on hand in California at the beginning of 
the year, as published by the S. F. Produce 
Exchange. We give also the result of a special 
inquiry as to the amouut of wheat by A. Mont- 
pellier, of the Grangers' Bank. It will be 
seen that Mr. Montpellier makes the amount of 
wheat somewhat less than the report by the 
exchange:* 



- rf- r g- oc 



-jpui-juoocw 
tc »-* -3 te '*3 o» 



IB y m te tc 

- — O ii - 



»» i- 

-3 34 W 00 3 

~© cn 7-. b» <s to " 

ei I i; o ■ 



c: >o io - 



*- oi i— -a 



— — tc 

>- Sa * ucctou: 

- - - > - j ) *. 
i*- b '= Vi fa c ts 

» m » isj-wHO 



oicec — 

W tO 30 3< -4 Oi 

*p n ~u to -a -i. -) x 



(X X 00 
v u to 

a a d 



E? 5 rr B 

|?|| 

o xO 



' ? * * D *a 

n; o on 5 

lliii 

<7 p a o s 

a B < » ■ 

&.o-s a 
a.* o-fo. 
" O 



5* > 



"SFf k 

• £ C3 n 

• -i a a 

: * d & 

! <ol5; 
: r 7 ; 

■ m 6» " 

: " 93' 
; p;£ 

• 2 « » : 

. > H _ • 



a 6 i 

i y » a \ 

i- ■ 2.D a 

Sci2< 



gigs! 



2.g 



6.5: 
s 

.- B * 

tef ° 
■ 3 Q 

B ■< o 



it : i 



£ • a o. 

■> • E b I 

~ ■ o*» 

B ° Jj 

*a: So- 



Ot O CX -1 CH S5 

*3D be O «0 "o I 

S e a « at a i 

O 3 C O — M w I 



S - tO ffl 1 
— t;« O — O I 
O « « — <£> jS ic j 



— • f T. 

• sib "« '£ 



at « 



1C U tC tO n> *• 

O ic to o 



■■3 



9*1 3 



) 00 »-* • * 03 



Waeat on Hunci January 1. 1882. 
First Diusion— Shippin? points and central coun- 
ties, San Francioco wareh mses, Oakland wharf, 
ani on boird shipH, Port Cos a warehouses, Val- 
l«j0 warehouses, Alameda county warehouses. . .225,039 
Stcuiid Division— Njrthern counties, Including 
Sacramento vallev east and west, Solano (V lit jo 
njt included). Napa, Son tma, Yolo, Colusa. Te- 
hama. Butte, Sutter, Yuba, Placer, Sacramento 

counties 232,832 

Third Division— San Joaquin valley counticj, Stock- 
ton and San J^aqum county, Stanislaus, Merced, 

Fremiti. Tulare 171,438 

Fourth Division— S tuthern Pacific Road vounties, 

Santa Clara, Sin Btnito and Monterey counties.. 01.102 
Filth Division— Coast counties not Included above 18,084 

Total tons 7C9.095 

Other counties producing hardly enough for home con- 
sumption, have been omitted. 

Albrrt Mo.vtpsi.lier, 
Cashier ,v„l Manager Grangers' Bank . 



Pacific Coast Weather for the Week. 

[Furnished for publication In th"e Press by Nelson Oekom. 
Serirt Signal Service Corps, U. S. A.] 

The following is a summary of the rainfall 
for each day of the week ending Wednesday, 
Jan. 18th, at noon, for the stations named: 



Date- 


■j 
a 
B 

5 


| Portland. 


M 

9 

V 

? 
X 


IS 

5 
■v 

X 


o 
*E 

g 
i 


o 

o 

If 

E 

£ 


4 

> 


to — 
D a. 

J 2 
■< 


o 
oc 
■ 

s 

a 

a 


Thursday 


.00 


.oo 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 


1.53 


Friday 


.00 


.(0 


.00 


.00 


,0« 


.00 


.00 


.04 




Saturday . 






.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 




Sunday . . 


.02 




.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.02 




Monday . . 


.oo 


!oo 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.01 


Tuesduv . 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.oo 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.0( 


.00 


Wed'fd»y 


.06 


.03 


.03 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.w 


.00 


Totuls .. . . 


.07 


03 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


.00 


.Oi 





"Reports missing. 

Dash (— ) signifies too small to measure. 



Attend to This. 

Our subscribers will find the date they have paid to 
printed on the label of their paper. If it is not correct 
or if the paper should ever come beyond the time de- 
sired), be sure to notify the publishers by letter or postal 
card. If we are not notified within a reasonable time we 
cannot be responsible for the errors or omission of agents 



Remittances to this office should bs made by postal or- 
der or registered letter, when practicable; cost of postal 
order, foi $15 or less, 10 cts. ; for registered letter. In ad- 
dition to regular postage (at 3 cts. per half-ounce), 10 cts 

Agents can now grasp a fortune. Outfit worth $10 
H-nt free. Full particulars address E. O. RiDROUT & Co., 
10 BaroUy St., K. Y. 



The Pacific Rural Press 

[Established in San Francisco in 1370.1 

This is the leading fanning journal on thn western half of 
the continent, and second to none in America. It is well 
printed and illustrated, weekly. Contains au unusual amount 
of fresh, oiigiual farm, household and family circle litera- 
ture. Careful attention is patd to giving full and reliable 
weekly market reports. The following are among its ably 
conducted departments: Editorials on agricultural and 
other timely and important subjects of live interest to 
farmers and their families; agricultural, and other useful 
and ornamental illustrations ; cortesponuence from various 
quarters of our new and rich developfog fields of agriculture 
on the Pacific coast, embracing new hints and ideas from 
progressive men and women In all brauchesof rural industry 
Horticulture; Floriculture; The Garden; The Home Circle 
The Grange; Young Folks: Domestic Economy: Go- d Health 
Entomological; Sheep and Wool; The Dairy; The Stock 
Yard; Poultry Yard; The Swine Yard; Hie Apiary; The 
Vineyard; Queries and Keplles; New Inventions iaod illus- 
trations of new and Improved machinery); Agricultural 
Notes; Items of General News, etc. Its columns are stu- 
diously filled with chaste, interesting, fresh and useful read- 
ing, devoid of questionable literature for old or young and 
fancifully alluring clap-trap advertisements. Send for >am 
pie copies. 

Subscriptions, in adrance, 83 a year. Agents wanted, on 
liberal pay Dewrv ft Co., Publishers. 

No. 252 Market 8t.,. 8. F.. Cal. 



Our Agents. 



Oca Friknds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in 
flueuce and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

O. W. McGrbw— Santa Clara county. 

M P Owes— Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wrioiit— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties. 

Jarxd C. Hoao— California. 

B. W. Crowell— Humboldt and Trinity counties. 

D. W. Krllbiibr— Merced, Fresno and San Benito. 

A. C. Knox— State of Nevada. 

Edward A. Weed- San Francisco. 



Volunteor Testimonials of Those Who Have 
Used Booth's Exterminator. 

Cambria, Cal., August 6, 1879. 
A R Booth. — Dear Sir: The case of jour Squirrel 
Poison you sent us is good, and have given entire satis 
faction. Our customers prefer it to any other. Will or' 
der more as Eocn as this is sold Grant, Lull & Co. 



Pirsonb receiving a sample copy of the Pacific 
RrRAL Press mth thin notice marked, are requested 
to examine the merits of the same, and consider fairly its 
claims for support, and if consistent, subscribe for the 
paper through the P. M. or agent delivering it, or other- 
wise. We will send it, on trial, at the rate of S3 per an 
num for any period the reader may wish. Please notice 
our terms elsewhere, and if desired, send for further 
samples and information. Those who can circulate this 
No. further to our ad vantage are invited to do so. 



Important additions are being continually made 
Woodward's Gardena The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receiving accessions of new fish and other 
marine life. The number of sea lions is increased and 
there is a better chance to study their actions. The 
pavilion has new varieties of performances The floral 
department is replete and the wild animals Id good vigor. 
A day at Woodward's Gardens is a day well spent. 

Liverv Stable in Oakland— We call the attention of 
farmers visiting Oakland, and others to hire teams or 
stable teams in Oakland, to the Hay, Sale, Boarding and 
Livery Stable of T. A. Cunningham, 1368 Broadway, 
Oakland. Mr. Cunningham (recently from Haywards 
where he still owus a ranch) has purchased a homestead 
in Oakland, and will do his best to give satisfaction to 
his new customers and old friends who may call. 



St. Jamrs Hotel. First class in every respect' 
When you go to San Jose, take free coach to the 
St. James TYLER BEACH, Proprietor. 



Note— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. KTU 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 18, 1882. 

Trsdc is quiet. Wheat has held its own here, although 
the foreign market showed signs of weakness. The chance 
of a dry year now holds Wheat against all influences. 
Wheat charters are low. There is, however, but very 
little doing owing to the doubt which overhangs the 
market. The litest from abroad is as follows: 

Liverpool, Jan. 17.— Wheat: California spot lots are 
heavy, at 10s 5d@l0s 9i. Cargo lots are easier, at 49iGd 
for just shipped, and 50s CJ for off coast and nearly due. 
Arriva's of off coast are small. Weather in England is 
cool. 

Freights and Charters. 

British ship Royal George, 1,459 tons, wheit or flour to 
Liverpool or Dublin direct, £3 oi. 

The Foreign Review. 

London, Jan. 17 — The Mark Lane Expreit in its re- 
view of the British grain trade for the past week, says: 
Trade is sluggish, farmers' deliveries are diminishing, and 
prices are likely to continue relatively good for round 
samples. The mildness of the season restricts the de- 
mand. Flour is firm; and the provincial markets have 
toned down and trade everywhere very quiet. Of foreign 
Breadstuffs on B| ot>, sales were low an.l supply ample, 
while prices for fine qualities were fully maintained. 
There was a slight decline Friday in other sorts, but 
Ftour was in sufficient quantity to meet the demand, and 
values were unchanged. Maize is quiet and values un- 
changed at 30s. Foreign Barley was unchanged; flue 
parcels sell readily. Oats, dull The off-coast trade was 
quiet, nine cargoes having arrived, of which three were 
sold. The floating bulk is considerably increased, two- 
thirds of it from America. The sales of English wheat for 
the week amoun ed to 47 250 quarters, at 454 Sd per quar- 
ter, against 29,010 quarters at 42s Id per quarter, for the 
corresponding week of last year. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Market. 

Chicago, Jan. 14.— Money flows into the city more rapid 
than it goes out, despite the increased drain for cattle 
and grain. Business generally maintains an even and 
pretty active tenor. The staples sold well with no ripple 
or noteworthy change in any article. On 'Change trading 
has dropped off to almost the minimum. The dealings 
are almost exclusively of a Bcalping nature, and prices 
varied only l}c in Wheat all the week, l}c in Corn, | In 
Oats, 471 in Pork, and 50c in Lard. These fluctuations 



are small, even for the ordinary daily business, and no 
speculation can be expected so long >s such steadiness 
prevails. Sales during the week for the February option 
were: Wheat, *1 2S@I1 29J; Corn. 2ll@25Jc; Oats, 43J<3 
44Jc; P^rk, *17.15@,17j; Lard, «ll 10(|f»ll.86. The clos- 
ing was generally pretty weak. 

Chicago, Jan. 17,— Wheat, active, Arm and higher, at 
«l. 28} ctsh, «1 28}<cttl.28g for Feb. Corn, easy, at 621 
cash, 6i>a for Feb. Pork, Arm and higher, at 117.87$ 
rash, |.'o for Feb. Ltrd. firmer, at 111 cash, 111.05 for 
Feb. Short ribs, *S 70@*8 72J cash, 98 'U'&t& 75 for 

Feb. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston. Jan 14.— There is a steady demand, and the 
market continues to su-tain full prices. Business is 
largely in fi.ie wools, and for them very extreme prices 
continue to be obtained. Sales of the week have been 
2,275.000 lbs of all kinds, and include X and XX fleeces 
at 43@45c. choice XX. 46@47jc, the latter an extreme 
price, although the tendency of all fine wools is 
upward ; Michigan and Wisconsin X, 42<343c, and 
quite firm ; No. 1 Michigan, Wisconsin aud Ohio 
baa been sol I at 46@ 18c, with a steady demand. Comb- 
ing and delaine fleeces are firm, with sales of selec- 
tions at 46@50c. A lot of 20,000 lbs. Australia cross-bred 
Bold at 47c. New wool and fine grade delaine and comb- 
ing are firm. Coarse grades are neglected. Unwashed 
fleeces have been in demand at from 19iS 24c for coarse 
and low; 25@33c for fine; 25@37c for medium, including 
choice st lections. California Wool has been In fair de- 
mand. The most noticeable sale was a lot of 100,000 lbs. 
choice fall at 27c. Pulled Wools are firm, and supers 
range for 30cS.i2Jc, including No. 1 Texas, very choice, 
50(tr52c. Foreign Wool has bean quiet. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, Jan. 17.— The market for wool is steady and 
Arm, with a fair demand for all desirable grades. Holders 
are very indifferent about selling, unless full current rates 
are obtained. Sales of Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces 
hive been male at i :«;-.■ for X,44@l6c for XX and XXX 
and above. Michigan and Wisconsin fleeces 42@«6c for 
X, and firm. No. 1 washed fleeces have been sold for 46 

i- Michigan, Wisconsin and Ohio unwashed Wools 
are in steady demand, and prices Arm. We quote low and 
• oarse at ll>@24c; fine, 15@33c; medium grades, 25@3<c 
V lb., with choice selections at higher prices. Combing 
and delaine Belt ctions are Arm at 45(<r50c. Fine delaine 
and Aae combing, coarse and medium and unwashed 
combing are quiet. California Wool is in demsnd at un- 
changed prices. Pulled Wools are Arm, an l prices have 
been well sustained. We quote choice supers at 45@52}c 
fair to good, 42(S43c, and common 35(tr37c V It.. Foreign 
Wool is firm, but has been quiet. 

BAGS— There is nothing new in the Bag market. 

BEANS— There has been some trade but prices have 
not changed excepting a rise in Pea aud White to 94 to 
$t.05 V ctl. 

BARLEY— Barley has gone forward again. It is plain 
that all on hand will be called for, and holders are Arm. 
We note sales: 200 sks coast brewing, 91 70, and 1,700 do 
dark coast feed at 91 021. 

CORN — Corn is strong and qniet, there being no imme- 
diate demand. Sales of Round Yellow have been made at 
91.75 V ctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCE. — Butter is more abundant and 
lower, nothing but the fancy lots bringing 8?^c. Cheese 
has gone to 18©20c, and there Is little of It. 

EGGS— Eggs are still cheaper as bens are gttting down 
to business again. Pri cs 30@31c at present. 

FEED— Hay begins to feel the chance of drouth and has 
advanced to 915 for the bes'. Ground Feeds are also sym- 
pathetic, the m Hers having advanced Cornmeal, Bran 
and Middlings, as shown in our list. 

FRUIT— Choice Apples are scarce. Oranges are a»> .ut 
the same as last week. California Lemons are doing bet* 
ter and some choice Limes are selling well. 

FRESH MEAT— The Mutton corner Is working. Prices 
are now higher for this meat than for years, having gone 
to Miofljc; the latter for "spring lamb." Beef is uu 
changed. 

HOPS— There is no change here. The latest from New 
York by mail is the Producers' Price Current of Jan. "'• 

The market has been quiet for a few days 8tocks here 
are light, and holders have gene'ally strengthened their 
views, hut the sales roported are still within range of last 
quotations. Brewers do not materially raise their 
bids, and the lots which have been offerit g 
at prices within their limits have been pretty much 
alt taken off the market. Dea'ers will psy quotations 
« here quality runs high for the price asked. Exporters 
are stilt forwarding goods moderately, though we htar 
of few sales t > them here. The interior markets are re- 
ported quiet, with prices rather weak for actual business. 
Last London advices report a tl w trade In medium and 
choice Hops, but a fair Inquiry for lower grades. 

OATS— Oats are still Armly held and rates are blgb, as 
shown in our list. 

ON ION3- Unchanged. 

POTATOES— Potatoes have been the sensation of the 
week, and are now way up; Petaluma and Tomales having 
gone to 92. Some Oregons came but are all sold. The 
report is that the country is thort of "spuds." 

PROVISION'S — The trade is quiet and steady, with a 
firm feeling, owing to the high price of hogs. Prices ore 
unchanged. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Turkeys are again down to 
10@12Jc ptr lb. Young Roosters sell well, but Fowls gen- 
erally are a little easier. 

VEGETABLES— There Is no change. 

WHEAT— Prices are the same as last week. About 1,- 
000 tons No. 1 sold at 91.67}. There Is but little dolDg 

WOOL— There is nothing new in the market. Every- 
thing of fanoy quality is said to have ^one forward. Talk 
of a short spring clip, owing to the drouth, la now the 
chief work of the Wool dealers. 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

[WHOLESALE. 1 

Weonesday If., January la, 1882. 
FBI IT MARKET. 



Apples, bx - 75 @ 2 0) 

Bananas, bnch,. 2 5o «r 4 W) 
Cocoanuts. 100.. 6 00 (ft 7 00 
Cranberries, bbl. 14 00 (rtlG 00 
Limes, Mei ...10 00 <« 12 00 
de, Cal, box..- 75 3 50 
Lemons, Cal. bx 1 50 «» 3 60 
Sicily, box ... 6 60 S 7 60 

Australian.... (* 

Oranges. Cal. bx.l 50 <« 5 00 

do, Tahiti M @ 

do, Mexican. 15 00 «r20 00 

do, Lore to... @ 

Pears, bx. — 75 (g 1 00 

riueapples. doz 7 00 (3 8 00 

lii:ll l> ll:lll 
Apples, slice<l. ttt — 6 6 





11 


«*- 


in 




14 


&— 




Pears, sliced....— 


a 


9- 






7 






6 




6 


Pitted — 


13 


m- 


14 




9 


*»— 


u» 


Ralsitn. Cal, bx.— 




* 


?5 


do, Halves — 




1 1 


00 


do, Quarters..— 




vl 3 


26 


Eighths — 




@ 3 


60 


Zante Currants. — 


8 




10 



> I I.I I till I - 

Artichokes, doz.— — Wp — 60 

Beets, ctl ®— 85 

Cabbage, 100 lbs— 75 Iff 1 00 

Corrors, sk — 30 (<r— SO 

Cauluiower, doz— 85 ® 1 00 



I1C1 

do. quartered...— 6 tg— 5) Garlic Si — lt.(rf- 

Apricots — 16 - 17 'Lettuce, doz — 10 @ 

Blackberries....— 14 6J— 16 Mushrooms, fb..— — *»>— IS 

Citron — 28 (tt— » lOkra, ttt — 5 S— i 

Dates — 8 *»— 10 I Parsulpa, lb (g— | 

Fias, pressed — 4 ttt — 6 j Squash, Marrow 

do, loose - H«*- 6 fat, ton 10 00(812 00 

Nectarines — 14 ®— 15 Turnips, ctl #— 78 



January 21, 1882 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5. 



General Merchandise. 



WHOLESALE. 



Crystal Wax 16 <»18 

Paraffioe 20 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 —28 

CANNED ftOODS. 

Assrtd Pie Fruits. 

21 lb cans 2 25 

Table do 3 5C @ — 

Jams and Jellies. i 75 ® — 
Pickles, hf gal.... 3 25 <a — 
Sardines, qr box. .1 67 @ — 

Hf Boxes 2 50i@l 90 

Merry. Faull & Co.s 
Preserved Beef 

2tb, doz 3 £5 @3 — 

do 4 lb doz 6 50 @6 — 

Preserved Mutton 

2 lb. doz 3 25 <»3 50 

Beef Tongue 5 75 @6 00 

Preserved Ham, 

21b. doz 5 50 @5 60 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 3 00 <»3 50 

do Ham Jtt>doz2 50 @ — 
Boneless Pigs Feet 

3ttw 3 50 @3 75 

2 lbs 2 75 @ — 

Sniced Fillets 2 lbs3 50 @ — 
Head Cheese3tbs.3 50 (ft — 

t)«»AL— Jobbing. 
Australian, ton. — @ 8 50 

Ooos Bay 6 50 @ 7 50 

Bellingbam Bay - (ft — 

Seattle 7 00 @ — 

- (513 00 



2 00 
4 00 



4 00 



(ft 9 00 
@ 8 50 



« - 



- @ 22J 



Cumberland. 

Mt Diablo 

Lehigh 

Livernool 

West Hartley. 

Scotch 

Scranton 

Vancouver Id.. 

Wellington — @ 9 00 

Charcoal, sack.. — @ 

Coke, bush — @ 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id lb. — (ft 

Costa Rica 12 @ 

Guatemala 12 @ 

Java 18 <» 

Manilla 15 & 

Ground, in cs . . . 

FISH. 

Sac'toDryCod. @ — 5 

do in cases.. @ — 5i 

Eastern Cod...— 7 «t — 7i 
Salmon, bbls... 7 00 @ 7 50 

Hf bbls 3 50 <B 4 00 

1 lb cans 1 12i<a 1 22 J 

Pkld Cod, bbls. <» 

Hf bbls @ 

Mackerel, No. 1 

Hf bbls 9 50 @ 10 00 

In Kits 1 75 <& 1 85 

Ex Mess 3 50 @ 4 00 

Pickled Herring. 

box 3 00 @ 3 50 

Boston Smoked 

Herring 65 @ — 70 

LI.HE, etc. 
Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills. ... 3 00 3 25 
Land Plaster, 

ton 10 00 @ 12 50 

Lime, 8nta Cruz 
bbL 1 25 @ 1 50 



Wednesday m., January 18. 1882. 
Cement, Rosen- 
dale 1 75 @ 

Portland 3 75 @ 

NAILS. 
Assrtd sizes, keg.3 75 <l 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No.1.1 00 @1 00 

Castor, No. 1 — (ctl 05 

d.>, No. 2 — @ 95 

Baker's A A — (ffll 30 

Olive, Plagnoil...5 25 <&5 75 

Possel 4 75 @>5 25 

Palm, lb 9 @ — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl — (8 60 

Boiled — (ft 65 

Cocoanut 60 @ — 

China nut, cs BS «' 69 

Sperm 1 40 @ — 

Coast Whales 35 @ — 

Polar — <S — 

Lard — @1 00 

Petroleum (110°).. 18 @ 22 
Petroleum (If 0°).. 28 @ 35 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 72@ 8 

Whiting lj<a — 

Putty 4 ® 5 

Chalk H<a — 

Paris White 2S« — 

Ochre 3}<» — 

Venetian Red 3i@ — 

Averil ruixd Paint 
gal 

White & Tints. .2 00 @2 00 
Green, Blue and 

Ch Yellow 3 00 <a3 50 

Light Red 3 00 @3 10 

Metallic Roof ..1 30 @1 60 
RICE. 
China Mixed, lb.. 4|@ 5 

Hawaiian 4l@ 5 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton... 14 00 @22 00 

Common 6 50 @14 00 

Carmen Id 14 00 @22 CO 

Liverpool tine. .14 00 (3>20 CO 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 9 @ 10 

Common brands.. 4J@ 6 

Fancy Brands 1 (ft 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 37 J@> 40 

Cassia 19 (S> 20 

Nutmegs 85 @> 90 

Pepper Grain 15 @ 16 

Pimento 16 @ 17 

Mustard, Cal i lb 

Glass — @1 25 

Sl«. W£, ETC 



— @ 

— (S 

— W 



65 cos 
25 @ 



Cal. Cube lb 

Powdered 

Fine Crushed 

Granulated 

Golden O 

Cal Syrup, kgs 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 
TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 

Country pkd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 

Hyaon 30 @ 

Fcoo-ChowO 27S@ 

Japan, medium. . . 35 @ 



40 @ 65 



35 m 



Leather. 

[WHOLESALE.] 

Wednesday, m., January 18, 1882. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 30 @ 32 

Light 25 @ 28 

Jodot, 8 to 10 Kil., doz 36 00 @M 00 

11 to 13 Kil 50 00 taf.O 00 

14 to 16 Kil 65 00 (S72 00 

Second Choioe, 11 to 16 Kil 40 CC (<r65 00 

Slmou Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 52 00 (*5i; 00 

11 to 15 Kil 60 00 <a-'4 00 

16 to 17 Kil 66 00 f>t;s 00 

Simon, 18 Kil («>57 00 

20 Kil (3W0 00 

24 Kil «*65 00 

Kips, French, lb — 85 (ft 1 20 

Ca' doz 55 00 i860 00 

French Sheep, all colors 12 00 <ai5 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs. )b 1 00 (Si 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 CO (frin 00 

For linings 6 50 (nMO (0 

Oal. Russet Sheep Linings 3 00 @ 5 CO 

Boot Legs, Frenoh Calf, pair <a> 4 50 

Good French Calf W 4 00 

Best Jodot Calf 4 75 & 5 00 

Leather, Harness, lb 35 (ft 40 

Fair Bridle, doz 45 00 (966 00 

Skirting, lb 33 O 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 (g36 00 

Buff, ft 17 «? 20 

Wax Side 19 @ 20 



Retail Groceries, Etc. 



WEr.N 



Butter. California 

Choice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Eaetrrn 

Flour, ex. fm. bbl. .8 

Corn MVal, lb 

Sugar, wh crushd. 

Light Brown... 
Coffee, Green .... 
Tea. * ine Black. . 

Finest Japan. .. 
Candles. Adm'te.. 
Soap. Cal 



45 @ 55 
17 (ft 25 
25 (a 30 
— @ 18 
20 @ 25 
00 («9 00 

2J<a 3 
12i@ 131 

8 <o? 95 
23 @ 35 
50 @1 00 
55 @1 00 
15 ® 25 

7 ^ 10 



esday M. January 

Rice 

Yeast Powdr, doz. 1 
Can 0>sters, doz. 2 
Syrup S F &old'n. 
Dried Apples, lb. . 
Ger. Prunes. . . . 

Figs, Cal 

Peaches 

Oils, Kerosene 

Wines. Old Port.. 3 

French Claret 1 

Cal. doz bot 2 

Whisky, O K. gal 3 
French Brandy. ..4 



18, 1882. 

8 (<* 10 
50 m 00 
00 (63 00 
75 (81 10 
10 @ 15 
12*'<* 20 

9"^ 10 
15 @ 25 
50 (a 60 
50 m CO 

oo m 50 

<K. @4 50 
50 (o55 00 
00 @8 00 



Bags and Bagging. 

(JOBBING PRICES.] 

Wednesday m., January 18, 1882. 



Eng Standrd Wheat. . 8J<a 9 

Cal Manufacture 

Hand Sewed, 22x36 . 83(<* 9 

20x36 8J<a 83 

23x10 12 @I3 

24x10 12JC<*13} 

Machiue Swd 22x36. 84® 9 

Flour Sks, halves 9JO10J 

Quarters 6 (a 65 

Eighths. 4K<* <S 

Hessian. 60 inch — wli 



45 inch 91(3 9 

40 inch 8}® 8; 

Wool Sks Hand Swd 

3j lb - (847 

4 lb do 525@55 

Machine Sewed — 6*49 J 

Standard Gunnies.. ..18^19 

Bean Bags 6i@ 7 

Twine, Detrlck's A. . .32i(a3!i 
AA.35@37 



Signal Service Meteorological Report 

8*J» Fbancisco.— Week ending Janua'y 17, 1862. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMETER. 



Jan. 11 


Jan. 12 


Jan. 13 


Jan. 14 Jan. 15t 


Jan. 161 


Jan. 17 


30.319 


30.037 


30.0(9 


3".087 30.030 


30.32s! 


30 380 


30.037 


29.958 


29.894 


29 92i| 29 8401 


29 9301 


30.249 




MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM THERMOMETER. 




50 




51 I 


Z0 | 50 1 


55 


52 


43 




40 1 


41 I 39.5 1 


45 


42 






MEAN DAILY HUMIDITY. 






51 


30 : 


35 | 


43 I 78.7 


43 


81.3 






PREVAILING WIND, 






NW 


N I 


N I 


N 1 N 


SE 


W 




WIND— MILES TRAVELED. 






376 


1 490 | 


415 | 


139 I 98 I 


207 


133 






STATE OF WEATHER. 






Fair. 


Clear. I 


Clear. I 


Clear. 1 Clear. 1 


Clear. 


1 Clear 




RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 





Domestic Produce. 



WHOLESALE. 



BEANS A PEAS 

Bayo, ctl 1 75 @2 25 

Butter. 3 00 <»3 25 

Castor 3 50 (31 00 

Pea 4 00 @4 05 

Red 1 75 m 8) 

Pink 1 75 ^1 85 

Large White 3 00 @3 25 

Small White 4 00 @4 05 

Lima — (84 00 

Field f-eas.b'lkeyel 50 @1 75 
do, green.. 2 00 @2 25 
BROOM COUNT 

Southern 3 @ 3i 

Northern 4@ 6 

CIIICCORV. 

California 4 (8) 4 

German 6J@ 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb. 23 (8) 30 

do Fancy Brands. — (8 32 

Pickle Roll 25 @ 27 

Firkin, new 25 @ 



Wednesday m., Janua y 18. 1882. 



20 @ 25 



18 @ 
31 @ 



@ 30 



Eastern 

New York 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, CaL, lb. . . 

EGGS. 

Cal. Fresh, doz. . . 

Ducks 

Oregon 

Eastern, by expr*ss 

Pickled here 

Utah 

FEED. 

Bran, ton - — @18 00 

Corn Meal @37 00 

Hay 10 00 (*15 00 

Middlings @27 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. (g25 00 

Straw, bale — 62i@— 675 

i i on: 

Extra, City Mills.. 5 25 @5 625 

do, Co'ntryMills.4 75 @5 00 

do, Oregon 4 75 @5 125 

do, Walla Walla. 4 50 (85 00 

Superfine 3 50 (»4 25 

FRESH MEAT. 

Beef, 1st qual'y.lb. 6J<9 8 

Second 55(8 6: 

Third 4 <a 4 

Mutton 8 @ 8 

Spring Lamb 9 @ 9 

Pork, undressed.. 5J@ 6 

Dressed 9 @ 9 

Veal 6ito 7 

Milk Calves 7i@ 8 

do, choice. ... — @ 8 
I. It 1 1 > , ETC. 

Barley, feed. ctl. .1 65 @1 67J 

do, Brewing.. 1 70 ">1 75 

Chevalier 1 65 icbl 70 

do, Coast .1 50 <8>1 60 

Buckwheat — (8)1 50 

Corn, White 1 65 @l 75 

Yellow 1 65 <ai 75 

Small Round.... 1 65 (81 75 

Oats 1 70 (81 775 

Milling 1 80 ®1 90 

ye 2 00 (8)2 12£ 

Wheat, No. 1 1 67J@1 70 

do, No. 2 1 60 (8)1 65 

do. No. 3 1 45 @1 BO 

Choice Milling.. — @1 70 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry — <8) 

Wet salted 9J@ 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 23 @ 

Honey in comb. . . 15 (» 
Extracted, light. . 9 @ 
do. dark.. 7J@ 
HOPS. 

Oregon 20 <» 

California, now... 25 @ 

Wash. Ter 23 (8) 

Old Hops — @ 

NUTS— .lobbing. 

Walnuts, Cal 10 (8) 11 

do. Chile . . . 7J@ 8 

Almonds, hdshltb 8 (8> 10 

Soft shell 14 & 15 

Brazil 10 @ 11 

Pecans 13 @ 15 



Peanuts 6 @ 65 

Filberts. 14 # 15 

ONIONS. 

Red — (8) — 

Silvei skin. 60 @ 85 

Oregon — @ — 

POTATOES. 

Early Rose 1 35 (81 f0 

Petaluma.ctl 1 '/5 (82 00 

Tomales 1 67 @2 CO 

Humboldt — @ — 

Kidney — @ — 

Peachblow.. — @ — 

Jersey Blue — <&> — 

Cuffey Cove — @ — 

River, red — @1 50 

Chile — @ — 

do, Oregon — (ft — 

Sweet 1 00 @1 25 

TOI LTRY A «; U1K. 

Hens, doz 5 00 # 7 00 

Roosters 4 00 @ 7 50 

Broilers 4 00 @ 6 50 

Ducks, tame, doz.C 00 (it 7 50 

Mallard — & 3 00 

Sprig 1 50 @ 1 75 

Teal 75 @ 1 00 

Widgeon 1 00 (8)1 12J 

Geese, pair 1 75 (82 CO 

Wild Gray, doz. 2 00 (82 50 

White do — C81 50 

Turkeys 10 @ 12 

do, DresBed 10 @ 12J 

Turkey Feathers, 
tail and wing, lb. 10 @ 20 

Snipe, Eng 2 00 (82 25 

do, Common.. 50 @ 75 

Quail, doz 1 CO (81 25 

Rabbits 1 00 @1 50 

Hare 2 00 (32 25 

Venison 5 «t 7 

fKOVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 13 (S> 

Medium 12 \ (ft 

Light , 13 (8 

Lard 13 @ 

Cal. Smoked Beef. HJ(g 

Shoulders 95@ 

Hams, Cal 125(8 

Dupee's 16 @ 

Whittaker 16 (0 

Royal 16 (a 

Stewart 16 @ 

Eaatlake 16 S 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 12 (g 13 

do Chile — @ — 

Canary 3i(» 4 

Clover. Red 14 @ 15 

White 45 @ 50 

Cotton — @ 20 

Flaxseed 2J@ 3; 

Hemp — @ 5 

Italian Rye Grass.. 25 @ — 

Perennial 25 @ — 

Millet, German.... 10 @ 12 
do, Common ... 7 (ft 10 
Mustard, White... Ijij 2i 

Brown 25@ 3 

Rape 25(8 2J 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @> 25 

2d quality 16 @ 18 

Sweet V Grass — (d 75 

Orchard 20 O 25 

Red Top — @ 15 

Hungarian S w 10 

Lawn 30 @ 40 

Mesquit 10 @ 12 

Timothy 9 <8> 10 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tt> 6 @ 65 

Refined 95® 10 

WOOL, ETC. 

FALL— 1881. 

San Joaquin 9 @ 14 

do, Lamb.... 13 (8> 15 

Southern Fall 9 (ft 12 

do lambs' 13 @ 11 

Northern, free 16 @ 20 

do. defective.. 14 & 16 

Mountain, free 16 (ft 18 

do. sligh f ly seedy. 13 @ 15 
Humboldt & Men- 
docino 18 @ 21 



Commission Merchants. 



J. P. HULME. © 

Wool and Grain 

Corr\missioii Merchants. 

10 Davis Street, near Market 

SAN FBANCISCO. 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers In all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Btc. 

404 and 406 Davta St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



jtSTLiberal advances made on all consignments, and 
inpt personal attention given to all tales. 



WOOL and GRAIN. 

J. H. C0NGD0N & CO, 

Produce & General Commission Merchants 

6 STUART ST , COR. MARKET, S. F. 
Orders for Goods not in our line will be carefully pur- 
chased by experienced buyers. Rinch Supplies and i he 
best Sacks and Twine. Tolncco, Sheep Dip", etc , fur- 
nished to customers Doing business exclusively on com- 
mission. Liberal advances made on consignments at 
low rates of interest. Personal attention given all con- 
signments. We are agents for the 

PARADISE MILLS FLOUR. 

The lowest priced first-class Family Flour in the market 
—try it All orders from the interior promptly filled. 



I 



I 



I 



I 



Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1881, 7.01 inches. 



L. G. SRESOVICH & CO., 

Importers, Wholesale Dealers, and Commission Merchants 

FOREIGN AND 

DOMESTIC FRUITS 

—ALL KINDS OF— 

GREEN AND DRIED FRUITS, 

Walnuts, Brazil Nuts, Pecan Nuts, Filberts, Pea 
nuts, Almonds, Dates, Etc. 
505 & 507 SANSOME ST., N1ANTIC BUILDING, S. F. 

Packing House of all kinds of Green Fruits in Paper, 
Third and Fourth Sts.. bet. Julian and Empire, San Jose. 
Branch house in Honolulu. H. I. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants, 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



PETER MEYER. LOUIS MEYER. 

MEYER BROS. & CO., 

—IMPORTERS AND— 

Wh-olesale Grocers, 

— AND DEALERS IN— 

TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

412 FRONT STREET, 

Front Street Block, bet. Clay & Washington, San Francisco 
IS" Special attention given to country traders. JEJ 
P. O. Box 1940. 



COSTIGAN, COHEN & CO- 
COMMISSION 

drain and Wool Brokers. 

OFFICE i — 28 California St.. San Francisco 

REFERENCE— LAZARD FRERES, BANKERS. 



HATCH & BARCLAY, 

Corr\missior\ Merchants, 

(Members of San Francisco Produce Exchang 
20 California Street, Ban Francisco. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 76 Warren Street, New York 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rbfkbknces. — Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell- 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.;C. W. Reed; Sarra- 
mento, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, Ctl. 



1882. 

Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 

The Steamships of this Company will fail from SAN 
FRANCISCO during the year 1882 as follows: 

From wharf, corner of First and Brannan Sts., 
Hour of departure, 9 p M., 

For Yokohama and Hong Kong. 

CITY OF PF KING, CITV OF TOKIO, 

February 11, July 29 January 7, June 22 

May 6, October 19 April 1. Sept. 13, Dec. 5 

Connecting at Yokohama with Steamers of the Uitsu 
Bishi Co for Hiogo, Nagasaki and Shanehae. Excursion 
tickets to Yokohama and return at special rates. 

For Sydney and Auckland 



Via 
Honolulu 



CITY Of NEW YORK CITY OK SYDNEY 



March U'h 
July 1st 

October 21st. 



ZEa.I_,ANDIA. 



April 8tb. 
July 29th. 

November 18th. 



January 14th, 

May 6tb, August 26th, 
December 16tb. 



AUSTRALIA. 



February 11th, 

June 3d, 
September 23d. 



Round the World Trip, via New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia, $650- 

For New York, v a Panama. 

ON THE 4th AND 19th OF EVERY MONTH, 
At 12 o'clock, noon. Taking Passengers and freight for 
Mexicin, Central Ameri' an and South Ameiicin ports, 
for Havana and all West India ports; for Liverpool, Lon- 
don and Southampton; for St Naziire, and for Hamburg, 
Bremen and Antwerp 

WILLIAMS, mmiomi & in., Uen'l Agents. 



F. MASSELL & CO., 
Sign and OrDamental Painters, 

Removed to NO 434 PINE ST.. S. F. 
(Opposite their old stand.) 



ciejvtific Ire so 



BUY LAND 



Where you can get a crop every year; 
where you will make something every 
season; where you are sure of having a crop 
when prices are high; where you have a 
healthy place to live; where you can raise 
semi-tropical as well as other fruits; where 
you can raise a diversity of grain and vege- 
tables and get a good price for them. Go 
and see the old Reading Grant (in the 
upper Sacramento Valley), and you will 
find such land for sale in sub-divisions to 
suit purchasers — at reasonable rates and 
on easy erms. Send stamp for map and 
circular to Edwap.d Frisbie, proprietor, 
(on the Grant), Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 



c " 
O- 3 
CD -• 

O 

§• 
0) 

& 3 

a 2. 

7 8 



< O 

o o 

-h 3" 

a* 
■ o 

Is 

2? 

o 9- 

00 (A 



05 



r+ X . 

»i § m 

■ o ^ > 

- ~* S r* 

3- 3 (JQ 11 

B 5 o 

W £ N 

V „ rnrnn 
* < 3 

• I'S - : 

r* Z. O — • f" 



o 

70 



0) ^ (A ^ 

c 3- 2 

0) CO <D «■ 



Register Your 
TRADE 




MARKS 

Through Dewey & Co.'s Scien- 
tific Press Patent Agency, No. 
252 Market St., cor. Front, S. F. 



GRAPE CUTTINGS. 

Gray KIcs' ing (will yie'd 70 lb', to the vine if trained 
higj). Zi' fiudel, Oolden Chas-e'as, Black Malvji'ie, Whita 
Rieslinp. Berger, M's&ion, Musca'elle, Ma'aga, Muscat of 
Alexandria. Rose if Peru Black Hamburg Tokay, etc. All 
from healthy, well ripened wood. per 1,000. 

FRUIT TREES. 

Full assortment of beet varieties for family orchard. 
EartlettPe rs. 1 year, $25 per 100; 2-year, $32.50 pe r 100. 
Sp eodid trees and good roots. 

JAPANESE CHESTNUTS, 75 cts. each. Nut larger 
than Italian, and sweeter than Aine'iean; tree hardy. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, Etc. 

Evergreens, includim; Graf(e<l Magnolias, bloom- 
inc. 82,a0 each. Also, Elms, Maples, Catalpas. Tulip Tree, 
Mulb. rry, and many o' heis. 

Trees all healthy and free from disease. 

LEONARD COATE8, Box 2, Napa City, Cal. 



No 252 Market Street, Q p 
Elevator, 12 Front St., O. It 



BOONE & MILLER, 

Attorneys & Counsellcrs-at-Law, 

Rooms 7, 8 and 9 

No- 320 California Street. S. F„ 

(Over Wells, Fargo k Oo.'s Hank.) 

Special Attention Paid to Patent 
Law. 

jj. B.— l^r J. L. Boone, of the above firm, has been con- 
nected with the patent business for over 15 y ars. and de- 
votes himself almost exclusively to patent litigation and 
kindred branches. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending December 31st. 1881, the 
Board of Directors of TU»: UERMaN SAVINGS AND 
LOAN SOCIETY has deel ired a dividend on Term De- 
posits it the rate of Five (5) per cent, per annum, and on 
Ordinary Deposits at the rate of four and one-sixth (4 16) 
per cent, per annum, free from Fedeml T»x"P, and paya- 
ble on and after the ()th day of January, 1882 By order, 
GEO. LhTTK, Secretary. 



AMERICAN 



MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS] 

All kinds of Light Iron and Wood Work, Including Pat- 
terns, Gear Cutting, Planing. Engine, Musical Instruments 
and other repairing. Dies, Tans, Reamers, etc., a specialty. 

HEALD & BANKS. Proprietors. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Importer and Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Poultry. Brahmas, Cochins, Lang- 
shans, Plymouth Rocks, Polands, Uamburgs, Leghorns, 
Dorkings, Black Spanish, White Holland and Bronzo 
Turkeys, Toulouse and Embden Geese, White Guineas, 
etc. Kggs and Fowls for sale. Send for price list. 



54 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



GEO. BULL & CO., 

—IMPORTERS OF— 

Agricultural Implements. 

AND SOLE AGENTS FOR THE 

J. I. CASE T. M. CO.'S 

Celebrated Straw and Wcod-burning En- 
gines, Separators and Horse-Powers. 

Also a complete assortment in stock of the J. L CASE 
PLOW CO "S Center and Side draft Wood and Steel-beam, 
Racine Chilled, Breaking, Vineyard, Sulky and OaiiK 
Plows and Harrows. 

Every plow or implement sold is warranted to give un- 
exceptional satisfaction, or m^ney refunded. Send for 
Catalogue and Price List, or call and examine stock and 
prices at the store, 

No. 31 Market St., S. F. 

BRANCH HOUSE, 

332 Market St., San Jose, Cal. 
^Special inducements offered to Dealers, Farmers and 
Ranchers. 



Moore's Prepared 




The most successful Poison in use for Squirrel Killtif 

C. E. WILLIAMS & CO , Proprietors, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 

Moore's Sulphur Dip; Safe, Sure and Cheap prepara- 
tion for the cure of Scab in Sheep. 



PETALUMA INCUBATOR. 

(Illustrated in Ri kal Pkkss, Dec. 3, 1SS1.] 

Awarded the first premium over the Axford or National 
and others at the Petaluma fair of 1881. 

Furnishing ample heat, easily managed and nothing to 
get out of order. 

PRICES : 

200 Egg capacity $60.00 

300 Egg capacity 75 OO 

0C0 Egs; '^capacity 9 J 00 

I. L. DIAS. 
Manufacturer and Proprietor, 
Box 242, Petaluaia, Ca). 
WIESTER & CO., 17 New Montgomery St., S. F. . Agt's 




EGGS TO HATCH 

From the following varieties: 

LAN GS HANS, 

Black Cochins, Plymouth Rocks, 
Brown and White Leghorns, Touloure 
Oeese and Pekin Ducks. 

My breeding yards are composed of 
selected birds from the leading strains 
mated to secure the best results. 

Fair dealiiur and satisfaction guaran- 
teed. Correspondence promptly an- 
swered. Send for cireularand prices. 

CEO. TREFZER, Napa City, Cal. 

LAUREL RANCH! 

Thoroughbred 

Spanish Merino 

SHEEP. 

We offer for sale 400 HEAD OF YOUNG EWES AND 
RAMS. Prices always reasonable and terms liberal. Qual- 
ity and condition superior to any flock in this State. 

J. H. STROBBIDGE, Haywards, Alameda Co. 

E. W. PEET. Agent. 




Whitmore's Improved Gear, 



ADA1TKD TO 



Buckwagons, Buggies and Light Business 
Wagons. 

Weight carried to the extremities of the Axles. Long, 
soft, double sweep springs. No siue sway or pitching 
motion. It is jointed, relieving all strain. 

E. Will .MORE, Makkk, 
• 1507 Polk St., San Francisco, Or Charles Whitmore 
Traveling Agent for the Pacific Coat t. 



Harvey'sHot- Water Radiator 

For Warming and Ventilating Private 
Residences and Public Buildings. 

Introduced into TEN PUBLIC BUILDINGS and ovei 
FORTY PRIVATE RESIDENCES the past year with satis- 
factory results. Less attention and less fuel required to 
heat 4 rooms with this system than would warm 1 room 
with the open grate. Highest testimonials. Address 
C. D. HARVEY, 
213 Mission St., bet. Main and Beale, S. F 
Residence, 1227 Eleventh Avenue, East Oakland 

Aft Comic Transparent Cards, name on, 10 cents or 50 
~U fine Chromos, 10 cents, Wise k Co., Ciintonvil'lc, Ct. 



1881. THE H. C. SHAW 1881 




AND EXTRAS. 



GANG PLOWS 

No. 201 and 203 El Dorado Street, .... . Stockton. 

THE STOCKTON GANG PLOW, 

Over 2,000 of H. C. Shaw's Improved Patent Stockton Gang Plows Sold in Five Years 

Caiioon and Gem Seed Sowers, Harrows, Etc. Extras for all Plows and Machines I have sold for the past 
TWENTY YEARS In this valley. fVSend for Circular and price list. Always on hand a full stock of Single Plows. 
Hare used these Gangs for over 15 years. Now using 70. Adapted to all soils— Jou.x W. JoHBS, Atlanta, San 

Joaquin Co., Cal. 



Nathaniel Onrry & Bro., 

^13 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 



w. 




AGENTS FOK 

W. Greener's Celebrated Breech 
Loading Double Guns. 



FULL STOCK OF COLTS, PARKER AND REMINGTON GUNS, SHARPS, BALLARD, WINCHESTER, 
KENNEDY, MARLIN, and REMINGTON SPORTING RIFLES; PISTOLS OF ALL KINDS. . 
Ammunition in quantities to suit A liberal discount to the trale. Price List on Application 



TDEWE"2" &; CO.'S 



Scientific Press 




Patent Agency. 



[ESTABLISHED 1860.1 
Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and Agents in Wash- 
ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edi- 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we have 
other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other Agencies. The 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enableB us often to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice tent 
froe on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 252 -Market St., 8. F. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWRR. (JKO. H. STRONG. 



HENRY T. GULLIXSON <fc CO , 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

CARPETS. OIL-CLOTHS, LINOLEUM, UPHOLSTERY 
GOODS, LACE CURTAINS, CORNICES, Etc. 



Orders from the Interior promptly filled, and goods seut C. O. D. 



6U0 Market St., Opposite the Palace Hotel, 



San Francisco. 



Woolsey's Steam Generator and Power 
and Steam Cheese Vat for Ranch- 
men and Dairies. 



This is the Cheapest and Hest Steam Generator over 
invented; and the cheese vat is so constructed that the 
temperature MB he kept even and steady. 



WOOLSEY'S TARPOLA GOPHER TRAP, 

never fails to kill all varmints when properly set. Price 
12.60. WOOLSEY'S IMPROVED LAWN 
SPRINKLER, Cheapest and Hest in use. Price, *5, 
Address JOHN S. WOOLSEY, Inventor and Manufac- 
turer, Gilroy, Cal. 



Thoroughbred Jersey Bull 

FOR SALE. 

Four years old. Perfectly gentle. Pedigree can be had 
on application. W. AITKEN, 

Healdabury, Cal. 



H 

* ™^ w Imp 



C A Landscape, Chromo Cards, etc. , name on, 10a 20 Gilt 
OU Edited Cards, 10c. Clinton & Co., North Haven; Ct 



H. WILSON & SON, 

513 Clay St., S. P. 

Importers and Dealors in Guns, Rifles 
Pistols, and Fishing Tackle, etc. 



FELIX GILLET'S 

NURSERIES, 

Nevada City, - - California. 



SPECIALTIES Nats of all klntls (Walnuls, 
Chestnuts, Almonds and Filberts.) 

FRCEPARTURIENS. 

Or early bearing Walnut, introduced into California from 
Europe In the sprkg of 1871 by Felix Gillet, of Nevada City. 




The points of superiority which the Pneparturiens possess 

are: 

first It bears earlier than any other kind, very often 
when 3 years old; hence its name, Pi ecpailui lens— ferule or 

precocious. 

Second—It Is a hardy variety, getting In bloom late in the 
spring aud being very ield*>m injured by frost in the spring 
or fall. 

Third— It matures its wood well before the winter; thus 
insuring a crop of nuts for the ensuing year. 

Fourth- It is a regular and proline beartr. 

Fifth— The nut Is large, the shell soft, and the meat full 
and easily extracted from its socket. 

41TOue. two, three and four-) ear-old trees for sale One- 
year old trees, heavily rooted, sent bv mail to any part of 
I'alifomia and the United States at $1 icr tree, or $10 per 
dozen, Including packing and mailing. 

Also, GAND WALNUT, the largest of soft-shell va le- 

ties 

BEROTINA or LATE WALNUT, a kind that leafs rut 
late in the spring. Very desii able for a cold climate. One- 
year-old trees ot the two above kinds at the same rates as 

Prccparturicns. 

FILBERTS. CHESTNUTS, 

Pears, Cherries, Peaches, Etc. 

STRAWBERRIES, RASPBERRIES, 

Blackberries, Currants, Gooseberries, 
Grapes. Etc , Etc. 

Send for descriptive catalogue and price list. 



SILKWORM EGGS 

From Felix Gillet's Cocoonery, 

AT *5 PER OUNCE. 

Sent by mail to any part of the United States, packing and 
mailing included, iu quantities from 50 cents and over. 

FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 



MULBERRY CUTTINGS 

FOR SALE, 

Frou choice selected varieties of " MORU3 ALBA" or 
White Mulberry. Alto a limited amount of 

SILKWORM EGGS. 

Address MRS. S A. 8ELLER8, Antioch, Cal. 



VIZELICH'S 

Insect Destroyer 

AN IMPORTANT INVENTION 



[Fiom a Stockton Paper I. 
Nicholas Vizelich hail his Insect Destroyer on exhibition 
to-day iu Courthouse square liefore a crowd of admiring farm- 
ers. The Destroyer is a DOT ahsped structure, live feel wide, 
and mounted on wheels. The machine is s pplied with two 
force pumps, one forward and the other aft, wllh a small 
smoke-stack in the middle The liquid with which the scale 
hugs and the phylloxera are vanquished is a composition 
si»ecially prepared by Mr. Vizelich, and fa stored within the 
box. In a compartment underneath the liquid is a furnace 
for heating it so as to melt the frost off the trees andthereby 
get at the huge and insects. An additional supply of the 
liquid may he carri d in a barrel mounted on wheels With 
the pump the water may be sent through a garden hose to a 
night ill upwards of 50 ft. Mr Vixelich save partial illustra- 
tions of the w orking of his iuventiou to-day in the square, ami 
threw a stream to the top of the cedars holding the hose in 
one baud aud working the pump with the other. The new 
invention worked excellently, and the farmers who watched 
it operate said that it would not be manyjuiuuths before every 
orchard ami farm iu the country would nave one of Vixelich s 
Insect Destroyers They can be manufactured of any aire, 
from those designed to be worked by die man to a machine 
large enough to be wurked to advautage by a doien men. 
The warm liquid runs Into the crevices in the bark of the 
trees and dislodges and kills the vermin. 



"VIZEUCITS IH'.M KOI l if will made it, 
three sizes -on? of 65, ouc of 125 and one of 500 gallons for 
field use. 

For full information address the inventor. 

N VIZELICH, 

8tockton, California. 

California Washer. 



This machine is an improvement on the celebrated 
"Humboldt." For Families or Hotels it will pay for 
ii, cit iu less than six months. Lace curtains and other 
delicate fabrics can be washed without injury. Price tlS. 
Manufactory, 481 Fourth St., S. F. Local or traveling 
Agents wanted. O. M. PURSELL, Patentee. 

W C LOVELT FRENCH CHROMO CARDS with name rft All New Style Chromo Cards no two alike, name 
* O on 10 cents, Chas. Kay, New Haven, Conn. t OU on 10 cents. Clinton Bros., Clintonville, Conn, 



January 2 r, 1882 l 



THE PACIFIC 



L PRESS. 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO,, 

Importers, growers of, wholesale and retail dealers in 




Field, Grass, Flower and Tree Seeds. 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, 

BULBS, FRUIT, ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. 

We call the attention of farmers and country merchants 
to our unusually low prices. OTTrade price 
list on application. 

We issue the most complete guide to the Vegetable and 
Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. It is hand- 
somely illustrated, and contains full descriptions of Vege- 
tables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with full instruc- 
tions as to their culture; mailed free on application. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 
607 Sansome Street, S. F. 

R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and 
Retail Dealers Id 




FLOWERING PLANTS, BULBS, FRUIT ANT) OR- 
NAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE DE- 
SIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYRIN- 
GES, GARDEN HARDWARE, ETC. 

FREE TO APPLICANTS.— -Our Descriptivb Illus- 

RATBD CATALOODB OF SSBDS, TRKES, PLANTS, ETC. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



IMPORTED 

SEED WHEAT and OATS, 

Direct from AUSTRALIA by late steamer. Sold in lots 
to suit by S. L. Jones & Co., 207 & 209 California St., and 
M. WATERMAN & CO 
113 Clay St., S. F. 



KELLER'S NURSERIES, 

Oakland, Cal. 

For Sale Cheap, 

M Trees, Seeds, Shrubs, Ornamental Fruit and Shade 
Tre^s. Nurseries at Mountain View, neir Ceme- 
tery Floral, Plant and Seed Depot, Seventh St., 
bet. Washington and Clay. Send for catalogue and price 
list. Address KELLER & CO., Oakland, Cal. 



TURNER'S NURSE ItY, 



San Bernardino, Cal 



P. O. Box 275 



I have a few thousand left of my half-yearling or June 
Budded Trees, from 15 to 18 inches, consisting of 
I. onion Cling, Smock's Free, Crawfords, etc. 
Also, Royal and Large Early Apricot. 

Price, $15 per ICO this season. I am also prepared to 
make contracts for the season of 1882 83. 

DAVE TURNER. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established In 1858. 

For sale, all kinds of Fruit Trees, Vines and Fruiting 
Shrubs raised without irrigation. Also, a general assort- 
ment of Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, deciduous Flower- 
ing Shrubs; Roses in assortment. Conservatory and Bed 
ding Plants in great variety. Send for Catalogue and 
List of Prices. Address W. H PEPPER, 

Petaluma Sonoma County, Cal 



Apple Root Grafts. 

For Spring planting. Order sow. Address 
Plf (KV1X BROS. & EMERSON, Nurserymen, 

Bloomington, Illinois. 



J. JP. SWEENEY & CO., 

SEEDSMEN, 

Dealers in all Kinds of Field and Garden Seeds at Reduced Prices in 
Large Quantities. 

SPECIALTIES: 

ALFALFA, RED AND WHITE CLOVER; AUSTRALIAN, ITALIAN AND ENGLISH 
RYE GRASS; BLUE GRASS, LAWN, ORCHARD, MISQUIT, RED TOP 
AND TIMOTHY SEED; CALIFORNIA F 'REST AND EVER- 
GREEN 1 REE SEEDS. ALSO FRUIT AND ORNAMENT- 
AL TREKS AT LOWEST PRICES AT OUR 

SEED WAREHOUSE. 

No 409 and 411 Davis Street - - San Francisco, Cal 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES. 

\ 

I offer the trade this season a LARGE and GENERAL 
ASSORTMENT of 

FRUIT TREES AND SMALL FRUITS. 

My trees are healthy, ttalky and well grown. Pricos 
low down. Address S. NEWHALL, 

San Jose, Cal 



W. IR,. STRONG &c CO., 

WHOLESALE 

SKEID MERCHANTS. 

Every description of Field, Garden, Flower and other Seeds, Flowering; Bulbs, etc. Can be obtained at our 
Establishment Fresh, Pure and Genuine, at the Lowest Rates. California Alfalfa, Eastern Clovers and Grass Seeds 
a Specialty, (seed and Tree Catalogue sent by Mail free on Application.) 

-ALSO- 

Wholesale Fruit and General Produce Dealers, 



Stockton Savings and Loan Society 

Paid up Capital, $500,000. 
Transacts a General Banking Business, Foreign and Dom 
estic Exchange; receives Deposits or makes Loans on the 
most favorable terms. X. TJ. SHIPPER. President. 

FRED. M. WEST. Cashier. 



Special attention will be given and prompt returns rendered for Consignments placid with us. Orders for Mer- 
chandise of every description prompily and carefully filled at lowest rates. 

Our conbtantly increasing line of customers attest to the fairness of our prices and quality of our goods. 

Nos. 106 to 110 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 



Q 

CO 



GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

IMPORTER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



Fruit and Evsrgreon Trees, Plants, Etc. 
ALFALFA, GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS 

In Large Quantities and Offered in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 
Hedge Shears, Pruning and Endding Enives. Green House Syringes, Etc. 
Seed Warehouse, 317 Washington St., San Francisco. 



GARDEN SEET>S. 



THOS. MEHERXXT, 

Importer, Wholesale aud Retail Dealer in 

SEEDS, TRE ES AN D PLANTS. 
Alfalfa, Red and White Clover, 

Australian Eye Grass, Timothy ana Orchard Grass. Kentucky Blue Grass. Hun- 
garian Millet Grass, Red Top, etc. 

Also, a large and choice collection of FRUIT and ORNAMENTAL 1 REES, 

BULBS, ROSES, MAGNOLIAS, PALMS, ETC , AT REDUCED I RICES. 
Budding and PruniDg Knives, Greenhouse Syringes, Hedze and Pole Shears. 

a^-Price List ready Jan. 1st THOS. MKIIKIH.M, ItilHrrv SI.. San I rain iM o. 



Agent for 33. £». Fox's Nursery. 



CHOICE TREES UOIR, SALE. 

We will soon be in receipt of the following varieties of choice 
yearling trees : 

Silver Prunes, Yellow Egg, Coe's Golden 
Drop, Petite Prune de Agen. 

The above trees are all selected and on Peach Roots and free from 
scale and other injurious insects- 

Orders taken now for above trees in lots to suit. 

HIXSON, JTJSTI <fc CO., 

316 and 318 Washington St., S. F. 



TREES! TREES! TREES! 

—AT THE- 

CAPITAL NURSERIES, SACRAMENTO, 

—AND— 

Orange Hill Nurseries, 

Peuryrj, Placer Co., Cal. 



Wc dc<ire to ca'l atlc it : on to our stock of native frui*. 
tree-, viz: Petite Piunes, Silver Prunes, Yellow Egg 
and Coe's Golden Drop Plum-, ISartktt Pears, Apricot", 
Ap) les, Cheiries, Peaches, etc Alan 100,000 Rooted Grape 
Vines of leading kinds, socli as Muscat, Tokajs, Haui- 
burgs, ZinBndel, Seedless Sultana, etc. Also ornamental 
treisand pi mis, such as Magnolias, Arbor Viuus, Pines, 
Cypress, Palms, e'e Orange and Lemon (rees, best 
budded varieties Also Llrus, Maple*, Poplars ami Mul- 
berries for avenue and btreet planting— fn fa t every- 
Mr.g u ually kept in fir (-class Nurseries We have 
many new and rare Fruits and Plants, for description of 
which our Catalogue will he mailed free to any address. 
Office and Tree Depot, I and Seventh sireets, near Court- 
house, Sacramento. Address all communications 
CAPITAL NUKSERIES, P. () Box 407, Saciamento or 
OKANGE HILL IvUd>EKIES, Penryn, Placer county, 
Cal. Williamson & Co., Proprietors. 




ALBERT DICKINSON. 

Dealer In Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red-Top, Blue 
Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds, etc. 

POP CORN. 

Warkuousbs: 

115, 117 & 119, hinzie St., Office: U5KinzieSt. 

104, 100, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO, IL.L.. 



MAKE HENS LAY. 



An fcnglisu. Veterinary surgcou uuu v,uiuii»i,, 
• ravelins in this country, says that most of the Llorse 
and Cattle Powders sold heie are worthless trash. Ho 
nays that Sheridan's Condition Powders are absolutely 
pure and immensely valuable Nothing on earth will 
make bens lay like Sheridan's Condition Powders. Dose, 
oneteaspixmful toonepintfood. Bold everywhere, or sent 
by mail for eight letter stamps. I. S. JOHNSON & CO., 
Huston, Mass., formerly Bangor Me. 



50 



Lithographed Chromo Cards, no 2 alike 10c. Name 
In fancy typo Conn. Card Co., NortMovd, Ct. 



Lowest prices over known 
on ItKM'da - Kosulera, 
Killcs, and Revolvers, 

OUR $15 SHOT-GUN 

| at greatly reduced price. 
Send stamp tor our New 
Illustrated Catalogue ( B) 

P. POWELL *.S' ,V 2!WMnin Htn.pl nt NCI N N ATI. 1> 




IMPORTANT TO THE FARMER. 



-U6E- 



Larroche's Fertilizer. 



Tt is manufactured solely of Bones and residues of Meats 
dried and pulveii/.cd iu su h manner that all the Calcium, 
riiosubatts, Carbonates, Nitrates and Potassium, which are 
the main assimilaturs to plants, ate entirely preserved 
in the Fertilizer and rei.der it most valuable to the cultiva- 
tors of the soil. 

Stable manures requ ; re frequent irrigation in order to 
develop its properties; it is expensive, voluminous, and re 
quires great labor to spread and subsoil it; it propagates 
wends, worms, snails and destructive animalcules, the 
pests of the farmer. On the other hand. Bone Powder can be 
easi y handl j d, transported at low rates of freight, in bags. 
It checks the propagation of insects and luxuriates the 
growth of hops, vines, fruit trees, etc.; can easily be spread 
around the plants and is most efficacious as an impediment 
to tlu rapid and terrible encroachment of the Phylloxera. 

The Fertilizer should be sown by hand on the ground 
when it is moist like seed, and then harrowed. About 400 
pounds is the quantity for an acre. Price. .$40 per ton. 

For further information apply or address to, 

F. LARROCHE. 

Stall 21, San Francisco Market, San Francisco, Cal. 



SEVIN VINCENT & CO., Seedsmen. 

607 Sansome St., S. F. Cal. 



MERRILL'S PATENT REIN HOLDER. 

This is a t>ure and certain preventative to keep horses 
from running away. Price $2.50. Address W. P. 
MERRILL, Florin, Sacramento Co., Cal. 



SMALL FRUIT PLANTS 

OUR SPECIALTY. 

— Kkw /.\d Old Vaiuktiks ok— 

STRAWBERRIES, 

RASPBERRIES &. 

BLACKBERRIES. 

Large and select stock of 
MonarcH of I lie West, Sliuriiless, Capt. Jack, 
Miners' Great ProliHc, Hid will, Etc., 

AT LOW KATES. 
— New Variktik.s of — 

Peaches, Plums Apricots, 

AND OTHKR FRUITS. 
aS'Send for Circular. 

C M. SILVA & SON, 

Newcastle, Placer Co., Cal. 



APPLE STOCKS BY MAIL. 

Fruit Seeds, Etc. 

40.000 Small Apple Stocks, MAIL FREE, for 85 
per 1,000. 

Apple Seed, 75 cts , Ptar Seed, $2 25 per lb. Also 
mail Tee. 

Catalogues of hundreds of other Trees andSeeds, suited 
to mall, express, or ordinary freight, on application. 

THOMAS MEEHAN, 
Nursery and Tree Seedsman, 

GERMANTOWN, PENN. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Suds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flower- 
ing Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. 
Catalogues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y. 



Short Horn Bulls For Sale. 



The undersigned now have for sale a few choice Thor 
oughbred and high grade bolls from the best milk strains 
Our herd consists of "Young Marys," "Daieies," "Imp 
Britannias," etc. Prices Reasonable. 

HYDE & MOOKE, Vlsalia, Cal. 



55 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 21, 1882 



^DN/IE^IOj^ILSr B_A_3R/IE3 WIRE 




iFEisroiisrcr. 

GALVANIZED, IFJLI^TIEID OB J" AIFAZtsTIsriEID. 

Trie Handsomest, Stiff est, and Most Durable. No Rust. No Decay. Secure Against Fire, Flood and Wind. 

IT IS THE ONLY BARB WIRE that will prevent 3tnall animals, such as rabbits, barer, pit's, dogs, cats, etc., from passing through, under or over It, the barbs are so near each other. 
The Barbs being triangular-shaped, like the teeth of a saw, and close together, there is no cruelty to animals, as they cannot pierce the hide; they only prick, which is all that is ever necessary, 

as no animal will 70 near a Barb Fence txcice. 

AS THE WIRE IS NOT BENT OR TWISTED, its tensile strength is much greater than the Wire in all other Barb Wire Fencer, as they are all made of twisted or bent Wire. 

HEAT AND COLD CANNOT AFFECT THE AMERICAN BARB FENCE, as it oan be allowed to sag when put up, enough to cover contraction and expansion, because it is a continuous 
Barb and cannot slip throwjh the staples one inch. Each panel of Fence takes care of itself. 

The Baths cannot be displaced or rubbed c ff , and are not poundtd on and indented into the wire to hold them in place, aB in other Barb Wire, thereby decreasing the strength of the Wire. 
The B»rV>s are Fhort. and broad at the ba*p, where strength is required. 

THE PAINTED WEIGHS A POUND TO THE ROD, so that the purchaser knows exactly how much fencing he is getting. Gal van zed weighs slightly more. 

*4T SEND FOR SAMPLES AND PRICES.-** 



W. T7V\ I^t<33VTTAG!rXJ3E3 
IIO, 112, 114 and 1 16 Battery St, San Francisco, 



Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



TO NURSERYMEN ! ! 
FOR SALE. 

APRICOT PITS ! 

PEACH PITS! 

20,000 Bartlett Pear 

In Dormant Bud. 
£5TTh«Be are on leased ground and must be s'ld. 

vJOEC^T BOCK, 
San Jose, Cal. 



A .T.DEWEVSF^ L 



A sample File- 
holder sent post [ 
paid, .from this : 
office on receipt 
ot 50 cents. 




This is the best durable file-holder 
in use- SencUfor sample, or further 
information, to this office. 

MM SPLENDID 

FLOWERS 

and VECIiT ABl.ES can be raised from onrSKEIJS. 
Try them. I.ime Ixtter. Trynurnew " Ho**" Wnli-r 
Melon, 2o cy. ivr pkt. 5 pkts. 81. We oiler SGO.(M) 
in V n»h for thcthrre liirKetl .tlrlonsL'rown from our 
Seed. \\e oiler SIOO.OO in < ii«U for the four laru-e-t 
Club orders lor our Srtd* anil /'fan's. V.'e send safely by 
mail, prp-P»id, laiK-lt-d, 12 Rohi-m for t»l, 12 (irra. 
niniiiH for *1. 12 C arimtionN for 81," I 2 Farbniaa 
for. 8. 1 , and I 2 assorted Plants from above. 8 1 . Liberal 
premiums to person- ordering. HaudsonielV illustrated 

FOR SALE. 



A PATCHEN STALLION. 

Three Years Old. 
Can be Been at the ranch of S. li. Emerson, Mountain View 



J. H. Wythe, M. D. 

Residence: Office: 
965 West Htreet, Oakland. 75S Market St., San Francisco 
Be nw> 10 * m artw 5 p m. I From 11 ». m to I p m. 

This paper le printed with Ink furnished t y 
Ohan. Bneu Johnson St Co.. 509 South ldh 
St., Philadelphia &c f>R Oold St.. N. Y. Agent 
for Paclnc Coast -Joseph H. Dorety. 627 
Commercial St., a. F. 



The Keystone Portable Steam Driller, I J - 



Rock's Nurseries. 



FOR 



Drilling Artesian and Ordinary 
Water Wells, Test Wells 
for Minerals, 



Drilling Air Holes for Shafts, 
Shallow Oil Wells, Etc. 

PATENTED JCNE loth. 1880. 




CHALLENGE WELL AUGER COMPANY 

Sole Licensees for West and South, 

1424 North Tenth St., St. Louis. Mo. 



RICHARDS & SNOW, 

SUCCESSORS TO BA RK£R A SNO W, 
JOBBERS OF 

IRON PIPE AND PLUMBERS' STOCK, 

Sole Agents for the Yale Lock Mfg Co., 
American Tack Co., 

AND FOR THE SALE OF AMOSKEAG AXES. 
406 & 40S MARKET ST., S. F. 



California Invent